Nigel John Dermot Neill, known professionally as Sam Neill, is a New Zealand actor, producer and vineyard owner. Born in Omagh, Northern Ireland, he moved to Christchurch with his family in 1954. Neill first achieved recognition with his appearance in the 1977 film Sleeping Dogs, which he followed with leading roles in My Brilliant Career, Omen III: The Final Conflict, Possession, A Cry in the Dark, Dead Calm, The Piano, he came to international prominence with his portrayal of Dr. Alan Grant in Jurassic Park, reprising the role in 2001's Jurassic Park III. Outside of film, Neill has appeared in numerous television series, such as Reilly, Ace of Spies, The Tudors, Happy Town and Peaky Blinders, he has presented and narrated several documentaries. Neill is the recipient of a New Zealand Film Award and a Logie Award, as well as three Golden Globe and two Primetime Emmy Award nominations, he has three children and one stepchild. Neill was born in 1947 in Omagh, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland, to Priscilla Beatrice and Dermot Neill.
His father, an army officer, was a third-generation New Zealander, while his mother was born in England. His great-grandfather Percy Neill left Belfast in Northern Ireland for New Zealand in 1860, settling in Dunedin, he was the son of a wine merchant importing wine from France. At the time of Neill's birth, his father was stationed in Northern Ireland, serving with the Irish Guards, his father's family owned Co. the largest liquor retailers in New Zealand at the time. Neill holds British and Irish citizenship through his place of birth, but identifies as a New Zealander. In 1954, Neill moved with his family to New Zealand, where he attended the Anglican boys' boarding school Christ's College, Christchurch, he went on to study English literature at the University of Canterbury, where he had his first exposure to acting. He moved to Wellington to continue his tertiary education at Victoria University, where he graduated with a BA in English literature. In 2004, on the Australian talk show Enough Rope, interviewer Andrew Denton touched on the issue of Neill's stuttering.
It affected most of his childhood and as a result he was "hoping that people wouldn't talk to " so he would not have to answer back. He stated, "I kind of outgrew it. I can still... you can still detect me as a stammerer."He first took to calling himself "Sam" at school because there were several other students named Nigel, because he felt the name Nigel was "a little effete for... a New Zealand playground". Neil's first film was a New Zealand TV movie The City of No, he followed it with The Water Cycle and the TV movie Hunt's Duffer. Neill directed a film for the New Zealand National Film Unit, Telephone Etiquette, he was in Landfall. Neill's breakthrough performance in New Zealand was the film Sleeping Dogs, the first local movie to be seen abroad. Neill went to Australia, he was the romantic male lead in My Brilliant Career, opposite Judy Davis. He made some Australian films that were less seen – The Journalist, Just Out of Reach and Attack Force Z, appeared in television productions like Young Ramsay and Lucinda Brayford.
In 1981 he won his first big international role, as Damien Thorn, son of the devil, in Omen III: The Final Conflict. He was one of the leading candidates to succeed Roger Moore in the role of James Bond, but lost out to Timothy Dalton. Among his many Australian roles is playing Michael Chamberlain in Evil Angels, a film about the case of Azaria Chamberlain. Neill has played heroes and villains in a succession of film and television dramas and comedies. In the UK, he won early fame and was Golden Globe nominated after portraying real-life spy, Sidney Reilly, in the mini-series Reilly, Ace of Spies. An early American starring role was in 1987's Amerika, playing a senior KGB officer leading the occupation and division of a defeated United States, his leading and co-starring roles in films include the thriller Dead Calm, the two-part historical epic La Révolution française, The Hunt for Red October, Death in Brunswick, Jurassic Park, The Jungle Book, John Carpenter's In the Mouth of Madness, Event Horizon, Bicentennial Man, the comedy The Dish.
Neill has acted in New Zealand films, including The Piano, Perfect Strangers, Under the Mountain, Hunt for the Wilderpeople. He returned to directing in 1995 with the documentary Cinema of Unease: A Personal Journey by Sam Neill which he wrote and directed with Judy Rymer. In 1993, he co-starred with Anne Archer in Question of Faith, an independent drama based on a true story about one woman's fight to beat cancer and have a baby. In 2000, he provided the voice of Sam Sawnoff in The Magic Pudding. In 2001, he narrated a documentary series for the BBC entitled Space, he portrayed the eponymous wizard in a miniseries based on the legends of King Arthur. He reprised his role in Merlin's Apprentice. Neill starred in the historical drama The Tudors. "I
English National Opera
English National Opera is an opera company based in London, resident at the London Coliseum in St Martin's Lane. It is one of the two principal opera companies in London, along with Covent Garden. ENO's productions are sung in English; the company's origins were in the late 19th century, when the philanthropist Emma Cons assisted by her niece Lilian Baylis, presented theatrical and operatic performances at the Old Vic, for the benefit of local people. Baylis subsequently built up both the opera and the theatre companies, added a ballet company. Baylis acquired and rebuilt the Sadler's Wells theatre in north London, a larger house, better suited to opera than the Old Vic; the opera company grew there into a permanent ensemble in the 1930s. During the Second World War, the theatre was closed and the company toured British towns and cities. After the war, the company returned to its home. By the 1960s, a larger theatre was needed. In 1968, the company moved to the London Coliseum and adopted its present name in 1974.
Among the conductors associated with the company have been Colin Davis, Reginald Goodall, Charles Mackerras, Mark Elder and Edward Gardner. The current music director of ENO is Martyn Brabbins. Noted directors who have staged productions at ENO have included David Pountney, Jonathan Miller, Nicholas Hytner, Phyllida Lloyd and Calixto Bieito. ENO's current artistic director is Daniel Kramer. In addition to the core operatic repertoire, the company has presented a wide range of works, from early operas by Monteverdi to new commissions and Broadway shows. In 1889, Emma Cons, a Victorian philanthropist who ran the Old Vic theatre in a working-class area of London, began presenting regular fortnightly performances of opera excerpts. Although the theatre licensing laws of the day prevented full costumed performances, Cons presented condensed versions of well-known operas, always sung in English. Among the performers were noted singers such as Charles Santley; these operatic evenings became more popular than the dramas that Cons had been staging separately.
In 1898, she recruited her niece Lilian Baylis to help run the theatre. At the same time she appointed Charles Corri as the Old Vic's musical director. Baylis and Corri, despite many disagreements, shared a passionate belief in popularising opera, hitherto the preserve of the rich and fashionable, they worked on a tiny budget, with an amateur chorus and a professional orchestra of only 18 players, for whom Corri rescored the instrumental parts of the operas. By the early years of the 20th century, the Old Vic was able to present semi-staged versions of Wagner operas. Emma Cons died in 1912, leaving her estate, including the Old Vic, to Baylis, who dreamed of transforming the theatre into a "people's opera house". In the same year, Baylis obtained a licence to allow the Old Vic to stage full performances of operas. In the 1914 -- 1915 season, Baylis staged 16 plays. In the years after the First World War, Baylis's Shakespeare productions, which featured some of the leading actors from London's West End, attracted national attention, as her shoe-string opera productions did not.
The opera, remained her first priority. The actor-manager Robert Atkins, who worked with Baylis on her Shakespearean productions, recalled, "Opera, on Thursday and Saturday nights, played to bulging houses." By the 1920s, Baylis concluded that the Old Vic no longer sufficed to house both her theatre and her opera companies. She noticed the empty and derelict Sadler's Wells theatre in Rosebery Avenue, Islington, on the other side of London from the Old Vic, she sought to run it in tandem with her existing theatre. Baylis made a public appeal for funds in 1925. With the help of the Carnegie Trust and many others, she acquired the freehold of Sadler's Wells. Work started on the site in 1926. By Christmas 1930, a new 1,640-seat theatre was ready for occupation; the first production there, a fortnight's run from 6 January 1931, was Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. The first opera, given on 20 January, was Carmen. Eighteen operas were staged during the first season; the new theatre was more expensive to run than the Old Vic, as a larger orchestra and more singers were needed, box office receipts were at first inadequate.
In 1932, the Birmingham Post commented that the Vic-Wells opera performances did not reach the standards of the Vic-Wells Shakespeare productions. Baylis strove to improve operatic standards, while at the same time fending off attempts by Sir Thomas Beecham to absorb the opera company into a joint enterprise with Covent Garden, where he was in command. At first, the apparent financial security of the offer appeared attractive, but friends and advisers such as Edward J. Dent and Clive Carey convinced Bayliss that it was not in the interests of her regular audience; this view received strong support from the press. Any kind of amalgamation which made it the poor relation of the'Grand' season would be disastrous. At first, Baylis presented both opera at each of her theatres; the companies were known as the "Vic-Wells". However, for both aesthetic and financial reasons, by 1934, the Old Vic had become the home of the spoken drama, while Sadler's Wells housed both the opera and a ballet company, the latter co-founded by Baylis and Ninette de Valois in 1930.
Lawrance Collingwood joined the company as resident conductor alongside Corri. With the increased number of productions, guest conductors
John Christopher Depp II is an American actor and musician. He has been nominated for ten Golden Globe Awards, winning one for Best Actor for his performance of the title role in Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street and has been nominated for three Academy Awards for Best Actor, among other accolades. Depp rose to prominence on the 1980s television series 21 Jump Street, he is regarded as one of the world's biggest film stars. He has gained praise from reviewers for his portrayals of screenwriter-director Ed Wood in Ed Wood, undercover FBI agent Joseph D. Pistone in Donnie Brasco, author J. M. Barrie in Finding Neverland, Boston gangster Whitey Bulger in Black Mass. Depp is the third highest-grossing actor worldwide, as films featuring Depp have grossed over US$3.7 billion at the United States box office and over US$10 billion worldwide. He has been listed in the 2012 Guinness World Records as the world's highest-paid actor, with earnings of US$75 million, his most commercially successful films are the Pirates of the Caribbean series, which grossed US$4.5 billion, the Fantastic Beasts film series, which grossed US$1.3 billion, Alice in Wonderland, which grossed US$1 billion and the Chocolate Factory, which grossed US$474 million, The Tourist, which grossed US$278 million.
Depp had a supporting role in Oliver Stone's 1986 Vietnam War film Platoon and played the title character in the 1990 romantic dark fantasy Edward Scissorhands. He found box office success in the adventure film Sleepy Hollow, the swashbuckler film series Pirates of the Caribbean, the fantasy films Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Alice in Wonderland, the animated comedy western Rango, most Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald. Depp has collaborated on nine films with director and friend Tim Burton. Depp was inducted as a Disney Legend in 2015, he has performed in numerous musical groups, including forming the rock supergroup Hollywood Vampires along with Alice Cooper and Joe Perry. Depp was born in Owensboro, the youngest of four children of Betty Sue Palmer, a waitress, John Christopher Depp, a civil engineer. Depp is of English ancestry, with some Dutch and French, he is descended from a French Huguenot immigrant and from colonial freedom fighter Elizabeth Key Grinstead, daughter of a British nobleman and an indentured African woman.
Depp moved during his childhood. He and his siblings lived in more than 20 different places settling in Miramar, Florida in 1970. Depp's parents divorced in 1978 when he was 15, his mother married Robert Palmer, whom Depp has called "an inspiration to me."With the gift of a guitar from his mother when he was 12, Depp began playing in various garage bands. A year after his parents' divorce, he dropped out of Miramar High School to become a rock musician, he attempted to go back to school two weeks but the principal told him to follow his dream of being a musician. He played with a band that enjoyed modest local success; the Kids set out together for Los Angeles in pursuit of a record deal, changing their name to Six Gun Method, but the group split up before signing a record deal. Depp subsequently collaborated with the band Rock City Angels and co-wrote their song "Mary", which appeared on Rock City Angels' debut Geffen Records album Young Man's Blues. On December 20, 1983, Depp married Lori Anne Allison, the sister of his band's bass player and singer.
During their marriage she worked as a makeup artist while he worked a variety of odd jobs, including a telemarketer for pens. His wife introduced him to actor Nicolas Cage. Depp and Allison divorced in 1985. Depp's first film role was in the horror film A Nightmare on Elm Street, in which he played the boyfriend of heroine Nancy Thompson and one of Freddy Krueger's victims. After a starring role in the comedy Private Resort, Depp was cast in the lead role of the skating drama Thrashin' by the film's director, but the decision was overridden by its producer. Instead, Depp appeared in a minor supporting role as a Vietnamese-speaking private in Oliver Stone's Vietnam War drama Platoon. Depp became a popular teen idol during the late 1980s, when he starred as a police officer who goes on an undercover operation in a high school in the Fox television series 21 Jump Street, which premiered in 1987, he accepted this role to work with actor Frederic Forrest. Despite his success, Depp felt that the series "forced into the role of product."
He subsequently decided to appear only in films. In 1990, Depp played the title character in Tim Burton's film Edward Scissorhands, in which he starred opposite Dianne Wiest and Winona Ryder; the film was a critical and commercial success that established him as a leading Hollywood actor and began his long association with Burton. Producer Scott Rudin has stated that "basically Johnny Depp is playing Tim Burton in all his movies". In his introduction to Burton on Burton, a book of interviews with the director, Depp called Burton "... a brother, a friend... and brave soul". Depp's first film release in 1990 was a musical comedy set in the 1950s. Although it was not a box office success upon its initial release, over the years it has gained cult classic status. Depp had no film releases in the following two years, with the exception of a brief cameo in Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare, the sixth install
Georges Bizet, registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the Romantic era. Best known for his operas in a career cut short by his early death, Bizet achieved few successes before his final work, which has become one of the most popular and performed works in the entire opera repertoire. During a brilliant student career at the Conservatoire de Paris, Bizet won many prizes, including the prestigious Prix de Rome in 1857, he was recognised as an outstanding pianist, though he chose not to capitalise on this skill and performed in public. Returning to Paris after three years in Italy, he found that the main Parisian opera theatres preferred the established classical repertoire to the works of newcomers, his keyboard and orchestral compositions were largely ignored. Restless for success, he began many theatrical projects during the 1860s, most of which were abandoned. Neither of his two operas that reached the stage in this time—Les pêcheurs de perles and La jolie fille de Perth—were successful.
After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, during which Bizet served in the National Guard, he had little success with his one-act opera Djamileh, though an orchestral suite derived from his incidental music to Alphonse Daudet's play L'Arlésienne was popular. The production of Bizet's final opera, was delayed because of fears that its themes of betrayal and murder would offend audiences. After its premiere on 3 March 1875, Bizet was convinced. Bizet's marriage to Geneviève Halévy produced one son. After his death, his work, apart from Carmen, was neglected. Manuscripts were given away or lost, published versions of his works were revised and adapted by other hands, he had no obvious disciples or successors. After years of neglect, his works began to be performed more in the 20th century. Commentators have acclaimed him as a composer of brilliance and originality whose premature death was a significant loss to French musical theatre. Georges Bizet was born in Paris on 25 October 1838, he was registered as Alexandre César Léopold, but baptised as "Georges" on 16 March 1840, was known by this name for the rest of his life.
His father, Adolphe Bizet, had been a hairdresser and wigmaker before becoming a singing teacher despite his lack of formal training. He composed a few works, including at least one published song. In 1837, Adolphe married Aimée Delsarte, against the wishes of her family who considered him a poor prospect. Aimée was an accomplished pianist, while her brother François Delsarte was a distinguished singer and teacher who performed at the courts of both Louis Philippe and Napoleon III. François Delsarte's wife Rosine, a musical prodigy, had been an assistant professor of solfège at the Conservatoire de Paris at the age of 13. At least one author has alleged that his mother was from a Jewish family but this is not substantiated in any of his official biographies. Georges, an only child, showed early aptitude for music and picked up the basics of musical notation from his mother, who gave him his first piano lessons. By listening at the door of the room where Adolphe conducted his classes, Georges learned to sing difficult songs from memory and developed an ability to identify and analyse complex chordal structures.
This precocity convinced his ambitious parents that he was ready to begin studying at the Conservatoire though he was still only nine years old. Georges was interviewed by Joseph Meifred, the horn virtuoso, a member of the Conservatoire's Committee of Studies. Meifred was so struck by the boy's demonstration of his skills that he waived the age rule and offered to take him as soon as a place became available. Bizet was admitted to the Conservatoire on 9 October two weeks before his 10th birthday, he made an early impression. Zimmerman gave Bizet private lessons in counterpoint and fugue, which continued until the old man's death in 1853. Through these classes, Bizet met Zimmerman's son-in-law, the composer Charles Gounod, who became a lasting influence on the young pupil's musical style—although their relationship was strained in years, he met another of Gounod's young students, the 13-year-old Camille Saint-Saëns, who remained a firm friend of Bizet's. Under the tuition of Antoine François Marmontel, the Conservatoire's professor of piano, Bizet's pianism developed rapidly.
Bizet would write to Marmontel: "In your class one learns something besides the piano. Bizet's first preserved compositions, two wordless songs for soprano, date from around 1850. In 1853, he joined Fromental Halévy's composition class and began to produce works of increasing sophistication and quality. Two of his songs, "Petite Marguerite" and "La Rose et l'abeille", were published in 1854. In 1855, he wrote an ambitious overture for a large orchestra, prepared four-hand piano versions of two of Gounod's works: the opera La nonne sanglante and the Symphony in D. Bizet's work on the Gounod symphony inspired him, shortly after his seventeenth birthd
Feminist Improvising Group
The Feminist Improvising Group were a five- to eight-piece English free improvising avant-garde jazz and experimental music ensemble formed in London in 1977 by Scottish vocalist Maggie Nicols and English bassoonist/composer Lindsay Cooper. Their debut performance was at a "Music for Socialism" festival at the Almost Free Theatre in London in October 1977, they toured Europe several times in the late 1970s and early 1980s. FIG were the first publicly performing women-only group of improvisers and challenged the hitherto male-dominated musical improvisation community; the group consisted of women from different backgrounds with different levels of musicianship, their concerts were a combination of music and theatre that dealt with everyday women's issues. FIG integrated "lesbian sexuality" into their performances that, Canadian academic Julie Dawn Smith said, "queered" the improvisational space and "demanded queer listening". FIG were not well received by male improvisers, who Nicols said criticised their technical ability and their "irreverent approach to technique and tradition".
Smith noted that FIG's performances were criticised by some feminists for being "too virtuosic and abstract", but they received positive reactions from both women and men at concerts. A review in the improvised music magazine Musics said that FIG's debut performance "was a welcome contrast to the previous performances, singularly humourless."In 1983 FIG evolved into the European Women's Improvising Group, bowing to pressure to tone down their name. FIG were influential on the second-generation improvisation scene and spawned a number of women-only improvising groups and events. FIG were educational in that they exposed new audiences to improvisation and feminism; the Feminist Improvising Group was founded in London in 1977 by Scottish vocalist Maggie Nicols from Centipede and English bassoonist/composer Lindsay Cooper from Henry Cow. Nicols and Cooper first discussed the idea of an all-women improvising group at a musician's union meeting. Cooper said, "we agreed that improvisation had become important and no women were doing it.
And we thought, well let's do it! Let's get women together and do it ourselves!" While Nicols and Cooper had both performed with men, they had little experience performing with other women, but their involvement in class politics as well as feminist and lesbian activism prompted them to pursue this project. The other members of the five-piece ensemble were cellist/bassist Georgie Born from Henry Cow, vocalist/pianist Cathy Williams from the British duo Rag Doll, trumpeter Corinne Liensol from British feminist rock band Jam Today, they had intended to call themselves the "Women's Improvising Group", but at their first engagement they discovered that the organisers had billed them as the "Feminist Improvising Group". Nicols said that the "political statement of the band's name never came from us! But we just thought,'OK, they've called us feminist, we'll work with that'". FIG's debut performance was at a "Music for Socialism" festival at the Almost Free Theatre in London in October 1977, their act was a combination of music and comedy, focused on "women's experience" and "mundane daily things".
Nicols described it as "quite anarchic. It had elements of theatre, they staged parodies around the role of women in society and incorporated domestic "found objects" in their performances, including "vacuum cleaners, dustpans and pans, egg slicers". Their performances had some of the women cleaning the stage, while the others huddled in a group to "explore the sonic possibilities of household items." They broke down the barriers that traditionally existed between the performer and the audience by engaging in "antiphonal exchange" with them, promoting the notion that "anyone can do it". FIG redefined free improvisation by introducing "social virtuosity", the ability to communicate with the other musicians and the audience. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, FIG toured Europe several times, where they played at festivals at various venues, including Paris, Rome, Copenhagen and Reykjavík; when Cooper and Born were performing with Henry Cow in Zürich in early 1978, Cooper invited Swiss pianist Irène Schweizer to join FIG.
English filmmaker Sally Potter, who played saxophone and sang, joined the group in April 1978. Dutch trombonist Annemarie Roelofs, English singer Frankie Armstrong, Dutch woodwind player Angèle Veltmeijer, French saxophonist and guitarist Françoise Dupety played intermittently with the group; some of FIG's performances consisted of up to eight women. Nicols left FIG in 1980 to form another all-women group called Contradictions. In 1983, under the helm of Schweizer, FIG evolved into The European Women's Improvising Group, bowing to pressure that their name was "too political". EWIG included Schweizer, Roelofs, French double bassist Joëlle Léandre, French singer Annick Nozati. In the 1970s there was a view that the free improvisation music space was the domain of male heterosexuals, that women were marginalized. Canadian academic Julie Dawn Smith wrote in her 2004 essay, "Playing Like a Girl: The Queer Laughter of the Feminist Improvising Group", that "The opportunity for freedom in relation to sexual difference and sexuality for women improvisers was strangely absent from the discou
Julie Frances Christie is a British actress. An icon of the "swinging London" era of the 1960s, she has received such accolades as an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a BAFTA Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, she has appeared in six films that were ranked in the British Film Institute's 100 greatest British films of the 20th century, in 1997 she received the BAFTA Fellowship. Christie's breakthrough film role was in Billy Liar, she came to international attention for her performances in Darling, for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress, Doctor Zhivago, the eighth highest-grossing film of all time after adjustment for inflation. In the following years, she starred in Fahrenheit 451, Far from the Madding Crowd, The Go-Between, McCabe & Mrs. Miller, for which she received her second Oscar nomination, Don't Look Now and Heaven Can Wait. From the early 1980s, her appearances in mainstream films decreased, though she held roles as Thetis in Wolfgang Petersen's historical epic Troy and as Madam Rosmerta in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.
She has continued to receive significant critical recognition for her work, including Oscar nominations for the independent films Afterglow and Away from Her. Christie was born on 14 April 1940 at Singlijan Tea Estate, Assam, British India, the elder child of Rosemary, a Welsh painter, Francis "Frank" St. John Christie, her father ran the tea plantation. She has a younger brother, an older half-sister, from her father's relationship with an Indian woman, who worked as a tea picker on his plantation. Frank and Rosemary Christie separated, she was baptised in the Church of England, studied as a boarder at the independent Convent of Our Lady school in St. Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, after being expelled from another convent school for telling a risqué joke that reached a wider audience than anticipated. After being asked to leave the Convent of Our Lady as well, she attended Wycombe Court School, High Wycombe, during which time she lived with a foster mother from the age of six. After her parents' divorce, Christie spent time with her mother in rural Wales.
As a teenager at the all-girls' Wycombe Court School, she played "the Dauphin" in a production of Shaw's Saint Joan. She studied at the Central School of Speech and Drama. Christie made her professional stage debut in 1957, her first screen roles were on British television, her earliest role to gain attention was in BBC serial A for Andromeda. She was a contender for the role of Honey Rider in the first James Bond film, Dr. No, but producer Albert R. Broccoli thought her breasts were too small. Christie appeared in two comedies for Independent Artists: The Fast Lady, her breakthrough role, was as Liz, the friend and would-be lover of the eponymous character played by Tom Courtenay in Billy Liar, for which she received a BAFTA Award nomination. The director, John Schlesinger cast Christie only after another actress, Topsy Jane, had dropped out of the film. Christie appeared as Daisy Battles in Young Cassidy, a biopic of Irish playwright Seán O'Casey, co-directed by Jack Cardiff and John Ford, her role as an amoral model in Darling led to Christie becoming known internationally.
Directed by Schlesinger, co-starring Dirk Bogarde and Laurence Harvey, Christie had only been cast in the lead role after Schlesinger insisted, the studio having wanted Shirley MacLaine. She received the Academy Award for Best Actress and the BAFTA Award for Best British Actress in a Leading Role for her performance. In David Lean's Doctor Zhivago, adapted from the epic/romance novel by Boris Pasternak, Christie's role as Lara Antipova became her best known; the film was a major box-office success. As of 2016, Doctor Zhivago is the 8th highest-grossing film of all time, adjusted for inflation. According to Life magazine, 1965 was "The Year of Julie Christie". After dual roles in François Truffaut's adaptation of the Ray Bradbury novel Fahrenheit 451, starring with Oskar Werner, she appeared as Thomas Hardy's heroine Bathsheba Everdene in Schlesinger's Far from the Madding Crowd. After moving to Los Angeles in 1967, she appeared in the title role of Richard Lester's Petulia, co-starring with George C. Scott.
Christie's persona as the swinging sixties British woman she had embodied in Billy Liar and Darling was further cemented by her appearance in the documentary Tonite Let's All Make Love in London. In 1967, Time magazine said of her: "What Julie Christie wears has more real impact on fashion than all the clothes of the ten best-dressed women combined". In Joseph Losey's romantic drama The Go-Between, Christie had a lead role along with Alan Bates; the film won the Grand Prix the main award at the Cannes Film Festival. She earned a second Best Actress Oscar nomination for her role as a brothel madame in Robert Altman's postmodern western McCabe & Mrs. Miller; the film was the first of three collaborations between Christie and Warren Beatty, who described her as "the most beautiful and at the same time the most nervous person I had known". The couple had a high-profile but intermittent relationship between 1967 and 1974. After the relationship ended, they worked together again in the comedies Shampoo and Heaven Can Wait.
Her other films during the decade were Nicolas Roeg's thriller Don't Look Now, in which she co-starred with Donald Sutherland, and
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million. An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject. Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, about 625 km to the south-east. Saint Petersburg is one of the most modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital; the Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg. An admirer of everything German, Peter the Great named the city, Sankt-Peterburg.
On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's city", in order to expunge the German name Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of Vladimir Lenin, it was renamed to Leningrad, meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "Saint Petersburg". Local residents refer to the city by its shortened nickname, Piter; the city's traditional nicknames among Russians are the Window to Europe. Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was called Ingermanland, inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians; the small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport in order to trade with the rest of Europe, he needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, on the White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On 12 May 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On 27 May 1703, closer to the estuary 5 km inland from the gulf), on Zayachy Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city; the city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city; the city became the centre of the Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad of 1721 ended the war. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals; the project is evident in the layout of the streets.
In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the chief architect of Saint Petersburg. The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two, his endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of Russia moved his seat back to Moscow, but four years in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737; the city was divided into five boroughs, the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt, Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the