Saline County, Missouri

Saline County is a county located along the Missouri River in the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,370, its county seat is Marshall. The county was established November 25, 1820, named for the region's salt springs. Settled by migrants from the Upper South during the nineteenth century, this county was in the region bordering the Missouri River known as "Little Dixie". In the antebellum years it had plantations supported by enslaved workers. One-third of the county population was African American at the start of the American Civil War, but their proportion of the residents has declined to little more than five percent. Saline County comprises MO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Saline County was occupied for thousands of years by succeeding cultures of Missouri Native Americans. Saline County was organized by European-American settlers on November 25, 1820, was named from the salinity of the springs found in the region. After periods of conflict as settlers competed for resources and encroached on their territory, the local Native Americans, including the Osage nation, were forced by the US to relocate to reservations in Indian Territory, first in Kansas and in Oklahoma.

Saline County was among several along the Missouri River that were settled by migrants from the Upper South states of Kentucky and Virginia. The settlers started cultivating crops similar to those in Middle Tennessee and Kentucky: hemp and tobacco; these counties settled by southerners became known as "Little Dixie." By the time of the Civil War, one-third of the county population was African American. In 1847 the state legislature had prohibited any African Americans from being educated. After the war and other residents had a hunger for education; the state's new constitution established public education for all citizens for the first time. It was segregated, in keeping with local custom; each township with 20 or more African-American students were supposed to establish a school for them, but rural areas lagged in the number of schools and jurisdictions underfunded those for blacks. By the early 20th century, Saline County had eighteen schools for black students; the remaining black schools from the Jim Crow era have been studied by the State Historic Preservation Office and many are being nominated to the National Register of Historic Places.

According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 767 square miles, of which 756 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water, it is located along the Missouri River. Carroll County Chariton County Howard County Cooper County Pettis County Lafayette County Interstate 70 U. S. Route 40 U. S. Route 65 Route 20 Route 41 Route 127 Route 240 Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge The rural county reached its peak of population in 1930, has declined since then. Mechanization of farms meant. African Americans moved to cities for better social conditions. At the 2000 census, there were 23,756 people, 9,015 households and 6,013 families residing in the county; the population density was 31 per square mile. There were 10,019 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.03% White, 5.39% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 2.09% from other races, 1.62% from two or more races. 4.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

28.7 % were of 18.2 % American, 9.8 % English and 9.3 % Irish ancestry. There were 9,015 households of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.90% were married couples living together, 10.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.30% were non-families. 28.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.97. In Age distribution was 24.30% under the age of 18, 12.00% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 16.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.70 males. The median household income was $32,743, the median family income was $39,234. Males had a median income of $27,180 versus $19,431 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,132. About 10.50% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.90% of those under age 18 and 8.60% of those age 65 or over.

Gilliam C-4 School District – Gilliam Gilliam Elementary School Hardeman R-X School District – Marshall Hardeman Elementary School Malta Bend R-V School District – Malta Bend Malta Bend Elementary School Malta Bend High School Marshall School District – Marshall Eastwood Elementary School Benton Elementary School Northwest Elementary School Southeast Elementary School Bueker Middle School Marshall High School Orearville R-IV School District – Slater Orearville Elementary School Slater Public Schools – Slater Slater Elementary School Slater High School Sweet Springs R-VII School District – Sweet Springs Sweet Springs Elementary School Sweet Springs High School Calvary Baptist School – Marshall – Baptist St. Peter

Perovskite solar cell

A perovskite solar cell is a type of solar cell which includes a perovskite structured compound, most a hybrid organic-inorganic lead or tin halide-based material, as the light-harvesting active layer. Perovskite materials, such as methylammonium lead halides and all-inorganic cesium lead halide, are cheap to produce and simple to manufacture. Solar cell efficiencies of devices using these materials have increased from 3.8% in 2009 to 25.2% in 2020 in single-junction architectures, and, in silicon-based tandem cells, to 29.1%, exceeding the maximum efficiency achieved in single-junction silicon solar cells. Perovskite solar cells are therefore the fastest-advancing solar technology. With the potential of achieving higher efficiencies and low production costs, perovskite solar cells have become commercially attractive. Metal halide perovskites possess unique features; the raw materials used, the possible fabrication methods are both low cost. Their high absorption coefficient enables ultrathin films of around 500 nm to absorb the complete visible solar spectrum.

These features combined result in the possibility to create low cost, high efficiency, thin and flexible solar modules. Perovskite solar cells have found use in powering low-power wireless electronics for the ambient powered internet of things applications The name'perovskite solar cell' is derived from the ABX3 crystal structure of the absorber materials, referred to as perovskite structure; the most studied perovskite absorber is methylammonium lead trihalide, with an optical bandgap between ~1.55 and 2.3 eV depending on halide content. Formamidinum lead trihalide has shown promise, with bandgaps between 1.48 and 2.2 eV. The minimum bandgap is closer to the optimal for a single-junction cell than methylammonium lead trihalide, so it should be capable of higher efficiencies; the first use of perovskite in a solid state solar cell was in a dye-sensitized cell using CsSnI3 as a p-type hole transport layer and absorber. A common concern is the inclusion of lead as a component of the perovskite materials.

A major drawback in the science of efficient solar cell production is set by the Shockley-Queisser limit. This calculated limit sets the maximum theoretical efficiency of a solar cell using a single junction with no other loss aside from radiative recombination in the solar cell. Based on the AM1.5G global solar spectra, the maximum power conversion efficiency is correlated to a respective bandgap, forming a parabolic relationship. This limit is described by the equation n = t s × u × v × m Where x g = v g / v s, and Vc is the thermal voltage. The most efficient bandgap is found to be at 1.34 eV, with a maximum power conversion efficiency of 33.7%. Reaching this ideal bandgap energy can be difficult, but utilizing tunable perovskite solar cells allows for the flexibility to match this value. Further experimenting with multijunction solar cells allow for the Shockley-Queisser limit to be surpassed, expanding to allow photons of a broader wavelength range to be absorbed and converted; the actual band gap for formadinium lead trihalide can be tuned as low as 1.48 eV, closer to the ideal bandgap energy of 1.34 eV for maximum power-conversion efficiency single junction solar cells, predicted by the Shockley Quesser Limit.

More the 1.3 eV bandgap energy has been achieved with the 1−xx hybrid cell, which has a tunable bandgap energy from 1.24 – 1.41 eV Multi-junction solar cells, are capable of a higher power conversion efficiency, increasing the threshold beyond the thermodynamic maximum set by the Shockley–Queissier limit for single junction cells By having multiple bandgaps in a single cell, it prevents the loss of photons above or below the band gap energy of a single junction solar cell. In tandem junction solar cells, PCE of 31.1% has been recorded, increasing to 37.9% for triple junction and an impressive 38.8% for quadruple junction solar cells. However, the metal organic chemical vapor deposition process needed to synthesize lattice-matched and crystalline solar cells with more than one junction is expensive, making it a less than ideal candidate for widespread use. Perovskite semiconductors offer an option that has the potential to rival the efficiency of multijunction solar cells, but can be synthesized under more common conditions at a reduced cost.

Rivaling the double and quadruple junction solar cells mentioned above, are all-perovskite tandem cells with a max PCE of 31.9%, all-perovskite triple-junction cell reaching 33.1%, the perovskite-Si triple-junction cell, reaching an efficiency of 35.3%. These multijunction perovskite solar cell

Maximilian Watzka

Maximilian Watzka is a German football player who plays for Progrès Niederkorn in the Luxembourg National Division. Watzka began his career in the youth department of his home town club VfB Leipzig. In 2004, he moved to local rivals FC Sachsen Leipzig where he played in 76 NOFV-Oberliga Süd matches, scoring 9 goals, he played in a match in the DFB-Pokal in 2005. For the 2007-08 season, Watzka signed a professional contract with then-2nd Bundesliga side Kickers Offenbach. However, he only played in 13 matches as a substitute, only was on the pitch for an average 20 minutes, he did not score any goals. Here he played in one DFB-Pokal match. After his rather disappointing spell at Offenbach Watzka moved to Regionalliga Nord side 1. FC Magdeburg where he established himself as a first team regular, he played in all but one match and spent an average of 81 minutes on the pitch