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Salerno

Salerno is an ancient city and comune in Campania and is the capital of the province of the same name. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno on the Tyrrhenian Sea; the city is divided into three distinct zones: the medieval sector, the 19th century sector and the more densely populated post-war area, with its several apartment blocks. Human settlement at Salerno has a vibrant past, dating back to pre-historic times; the site has been one of the most important and strategic ports on the Mediterranean sea, yielding a rich Greco-Roman heritage. It was Principality of Salerno, in the early Middle Ages. During this time, the Schola Medica Salernitana, the first medical school in the world, was founded. In the 16th century, under the Sanseverino family, among the most powerful feudal lords in southern Italy, the city became a great centre of learning and the arts, the family hired several of the greatest intellectuals of the time. In 1694, the city was struck by several catastrophic earthquakes and plagues.

After a period of Spanish rule which would last until the 18th century, Salerno became part of the Parthenopean Republic. In recent history the city hosted Victor Emmanuel III, the King of Italy, who moved from Rome in 1943 after Italy negotiated a peace with the Allies in World War II, making Salerno the home of the "government of the South" and therefore provisional government seat for six months; some of the Allied landings during Operation Avalanche occurred near Salerno. Today Salerno is an important cultural centre in Italy. A patron saint of Salerno is Saint Matthew, the Apostle, whose relics are kept here at the crypt of Salerno Cathedral; the area of what is now Salerno has been continuously settled since pre-historical times, as the discoveries of Neolithic mummy remains documents. Inhabited by Oscan-speaking populations, the region was colonized by the Etruscans, who founded the city of Irnthi in the 6th century BC, across the Irno river, in what is today city quarter of Fratte, as a part of their Dodecapolis political model they replicated in Campania.

This settlement represented an important base for Etruscan trade with the nearby Greek colonies of Posidonia and Elea. It was occupied by the Samnites around the 5th century BC as consequence of the Battle of Cumae as part of the Syracusan sphere of influence. With the Roman advance in Campania, Irna began to lose its importance, being supplanted by the new Roman colony of Salernum, developing around an initial castrum; the new city, which lost its military function in favour of its role as a trade center, was connected to Rome by the Via Popilia, which ran towards Lucania and Reggio Calabria. Archaeological remains, although fragmentary, suggest the idea of a lively city. Under the Emperor Diocletian, in the late 3rd century AD, Salernum became the administrative centre of the "Lucania and Bruttii" province. In the following century, during the Gothic Wars, the Goths were defeated by the Byzantines, the Salerno returned to the control of Constantinople, before the Lombards invaded the whole peninsula.

Like many coastal cities of southern Italy, Salerno remained untouched by the newcomers, falling only in 646. It subsequently became part of the Duchy of Benevento. Under the Lombard dukes Salerno enjoyed the most splendid period of its history. In 774 Arechis II of Benevento transferred the seat of the Duchy of Benevento to Salerno, in order to elude Charlemagne's offensive and to secure for himself the control of a strategic area, the centre of coastal and internal communications in Campania. With Arechis II, Salerno became a centre of studies with its famous Medical School; the Lombard prince ordered the city to be fortified. In 839 Salerno declared independence from Benevento, becoming the capital of a flourishing principality stretching out to Capua, northern Calabria and Apulia up to Taranto. Around the year 1000 prince Guaimar IV annexed Amalfi, Sorrento and the whole duchy of Apulia and Calabria, starting to conceive a future unification of the whole southern Italy under Salerno's arms.

The coins minted in the city circulated in all the Mediterranean, with the Opulenta Salernum wording to certify its richness. However, the stability of the Principate was continually shaken by the Saracen attacks and, most of all, by internal struggles. In 1056, one of the numerous plots led to the fall of Guaimar, his weaker son Gisulf II succeeded him. In 1077 Salerno soon lost all its territory to the Normans. On 13 December 1076, the Norman conqueror Robert Guiscard, who had married Guaimar IV's daughter Sikelgaita, besieged Salerno and defeated his brother-in-law Gisulf. In this period the royal palace of Castel Terracena and the cathedral were built, science was boosted as the Schola Medica Salernitana, considered the most ancient medical institution of European West, reached its maximum splendour. At this time in the late 11th century, the city was home to 50,000 people. In 1100 Salerno was made the capital of the Norman southern Italy, after Melfi Salerno played a little part in the fall of the Norman Kingdom.

After the Emperor Henry VI's invasion on behalf of his wife, the heiress to the kingdom, in 1191, Salerno surrendered and promised loyalty on the mere news of an incoming army. This so disgusted the archbishop, Nicolò d'Aiello, that he abandoned the city and fled to Naples, which held out in a siege

2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre

August 2000, Kashmir massacre on 1 and 2 August was the massacre of at least 89 people to 105 and injury to at least 62 people, in at least five different coordinated attacks by Kashmiri separatist militants in Anantnag district and Doda district of Kashmir Valley in India. Out of these, 32 were killed on 2 August in 2000, Amarnath yatra massacre at Nunwan base camp in Pahalgam. Dead included 21 Hindu pilgrims, 7 local Muslim shopkeepers and 3 security officers, 7 more people were injured. Total up to 105 or more killed and at least 62 injured, in five separate coordinated terror attacks, include the following partial count on the morning of 3 August 2000. At least 32 people and 60 more injured, who were unarmed civilians persons. 21 were Hindu pilgrims, seven Muslims shopkeepers and porters, 3 security officials. The pilgrims were on their way to Amarnath cave shrine on annual pilgrimage. Many of those killed were local Bakarwal gurjar Muslim men and porters hiring their horses and services to ferry the pilgrims to the site.

Subsequently Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee visited Pahalgam and blamed Lashkar-e-Taiba for the killings. At least 27 civilian migrant labourers from the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, were killed in similar simultaneous terror attacks in Mirbazar-Qazigund and Sandoo-Acchabal in Anantnag district. At least 11 unarmed Hindu civilian people were killed in a pre-dawn terrorist attack in a remote village. At least 7 unarmed civilian were killed when around the same time as Doda attack, another group of terrorists attacked another remote village in Kupwara to seven Muslim members of a family of a surrendered former militant. At least 8 unarmed civilian were killed and 2 more injured in an ambush by terrorists of a group of village defence committee petrol party members of Kayar village of Doda district. Prime Minister of India, Atal Bihari Vajpayee of National Democratic Alliance blamed Pakistan for being determined to sabotage democracy in Jammu and Kashmir. Kanwar Yatra 2017 Amarnath Yatra attack 2003 Nadimarg massacre Amarnath land transfer controversy Islamic terrorism List of massacres in India List of terrorist incidents in India List of Islamist terrorist attacks Official website Amarnath: Journey to the shrine of a Hindu god, Boston Globe news story in pictures, 13 July 2012

Flag of the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

The flag of the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was adopted in 1954 by the government of the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The flag is identical to the flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic; the first flag of the Udmurt ASSR was described in the first Constitution of the Udmurt ASSR, adopted by the Central Executive Committee of the Udmurt ASSR on 14 March 1937, at the 2th Extraordinary Congress of Soviets of the Udmurt ASSR. The flag is described in Article 116 of the constitution: The state flag of the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is the state flag of the RSFSR, consisting of a red cloth, in the left corner of which at the top of the shaft are placed the golden letters "RSFSR". in Russian and Udmurt, with an additional inscription under the letters "RSFSR" smaller letters "Udmurt A. S. S. R." in Russian and Udmurt On March 29, 1954, by the decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Udmurt ASSR, a new state flag of the Udmurt ASSR was adopted, approved by the Law of the Udmurt ASSR of July 8, 1954.

On April 6, 1955, Article 110 of the Constitution of the Udmurt ASSR was amended: The state flag of the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is the state flag of the RSFSR, consisting of a red cloth with a light blue stripe at the flagpole, the full width of the flag. The light blue stripe is one-eighth of the flag’s length. Above them is a red five-pointed star, framed by a gold border, below the sickle and hammer are placed the golden letters “УАССР”; the ratio of the flag's width to its length is 1:2. The decree on the state flag of the Udmurt ASSR was approved by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Udmurt ASSR on March 10, 1956. On May 31, 1978, the extraordinary 9th session of the Supreme Soviet of the Udmurt ASSR adopted the new constitution of the Udmurt ASSR; the article 158 of the constitution contains the design of the flag: The national flag of the Udmurt Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is the National Flag of the RSFSR, a red rectangular panel with a light blue stripe at the flagpole, one-eighth of the flag’s length.

The hammer and a red five-pointed star above them, framed by a gold border, under them in gold letters is placed the inscription "Udmurt ASSR" in Russian and Udmurt languages. The ratio of the width of the flag to its length - 1:2 Supreme Soviet of the Udmurt ASSR, Конституция Удмуртской Автономной Советской Социалистической Республики, naukaprava.ru, retrieved November 8, 2018 Supreme Soviet of the Udmurt ASSR, Конституция Удмуртской Автономной Советской Социалистической Республики, naukaprava.ru, Syktyvkar: Publishing House of Udmurtia, retrieved November 8, 2018 Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR, Конституция Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики.