SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Salicylic acid

Salicylic acid is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, a beta hydroxy acid. It has the formula C7H6O3; this colorless crystalline organic acid is used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone. It is derived from the metabolism of salicin. In addition to serving as an important active metabolite of aspirin, which acts in part as a prodrug to salicylic acid, it is best known for its use as a key ingredient in topical anti-acne products; the salts and esters of salicylic acid are known as salicylates. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Salicylic acid as a medication is used most to help remove the outer layer of the skin; as such, it is used to treat warts, acne, ringworm and ichthyosis. Similar to other hydroxy acids, salicylic acid is a key ingredient in many skincare products for the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis, psoriasis, corns, keratosis pilaris, acanthosis nigricans and warts.

Salicylic acid is used in the production of other pharmaceuticals, including 4-aminosalicylic acid and landetimide. Salicylic acid was one of the original starting materials for making acetylsalicylic acid in 1897. Bismuth subsalicylate, a salt of bismuth and salicylic acid, is the active ingredient in stomach relief aids such as Pepto-Bismol, is the main ingredient of Kaopectate and "displays anti-inflammatory action and acts as an antacid and mild antibiotic". Other derivatives include methyl salicylate used as a liniment to soothe joint and muscle pain and choline salicylate used topically to relieve the pain of mouth ulcers. Salicylic acid is used as a bactericidal and an antiseptic. Sodium salicylate is a useful phosphor in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range, with nearly flat quantum efficiency for wavelengths between 10 and 100 nm, it fluoresces in the blue at 420 nm. It is prepared on a clean surface by spraying a saturated solution of the salt in methanol followed by evaporation. Aspirin can be prepared by the esterification of the phenolic hydroxyl group of salicylic acid with the acetyl group from acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride.

Salicylic acid modulates COX2 gene expression to decrease the formation of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. Salicylate may competitively inhibit prostaglandin formation. Salicylate's antirheumatic actions are a result of its anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Salicylic acid works by causing the cells of the epidermis to slough off more preventing pores from clogging up, allowing room for new cell growth. Salicylic acid inhibits the oxidation of uridine-5-diphosphoglucose competitively with nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide and noncompetitively with UDPG, it competitively inhibits the transferring of glucuronyl group of uridine-5-phosphoglucuronic acid to the phenolic acceptor. The wound-healing retardation action of salicylates is due to its inhibitory action on mucopolysaccharide synthesis; as a topical agent and as a beta-hydroxy acid, salicylic acid is capable of penetrating and breaking down fats and lipids, causing moderate chemical burns of the skin at high concentrations. It may damage the lining of pores if the solvent is acetone or an oil.

Over-the-counter limits are set at 2% for topical preparations expected to be left on the face and 3% for those expected to be washed off, such as acne cleansers or shampoo. For wart removal, such a solution should be applied once or twice a day – more frequent use may lead to an increase in side-effects without an increase in efficacy; some people are hypersensitive to related compounds. If high concentrations of salicylic ointment are applied to a large percentage of body surface, high levels of salicylic acid can enter the blood, requiring hemodialysis to avoid further complications. Salicylic acid has the formula C6H4COOH, it is known as 2-hydroxybenzoic acid. It is poorly soluble in water. Salicylic acid is biosynthesized from the amino acid phenylalanine. In Arabidopsis thaliana it can be synthesized via a phenylalanine-independent pathway. Sodium salicylate is commercially prepared by treating sodium phenolate with carbon dioxide at high pressure and high temperature – a method known as the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.

Acidification of the product with sulfuric acid gives salicylic acid: It can be prepared by the hydrolysis of aspirin or methyl salicylate with a strong acid or base. Thermal decomposition of salicylic acid to phenol and carbon dioxide proceeds at 200 °C to 230 °C with no need for catalysts, due to the electron donating effect of the OH group. Since salicylic acid is made from over-the-counter acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin tablets, this is a common laboratory route to phenol among amateur chemists: Hippocrates, Pliny the Elder and others knew that willow bark could ease pain and reduce fevers, it was used in China to treat these conditions. This remedy is mentioned in texts from ancient Egypt and Assyria; the Cherokee and other Native Americans use an

Dias Toffoli

José Antonio Dias Toffoli is a Brazilian lawyer and the current President of the Supreme Federal Court of Brazil. José Dias Toffoli was born in Marília, São Paulo in 1967, the son of Luiz Toffoli and Sebastiana Seixas Dias Toffoli, he attended the law school of the University of São Paulo from 1986 to 1990, graduating with a bachelor's degree in law. While in college, Toffoli presided the student union. From 1996 to 2002 he was a professor of constitutional and family law at Centro Universitário de Brasília. In 1994 and 1995 Toffoli took examinations for a position as a judge in the state of São Paulo, but was twice rejected. Toffoli was the legal representative for the Workers' Party in the presidential campaigns of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 1998, 2002 and 2006. From March 2001 to December 2002 Toffoli was a co-owner of the law firm Toffoli & Telesca Advogados, from 2005 to 2007 co-owned the firm Toffoli & Rangel Advogados. In 2007, Toffoli was appointed Attorney General of Brazil by President Lula.

On 17 September 2009 President Lula nominated Dias Toffoli his Attorney General of Brazil, for the Supreme Federal Court seat vacated by the death of Justice Carlos Alberto Menezes Direito two weeks prior. Upon his nomination, Toffoli resigned as Attorney General, was replaced by Evandro Costa Gama. After being confirmed by the Senate to the Supreme Court, Toffoli took his seat as Justice on 23 October 2009, aged 41, he was, at the time, the youngest person to become Supreme Court justice since 1988, remains as one of the youngest people to enter the court. He was the eighth Supreme Court nomination by President Lula. On 13 September 2018, Toffoli succeeded Justice Carmen Lúcia as the president of the Supreme Federal Court; the court's vice president in this term is Luiz Fux. In April 2019 the Crusoé magazine reported that a document from Operation Car Wash reveals that then-Solicitor General Toffoli was involved in the Odebrecht scandal, according to the company's former chairman Marcelo Odebrecht.

On 15 April STF justice Alexandre de Moraes ordered that Crusoé take down the article from their website. Toffoli himself requested a probe into whether Crusoé illegally leaked the document; the Court's decision on the matter was criticized by outlets such as The Intercept on the basis of censorship and attack on the freedom of the press

Paul Cottin

Paul Cottin was a French writer, historian and a scientific editor of historical and literary documents. He was the son of a Parisian notary and nephew of François Augustin Cottin, state advisor of the Second Empire, he became, in 1881, librarian and curator of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal of the Pavillon de l'Arsenal, after José-Maria de Heredia. In 1895, the heart Pelletan of the heir of the throne Louis XVII is given to Carlos, Duke of Madrid by Paul Cottin, being the cousin of the owner, Édouard Dumont. In 1909, Duke of Madrid, received the heart, his daughter, the princess Béatrice Massimo, in 1938, the princess Infanta Maria das Neves of Portugal, legitimist heir to the throne of France, he is the father of Claude de Cambronne and Marie-Thérèse Cottin, future countess Lacroix de Vimeur de Rochambeau. His granddaughter, Laurence de Cambronne, was the editor-in-chief of Elle magazine and his great-granddaughter, the comedian, Camille Cottin. Foreword of Mes Inscripcions. Journal intime de Restif de la Bretonne Foreword of Jasseron.

2000 ans d'histoire Foreword of Sophie de Monnier et Mirabeau d'après leur correspondance secrète inédite Foreword of Toulon et les Anglais en 1793, d'après des documents inédits Revue Rétrospective, publication fondée et dirigée par Paul Cottin de 1884 à 1904 Mémoires du sergent Bourgogne 1812–1813 L'Angleterre devant ses alliés 1793–1814 Manuscrits de la bibliothèque Charles de Spoelberch de Lovenjoul Correspondance – Documents concernant Musset Guide des Archives de l'Ain Journal Inedit du Duc de Croy, 1718–1784 V1 Le livre du XXe, catéchisme social et politique, 1er chapitre Sophie de Monnier et Mirabeau d'après leur correspondance secrète inédite Toulon et les anglais en 1793 Rapports Inédits du Lieutenant de Police René d'Argenson Un Protégé de Bachaumont: Correspondance Inédite du Marquis d'Éguilles Lorédan Larchey, Positivisme et anarchie – Auguste Comte-Littré-Taine Journal inédit de Mme Moitte, femme de Jean Guillaume Moitte, membre de l'Académie des beaux-arts, Arbre généalogique, Geneanet.org