Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, its 511,628 inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976, while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres north of Munich, it is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, with 39,780 students Bavaria's third and Germany's 11th largest university with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen. Nuremberg Airport is the second-busiest airport of Bavaria after Munich Airport, the tenth-busiest airport of Germany.
Staatstheater Nürnberg is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, showing operas, operettas and ballets, plays, as well as concerts. Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Johann Pachelbel. Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials; the first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern, inherited the burgraviate in 1192.
From the late 12th century to the Interregnum, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries broke out into open enmity, which influenced the history of the city. Nuremberg is referred to as the "unofficial capital" of the Holy Roman Empire because the Imperial Diet and courts met at Nuremberg Castle; the Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire. The increasing demands of the Imperial court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce in Nuremberg. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief, including town rights, Imperial immediacy, the privilege to mint coins, an independent customs policy - wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.
Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused of having desecrated the host, 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz; the Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years of the mid-14th century. In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom, they were burned at the stake or expelled, a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534; the largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century. Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362, where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg.
The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna. In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand, supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe.
The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth. It was a helmet made of bronze which in its styles covered the entire head and neck, with slits for the eyes and mouth. A large curved projection protected the nape of the neck. Out of combat, a Greek hoplite would wear the helmet tipped upward for comfort; this practice gave rise to a series of variant forms in Italy, where the slits were closed, since the helmet was no longer pulled over the face but worn cap-like. Although the classical Corinthian helmet fell out of use among the Greeks in favour of more open types, the Italo-Corinthian types remained in use until the 1st century AD, being used, among others, by the Roman army; the most popular helmet during the Archaic and early Classical periods, the style gave way to the more open Thracian helmet, Chalcidian helmet and the much simpler pilos type, less expensive to manufacture and did not obstruct the wearer's critical senses of vision and hearing as the Corinthian helmet did.
Numerous examples of Corinthian helmets have been excavated, they are depicted on pottery. The Corinthian helmet was depicted on more sculpture than any other helmet; the Romans revered it, from copies of Greek originals to sculpture of their own. Based on the sparse pictorial evidence of the republican Roman army, in Italy the Corinthian helmet evolved into a jockey-cap style helmet called the Italo-Corinthian, Etrusco-Corinthian or Apulo-Corinthian helmet, with the characteristic nose guard and eye slits becoming mere decorations on its face. Given many Roman appropriations of ancient Greek ideas, this change was inspired by the "over the forehead" position common in Greek art; this helmet remained in use well into the 1st century AD. Herodotus mentions the Corinthian helmet in his Histories when writing of the Machlyes and Auseans, two tribes living along the River Triton in ancient Libya; the tribes chose annually two teams of the fairest maidens who fought each other ceremonially with sticks and stones.
They were dressed in the finest Greek panoply topped off with a Corinthian helmet. The ritual fight was part of a festival honoring the virgin goddess Athena. Young women who succumbed to their wounds during the ordeal were thought to have been punished by the goddess for lying about their virginity. An earlier version of the Corinthian helmet is habitually worn by the Marvel Comics supervillain Magneto; the Star Wars character, Boba Fett wears a helmet with a T-shaped visor that vaguely resembles the Corinthian helmet, as do most other Mandalorians and Phase I Clonetroopers within the franchise. The Corinthian helmet appears on both the Trojan Records and the Skinheads Against Racial Prejudice’s logo. Lendon, J. E. Soldiers and Ghosts, A History of Battle in Classical Antiquity Herodotus's account of the Libyan female warriors in Corinthian helmets - via the Perseus Project Collection of Corinthian helmets from around the world
The bascinet – bassinet, basinet, or bazineto – was a Medieval European open-faced military helmet. It evolved from a type of iron or steel skullcap, but had a more pointed apex to the skull, it extended downwards at the rear and sides to afford protection for the neck. A mail curtain was attached to the lower edge of the helmet to protect the throat and shoulders. A visor was employed from ca. 1330 to protect the exposed face. Early in the fifteenth century, the camail began to be replaced by a plate metal gorget, giving rise to the so-called "great bascinet"; the first recorded reference to a bascinet, or bazineto, was in the Italian city of Padua in 1281, when it is described as being worn by infantry. It is believed that the bascinet evolved from a simple iron skullcap, known as the cervelliere, worn with a mail coif, as either the sole form of head protection or beneath a great helm; the bascinet is differentiated from the cervelliere by having a higher, pointed skull. By about 1330 the bascinet had been extended lower down the sides and back of the head.
Within the next 20 years it had covered the cheeks. The bascinet appeared quite in the 13th century and some authorities see it as being influenced by Byzantine or Middle-Eastern Muslim helmets; the bascinet, without a visor, continued to be worn underneath larger "great helms". Unlike the cervelliere, worn in conjunction with underneath, a complete hood of mail called the coif, early bascinets were worn with a neck and throat defence of mail, attached to the lower edge of the helmet itself; the earliest camails were riveted directly to the edge of the helmet, beginning in the 1320s a detachable version replaced this type. The detachable aventail was attached to a leather band, in turn attached to the lower border of the bascinet by a series of staples called vervelles. Holes in the leather band were passed over the vervelles, a waxed cord was passed through the holes in the vervelles to secure it; the illustration to the right shows a bascinet with a type of detachable nasal called the bretache or bretèche made of sheet metal.
The bretache was attached to the aventail at the chin, it fastened to a hook or clamp on the brow of the helmet. According to Boeheim, this type of defence was prevalent in Germany, appearing around 1330 and fading from use around 1370; the bretache was used in Italy. It is shown on the tomb of Bernardino dei Barbanzoni in the Museo Lapidario Estense in Modena, executed c. 1345–50. An advantage of the bretache was that it could be worn under a great helm, but afforded some facial protection when the great helm was taken off. Use of the bretache preceded and overlapped with that of a new type of visor used with the bascinet, the "klappvisor" or "klappvisier"; the open-faced bascinet with the mail aventail, still left the exposed face vulnerable. However, from about 1330, the bascinet was worn with a "face guard" or movable visor; the "klappvisor" or klappvisier was a type of visor employed on bascinets from around 1330–1340. It was favoured in Germany, but was used in northern Italy where it is shown in a Crucifixion painted in the chapter hall of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, c.
1367. Its use in Italy continued in Germany into the 15th century; the klappvisor has been characterised as being intermediate between the bretache nasal and the side pivoting visor. Sources disagree on the nature of the klappvisier. A minority, including De Vries and Smith, class all smaller visors, those that only cover the area of the face left exposed by the aventail, as klappvisiers, regardless of the construction of their hinge mechanism. However, they agree that klappvisiers, by their alternate definition of'being of small size', preceded the larger forms of visor, which exclusively employed the double pivot, found in the latter part of the 14th century; the side-pivot mount, which used two pivots – one on each side of the helmet, is shown in funerary monuments and other pictorial or sculptural sources of the 1340s. One of the early depictions of a doubly pivoted visor on a bascinet is the funerary monument of Sir Hugh Hastings in St. Mary's Church, Norfolk, England; the pivots were connected to the visor by means of hinges to compensate for any lack of parallelism between the pivots.
The hinges had a removable pin holding them together, this allowed the visor to be detached from the helmet, if desired. The side-pivot system was seen in Italian armours. Whether of the klappvisor or double pivot type, the visors of the first half of the 14th century tended to be of a flat profile with little projection from the face, they had eye-slits surrounded by a flange to help deflect weapon points. From around 1380 the visor, by this time larger than earlier forms, was drawn out into a conical point like a muzzle or a beak, was given the names "hounskull" or "pig faced"; the protruding muzzle gave better protection to the face from blows by offering a deflecting surface and it improved ventilation. From about 1410 the visor atta
Stahlhelm is German for "steel helmet". The Imperial German Army began to replace the traditional boiled leather Pickelhaube with the Stahlhelm during World War I in 1916; the term Stahlhelm refers both to a generic steel helmet, more to the distinctive German design. The Stahlhelm, with its distinctive "coal scuttle" shape, was recognizable and became a common element of military propaganda on both sides, just like the Pickelhaube before it, its name was used by the Stahlhelm, a paramilitary nationalist organization established at the end of 1918. After the war, the German Bundeswehr continued to call their standard helmet Stahlhelm, but the design was based on the American M1 helmet; the Bundesgrenzschutz, continued to use the original German design, until either troop switched to the new M92 Aramid helmet. At the beginning of World War I, none of the combatants were issued with any form of protection for the head other than cloth and leather caps, designed at most to protect against saber cuts.
When trench warfare began, the number of casualties on all sides suffering from severe head wounds increased since the head was the most exposed part of the body when in a trench. The French were the first to see a need for more protection—in late 1915 they began to issue Adrian helmets to their troops; the British and Commonwealth troops followed with the Brodie helmet and the Germans with the Stahlhelm. As the German army behaved hesitantly in the development of an effective head protection, some units developed provisional helmets in 1915. Stationed in the rocky area of the Vosges the Army Detachment "Gaede" recorded more head injuries caused by stone and shell splinters than did troops in other sectors of the front; the artillery workshop of the Army Detachment developed a helmet that consisted of a leather cap with a steel plate. The plate protected not only the forehead but the eyes and nose; the design of the Stahlhelm was carried out by Dr. Friedrich Schwerd of the Technical Institute of Hanover.
In early 1915, Schwerd had carried out a study of head wounds suffered during trench warfare and submitted a recommendation for steel helmets, shortly after which he was ordered to Berlin. Schwerd undertook the task of designing and producing a suitable helmet, broadly based on the 15th-century sallet, which provided good protection for the head and neck. After lengthy development work, which included testing a selection of German and Allied headgear, the first Stahlhelms were tested in November 1915 at the Kummersdorf Proving Ground and field tested by the 1st Assault Battalion. Thirty thousand examples were ordered, but it was not approved for general issue until New Year of 1916, hence it is most referred to as the "Model 1916". In February 1916 it was distributed to troops at Verdun, following which the incidence of serious head injuries fell dramatically; the first German troops to use this helmet were the stormtroopers of the Sturm-Bataillon Nr. 5, commanded by captain Willy Rohr. In contrast to the Hadfield steel used in the British Brodie helmet, the Germans used a harder martensitic silicon/nickel steel.
As a result, due to the helmet's form, the Stahlhelm had to be formed in heated dies at a greater unit cost than the British helmet, which could be formed in one piece. Germany exported versions of the M1935 helmet to various countries. Versions of the M1935 Stahlhelm were sent to Republic of China from 1935 to 1936 and M1935 helmet was the main helmet of the Chinese Nationalist Army during World War II. Spain received shipments of the helmet. During the inter-war years several military missions were sent to South America under the command of Hans Kundt, after Chaco War the Bolivian army used to wear the helmet up until recently; the exported M1935 helmets were similar to the German issue, except for a different liner. Some countries manufactured their own helmets using the M1935 design, this basic design was in use in various nations as late as the 1970s; the Germans assisted the Hungarians in copying their design of the M1935 steel helmet. Therefore, the WWII-produced M38 Hungarian steel helmet is nearly identical to the German M1935.
Both have the same shape, riveted ventilation holes, the classic rolled edge. Differences include a different liner and different rivets position - the cotter pins are situated behind the ventilation holes. A square metal bracket is riveted above the back brim, it was painted in Hungarian brown-green, albeit blue-grey versions existed. It is sometimes called the "Finnish M35" due to their extensive use by the Finnish Army during the Continuation War 1941-44. After the end of World War I Poland seized large quantities of M1918 helmets. Most of those were sold to various countries, including Spain. However, at the end of the 1930s it was discovered that the standard Polish wz. 31 helmet was unsuitable for tank troops and motorized units. As a stop-gap measure before a new helmet was developed, the General Staff decided to issue M1918 helmets to the 10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade, which used them during the Polish Defensive War. During the time of the Warsaw Uprising the helmet was worn by the members of the Polish Home Army and it was during this time that the helmet became the symbol of the resistance, as every Stahlhelm worn by the soldier of the underground army signified a dead German occupier it was taken from.
In November 1926, the Irish Defence
Helmet of Iron Gates
The Helmet of Iron Gates is a Geto-Dacian silver helmet dating from the 4th century BC, housed in the Detroit Institute of Arts, United States. It comes from Iron Gates area, in the Mehedinţi County, Romania, it was in the collection of Franz Tau, Vienna. The helmet is similar to the Helmet of Coţofeneşti, Helmet of Peretu, Helmet of Agighiol and Helmet of Cucuteni-Băiceni, all being ancient Getian gold or silver helmets discovered so far on the territory of Romania, it is referred to as “Iron Gates” as it was dredged out of the Danube in the Iron Gate gorge in 1913 or 1914. But, there is no documentary record of the Iron Gate material before 1931, the year in which the Agighiol burial was discovered containing the helmet nowadays named Agighiol helmet, it is that the so-called Iron Gates material was looted from the Agighiol grave shortly after its opening by local villagers. However, no other grave has been suggested for the "Iron Gate" helmet. And, In fact, it seems that both Agighiol and Iron Gates helmets had been made by the same workshop, or by the same silversmith.
It appears that punchmarks on the helmets had been made by the same tool. The design is sufficiently unusual in ancient art to offer the opportunity to trace it to its origin, thereby, provide some insight into the elements that went into the formation of early Dacian art and the means by which ancient Oriental motifs survived and were transmitted into Europe. Identical in decoration and details of craftsmanship are the two silver beakers, now in Bucharest and New York, that reputedly came from the region of the Iron Gates; the other designs chased on the helmet are within the Scythian sphere. The helmet type is related to and a little earlier in date than the gold helmet in Bucharest which shows some Sarmatian aspects. Lacking evidence of comparable helmets in the Scythian homeland, we may assign this helmet to a local development of a helmet type found in Kuban dating in the early years of the fifth century B. C, with the addition of some Greek features; the most striking feature of the helmet, found in all five Getian helmets is their so-called “apotropaic” eyes, which could have looked out as a second set from above the real eyes of the wearer.
Such eyes were considered to be a borrowing from the Greek world where greaves and shields have eyes that have been considered apotropaic, serving to divert evil. However, it is argued. Besides the eyes, there is the stag depicted with eight legs, interpreted as “I run twice as fast”. Therefore, the “apotropaic eyes” could say: I see twice as well; the motif in question is that of a predatory bird with a great round eye and folded wing, grasping in its enormous claw a hare while a fish dangles from its beak. The beakers that reputedly came from the region of the Iron Gates carry the same eagle-hare motif. Getae Dacia History of Romania Goldman, Bernard. "DACIAN ART AND THE EAGLE-HARE MOTIF". Bericht, International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences. Oxford University Press. Taylor, Timothy. "Flying stags: icons and power in Thracian art pp.117-132". The Archaeology of contextual meanings edited by Ian Hodder. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521329248. DIA helmet Silver Armour of the Getian-Dacian Elite.
Military Equipment and Organization. Article on the helmet
The close helmet or close helm was a military helmet worn by knights and other men-at-arms in the Late Medieval and Renaissance eras. It was used by some armoured, pistol-armed, cuirassiers into the mid 17th century, it was a enclosing helmet with a pivoting visor and integral bevor. The close helmet was developed from the versions of the sallet and the superficially similar armet in the late 15th century. In contemporary sources it was sometimes referred to as an'armet', though modern scholarship draws a clear distinction between the two types. While outwardly similar to the armet, the close helmet had an different method of opening. Like the armet, the close helmet followed the contours of the head and neck and narrowed at the throat, therefore it required a mechanical method for opening and closing. While an armet opened laterally using two large hinged cheekpieces, a close helmet instead opened vertically via an integral rotating bevor, attached to the same pivots as its visor; the moving parts were secured when closed by pivot-hooks engaging pierced staples.
Alternatively, spring-loaded studs could be employed. The bevor was held closed by a strap. Beginning at around 1500 armour, including helmets, became more influenced by fashion in civilian clothing; as a result close helmets came in a huge variety of forms. The earliest close helmets resembled contemporary armets. In Italy and France in the period 1510-25 helmets were rounded with visors of the'sparrow's beak' form, whereas in Germany, the fluted'Maximillian' style of armour produced distinctive types of helmet; the skulls of these helmets were globular with a low crest, many were decorated with fluting but some were plain. Two types of visor were produced, the Nuremberg form which had a'bellows' shape, the Augsburg form, more projecting and is called a'monkey face'. From the 1520s a new universal, variety of close helmet was developed; the previous forms of one-piece visor were replaced by a more complex system of face covering. The visor was split, into two independently pivoting parts; the lower half, called the ventail or upper bevor, was projecting and shaped like the prow of a modern ship.
The upper visor, when closed, fitted within the upper edge of the ventail. At the same time, on most helmets, the base of the bevor and the lower edge of the skull had laminated gorget plates attached. Crests, running from front to back tended to become taller in the course of the 16th century, becoming exaggerated in some Italian-made examples, before becoming reduced in size at the century's close. There are many helmets surviving with'grotesque' visors; these are thought to have been used as part of a'costume armour' worn at parades and during festivities. Some of these masks portrayed the heads of animals or demons, whilst others were evidently for comic effect, being caricatures of the faces of their owners; the close helmet was used on the field of battle, but was popular for use in tournaments. Wealthy men owned "garnitures", which were armours with interchangeable parts to suit heavy or light field use, the many different forms of tournament combat. Garnitures would include elements for reinforcing the left side of the helmet for use in jousting.
Such reinforcing pieces were called "double pieces" or "pieces of advantage". Gravett, Christopher Tudor Knight. Osprey Publishing, London. Oakeshott, Ewart European Weapons and Armour. From Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution; the Boydell Press, Woolbridge. ISBN 0-85115-789-0 Edge, David. Arms and Armour of the Medieval Knight. London: Bison Books, 1988 Wallace Collection Catalogue. European arms and Armour Vol. 1: Armour. Nickel, H, ed.. The Art of Chivalry: European arms and armor from the Metropolitan Museum of Art: an exhibition. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The American Federation of Arts
The armet is a type of helmet, developed in the 15th century. It was extensively used in Italy, England, the Low Countries and Spain, it was distinguished by being the first helmet of its era to enclose the head while being compact and light enough to move with the wearer. Its use was restricted to the armoured man-at-arms; as the armet was enclosing, narrowed to follow the contours of the neck and throat, it had to have a mechanical means of opening and closing to enable it to be worn. The typical armet consisted of four pieces: the skull, the two large hinged cheek-pieces which locked at the front over the chin, a visor which had a double pivot, one either side of the skull; the cheek-pieces opened laterally. A multi-part reinforcement for the bottom half of the face, known as a wrapper, was sometimes added; the visor attached to each pivot via hinges with removable pins, as in the examples of the bascinet. This method remained in use until c. 1520, after which the hinge disappeared and the visor had a solid connection to its pivot.
The earlier armet had a small aventail, a piece of mail attached to the bottom edge of each cheek-piece. The earliest surviving armet was made in Milan. An Italian origin for this type of helmet therefore seems to be indicated; the innovation of a reduced skull and large hinged cheek pieces was such a radical departure from previous forms of helmet that it is probable that the armet resulted from the invention of a single armourer or soldier and not as the result of evolution from earlier forms. However, a number of Italian bascinets dating to c. 1400 were discovered in Chalcis, these possess a single hinged cheekpiece. This may have had some influence on the development of the armet; the armet reached the height of its popularity during the late 15th and early 16th centuries when western European full plate armour had been perfected. Movable face and cheek pieces allowed the wearer to close the helmet, thus protecting the head from blows; the term armet was applied in contemporary usage to any enclosing helmet, modern scholarship draws a distinction between the armet and the outwardly similar close helmet on the basis of their construction their means of opening to allow them to be worn.
While an armet had two large cheekpieces hinged at the skull and opened laterally, a close helmet instead had a kind of movable bevor, attached to the same pivot points as its visor and opened vertically. The classic armet had a narrow extension to the back of the skull reaching down to the nape of the neck, the cheekpieces were hinged, directly from the main part of the skull. From about 1515 the Germans produced a variant armet where the downward extension of the skull was made much wider, reaching as far forward as the ears; the cheekpieces on this type of helmet hinged vertically on the edges of this wider neck element. The high quality English Greenwich armours included this type of armet from c. 1525. Greenwich-made armets adopted the elegant two-piece visor found on contemporary close helmets; the lower edge of such helmets closed over a flange in the upper edge of a gorget-piece. The helmet could rotate without allowing a gap in the armour that a weapon point could enter; the armet is found in many contemporary pieces of artwork, such as Paolo Uccello's "Battle of San Romano," and is always shown as part of a Milanese armor.
These depictions show armets worn with tall and elaborate crests of feathered plumes. The armet was most popular in Italy, however, in England and Spain it was used by men-at-arms alongside the sallet, whilst in Germany the latter helmet was much more common, it is believed that the close helmet resulted from a combination of various elements derived from each of the preceding helmet types. Gravett, Christopher. Tudor knight. Oxford New York: Osprey Pub. ISBN 978-1-84176-970-7. Oakeshott, R. Ewart. European weapons and armour: from the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution. Rochester, NY: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-789-0. Nickel, H, ed.. The Art of Chivalry: European arms and armor from the Metropolitan Museum of Art: an exhibition. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The American Federation of Arts. Жуков К.А. Armet a rondelle. Функциональное назначение одной детали шлемов позднего средневековья. Http://mreen.org/OZRclub/armet-a-rondelle-funkcionalnoe-naznachenie-odnoy-detali-shlemov-pozdnego-srednevekovya_2.html