Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water, called saline water. This is measured in g salt k g sea water. Salinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water. A contour line of constant salinity is called an isohaline, or sometimes isohale. Salinity in rivers and the ocean is conceptually simple, but technically challenging to define and measure precisely. Conceptually the salinity is the quantity of dissolved salt content of the water. Salts are compounds like sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium nitrate, sodium bicarbonate which dissolve into ions; the concentration of dissolved chloride ions is sometimes referred to as chlorinity. Operationally, dissolved matter is defined as that which can pass through a fine filter.

Salinity can be expressed in the form of a mass fraction, i.e. the mass of the dissolved material in a unit mass of solution. Seawater has a mass salinity of around 35 g/kg, although lower values are typical near coasts where rivers enter the ocean. Rivers and lakes can have a wide range of salinities, from less than 0.01 g/kg to a few g/kg, although there are many places where higher salinities are found. The Dead Sea has a salinity of more than 200 g/kg. Rainwater before touching the ground has a TDS of 20 mg/L or less. Whatever pore size is used in the definition, the resulting salinity value of a given sample of natural water will not vary by more than a few percent. Physical oceanographers working in the abyssal ocean, are concerned with precision and intercomparability of measurements by different researchers, at different times, to five significant digits. A bottled seawater product known as IAPSO Standard Seawater is used by oceanographers to standardize their measurements with enough precision to meet this requirement.

Measurement and definition difficulties arise because natural waters contain a complex mixture of many different elements from different sources in different molecular forms. The chemical properties of some of these forms depend on pressure. Many of these forms are difficult to measure with high accuracy, in any case complete chemical analysis is not practical when analyzing multiple samples. Different practical definitions of salinity result from different attempts to account for these problems, to different levels of precision, while still remaining reasonably easy to use. For practical reasons salinity is related to the sum of masses of a subset of these dissolved chemical constituents, rather than to the unknown mass of salts that gave rise to this composition. For many purposes this sum can be limited to a set of eight major ions in natural waters, although for seawater at highest precision an additional seven minor ions are included; the major ions dominate the inorganic composition of most natural waters.

Exceptions include some pit waters from some hydrothermal springs. The concentrations of dissolved gases like oxygen and nitrogen are not included in descriptions of salinity. However, carbon dioxide gas, which when dissolved is converted into carbonates and bicarbonates, is included. Silicon in the form of silicic acid, which appears as a neutral molecule in the pH range of most natural waters, may be included for some purposes; the term'salinity' is, for oceanographers associated with one of a set of specific measurement techniques. As the dominant techniques evolve, so do different descriptions of salinity. Salinities were measured using titration-based techniques before the 1980s. Titration with silver nitrate could be used to determine the concentration of halide ions to give a chlorinity; the chlorinity was multiplied by a factor to account for all other constituents. The resulting'Knudsen salinities' are expressed in units of parts per thousand; the use of electrical conductivity measurements to estimate the ionic content of seawater led to the development of the scale called the practical salinity scale 1978.

Salinities measured using PSS-78 do not have units. The suffix psu or PSU is sometimes added to PSS-78 measurement values. In 2010 a new standard for the properties of seawater called the thermodynamic equation of seawater 2010 was introduced, advocating absolute salinity as a replacement for practical salinity, conservative temperature as a replacement for potential temperature; this standard includes. Absolute salinities on this scale are expressed as a mass fraction, in grams per kilogram of solution. Salinities on this scale are determined by combining electrical conductivity measurements with other information that can account for regional changes in the composition of seawater, they can be determined by making direct density measurements. A sample of seawater from most locations with a chlorinity of 19.37 ppt will have a Knudsen salinity of 35.00 ppt, a PSS-78 practical

Perspectives in Public Health

Perspectives in Public Health is a bi-monthly, peer-reviewed, academic journal that publishes papers in the field of public health. It is practice orientated and is published on behalf of the Royal Society for Public Health by SAGE Publications. Perspectives in Public Health has been published under this existing name since 2008, when the Royal Society for Public Health was formed, it was established in 1879 under the title The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, on behalf of The Royal Society of Health known as the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. This organisation merged with the Royal Institute of Public Health in 2008, forming the RSPH, the journal was renamed; the full archive of the journal, dating back to 1879, is available to view online. PPH's primary aim is to be an invaluable resource for the Society's members, who are health-promoting professionals from many disciplines. Additionally PPH appeals to practitioners and policy makers and academics; the journal’s content reflects the broad range of areas member’s are interested in, including environmental health, health protection and safety, food safety and nutrition and engineering, primary care and government.

Due to its practice orientated nature the journal features current opinions. The journal commissions articles for themed issues and publishes original peer-reviewed articles; the journal publishes two un-themed issues a year. Previous themes have included Health literacy, Obesity and Food Safety. Themes are pre-decided by the Editorial Board, overseen by the journal’s honorary editor Heather Hartwell. Perspectives in Public Health is abstracted and indexed in, among other databases: SCOPUS, the Social Sciences Citation Index. According to the Journal Citation Reports, its 2013 impact factor is 1.035, ranking it 98 out of 136 journals in the category "Public, Environmental & Occupational Health". Due to its long history, PPH is able to reveal the changing shape of public health since 1879; the full archive of the journal is available to view online. PPH’s most cited paper in 2014 was by Amelia Lake and Tim Townshend, ‘Obesogenic environments: exploring the built and food environments'; the most cited paper in 2014 was'Developing a physical activity legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: a policy-led systematic review'.

In March 2012 the journal published a special issue on the Olympic Legacy to explore some of the issues surrounding the London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. Official website RSPH Official Website PPH podcast

Candy Kisses (George Morgan song)

"Candy Kisses" is a 1949 song written and first recorded by American country crooner George Morgan. "Candy Kisses" was George Morgan's debut release on the charts and was his only #1 on the Best Selling Folk charts, where it stayed for three weeks. The B-side of "Candy Kisses", a song entitled, "Please Don't Let Me Love You" reached #4 on the same chart. "Candy Kisses" is a song composed by country crooner George Morgan, earning that category for his smooth voice. The song developed one day in 1947 while George was on his way to work during his time at WWST radio as an early morning talent. During his commute, he hummed along to his car engine while thinking about an ex-girlfriend whom he just broke up with, he had the song thought up within twenty minutes. The song became his theme song that day over at WWST and he carried his theme song with him into 1948 when he landed a new job at WWVA radio in Wheeling, W. Va. In December 1948, Morgan signed with Columbia Records. Just two weeks he was hired as a vocalist replacing Eddy Arnold at the Grand Ole Opry.

Morgan stayed for the next 27 years. By the age of 24, Morgan recorded "Candy Kisses" for Columbia Records in January 1949 and the song jumped to number one on the best-selling folk charts where it remained for three weeks. By the end of the year, "Candy Kisses" sold more than 2 million copies, had ten top cover versions; this song was the first song featured on the self titled album "Candy Kisses". The song was so meaningful to Morgan that he named his first daughter Candy. In addition to the original version by singer/songwriter, George Morgan, there have been a few cover versions of the song "Candy Kisses". In fact, in 1949 the song was recorded not only by George Morgan, but by Eddy Howard, Danny Kaye, Johnny Mercer, The Fontane Sisters, Elton Britt, Red Foley, Cowboy Copas, Eddie Kirk and Bud Hobbs; however George Morgan's version was the only one to be positioned at #1 on the Billboard top 40 country hits back in 1949. Bill Haley & His Comets included the song on their album Haley's Juke Box in 1960 and in 1963 Dean Martin recorded the song for his album Dean "Tex" Martin Rides Again.

In 1984, Jerry Lee Lewis released a version of the song on his album I Am. The song was track B1 on the album released by MCA Records. Eddie Cochran’s cover version of the song was released in 1997 on the Rock Star Records’ album, Rockin' It Country Style. George Morgan’s daughter, country singer Lorrie Morgan released her version of "Candy Kisses" on her 1998 album, The Essential Lorrie Morgan. Lorrie sang the song at the Grand Ol’ Opry 70th Anniversary bash, singing against a backdrop of a video of her father. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics "Candy Kisses" by George Morgan, on YouTube "Candy Kisses" 1961 television appearance by George Morgan, on YouTube