Grey's Anatomy is an American medical drama television series that premiered on March 27, 2005, on the American Broadcasting Company as a mid-season replacement. The fictional series focuses on the lives of surgical interns and attending physicians, as they develop into seasoned doctors while trying to maintain personal lives and relationships; the title is a play on Gray's Anatomy, a classic human anatomy textbook first published in 1858 in London and written by Henry Gray. Shonda Rhimes continues to write for the series. Although the series is set in Seattle, it is filmed in Los Angeles, California; the series was used color-blind casting. It revolves around the title character, Dr. Meredith Grey, played by Ellen Pompeo, first featured as an intern; the original cast consisted of nine star-billed actors: Pompeo, Sandra Oh, Katherine Heigl, Justin Chambers, T. R. Knight, Chandra Wilson, James Pickens Jr. Isaiah Washington and Patrick Dempsey; the cast has undergone major changes through the series' run, with many members leaving and being replaced by others.
In its fifteenth season, the show has a large ensemble of eleven actors, including four characters from the original cast. Grey's Anatomy was renewed for a fifteenth season, which premiered on September 27, 2018; the series' success catapulted such long-running cast members as Pompeo, Oh to worldwide recognition. While the show's ratings have fallen over the course of its run, it is still one of the highest-rated shows among the 18–49 demographic, the No. 3 drama on all of broadcast television. The series was the highest revenue-earning show on television, in terms of advertising, in the 2007–08 season. Grey's Anatomy ranks as ABC's highest-rated drama in its fifteenth season. Grey's Anatomy has been well received by critics throughout much of its run, has been included in various critics' year-end top ten lists. Since its inception, the show has been described by the media outlets as a television "phenomenon" or a "juggernaut", owing to its longevity and dominant ratings, it is considered to have had a significant effect on popular culture and has received numerous awards, including the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Drama and a total of thirty-eight Primetime Emmy Award nominations, including two for Outstanding Drama Series.
The cast members have received several accolades for their respective performances. Grey's Anatomy is the longest-running scripted primetime show airing on ABC, the longest scripted primetime series carried by ABC in general; as of 28 February 2019, it is the longest running American primetime medical drama series. The series follows Meredith Grey, the daughter of an esteemed general surgeon named Ellis Grey, following her acceptance into the residency program at the fictional Seattle Grace Hospital. During her time as a resident, Grey works alongside fellow physicians Cristina Yang, Izzie Stevens, Alex Karev, George O'Malley, who each struggle to balance their personal lives with hectic schedules and stressful residency requirements. During their internship, they are overseen by Miranda Bailey, a senior resident who works with attending physician Derek Shepherd, head of neurosurgery and Meredith's love interest. During the first six seasons, Burke, O'Malley, Stevens all depart the series. In addition to Webber and Shepherd, the surgical wing is supervised by Addison Montgomery, Shepherd's ex-wife and the head of OB/GYN, fetal surgery who leaves for Los Angeles after the third season.
Lexie Grey, Meredith's half-sister, joins the residency program in the fourth season until her death with her love interest Mark Sloan in the season eight finale's plane crash, after which Seattle Grace is renamed Grey Sloan Memorial Hospital in their memory. Former Mercy-West residents Jackson Avery and April Kepner join Seattle Grace following an administrative merger in season six. Other additions include Leah Murphy, who departs near the end of the tenth season but returns during the thirteenth.
Fox Theatre (Atlanta)
The Fox Theatre, a former movie palace, is a performing arts venue located at 660 Peachtree Street NE in Midtown Atlanta, is the centerpiece of the Fox Theatre Historic District. The theater was planned as part of a large Shrine Temple as evidenced by its Moorish design; the 4,665 seat auditorium was developed as a lavish movie theater in the Fox Theatres chain and opened in 1929. It hosts a variety of cultural and artistic events including the Atlanta Ballet, a summer film series, performances by national touring companies of Broadway shows; the venue hosts occasional concerts by popular artists. When the Fox Theatre first opened, the local newspaper described it as having, "a picturesque and disturbing grandeur beyond imagination", it remains a showplace. The principal architect of the project was Olivier Vinour of the firm Marye and Vinour; the original architecture and décor of the Fox can be divided into two architectural styles: Islamic architecture and Egyptian architecture. The 4,665-seat auditorium, designed for movies and live performances, replicates an Arabian courtyard complete with a night sky of 96 embedded crystal "stars" and a projection of clouds that drift across the "sky."
A longstanding rumor that one of the stars was a piece of a Coca-Cola bottle was confirmed in June 2010 when two members of the theater's restoration staff conducted a search from within the attic above the auditorium ceiling. The Egyptian Ballroom is designed after a temple for Ramses II at Karnak while the mezzanine Ladies Lounge features a replica of the throne chair of King Tut and makeup tables that feature tiny Sphinxes; the Islamic sections feature a number of ablution fountains, which are kept dry. Throughout the Fox there is extensive use of trompe l'oeil; the Fox Theatre gives regular tours of the Fox Theatre's interior. Designed as the Yaarab Shrine Temple, the headquarters for a 5,000-member Shriners organization, the $2.75 million project exceeded the Shriners' budget, so they leased the auditorium to movie mogul William Fox, building theaters around the country at the time. The theater opened on December 1929, just two months after the stock market crash. A week on New Year's Day, the Shriners inaugurated their new "mosque" in their part of the building, which contained executive offices, a large lounge, a ballroom/banquet hall, practice hall, locker-shower room.
Under the terms of the lease, they remained as paying tenants until 1949. According to the National Park Service, "the Fox Theatre closed only 125 weeks. Members of the Yaarab Temple could not meet their, by 1932, William Fox was bankrupt." After the mortgage was foreclosed in December 1932, the entire complex was purchased jointly by Paramount Pictures and Lucas & Jenkins, a Georgia company that owned a hundred theatres. In 1939, the movie most associated with Atlanta and the South, Gone with the Wind, premiered at the now-demolished Loew's Grand Theatre rather than the Fox. Although GWTW was produced by Selznick International, it was distributed by Loew's Incorporated as part of a deal with rival studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; the parade down Peachtree Street for the movie's premier coincidentally started just outside the Fox because the movie's cast was staying across the street at the Georgian Terrace Hotel. During the 1940s, the Fox acquired strong management and became one of the finest movie theaters in Atlanta.
It was at this time that the Egyptian Ballroom became Atlanta's most popular public dance hall and hosted all the important big bands and country and western swing bands of the era. It was notable at that time for being the only theater in Atlanta allowing both white and black patrons. However, there was a separate black box office and seating; these are left in place for historical purposes. The theater was integrated in 1962. During the 1970s, several elements collided to bring about the Fox's decline – white flight, the rise of suburban multiplex theaters, changes in how films were distributed. In 1974, Southern Bell, the regional arm of AT&T, approached the owners of the theater with an offer to buy and with the intent of tearing it down and building the parking deck for a new headquarters on the site. A group was formed to save the theater and it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in May 1974; the ensuing public outcry and massive campaign, including such entertainers as Liberace and Lynyrd Skynyrd, among other celebrities, resulted in the city refusing to issue a demolition permit.
A complicated deal was brokered that prevented the Fox's demolition. The Southern Bell Building was built on land adjacent to the theater on the building's west side in conjunction with the construction of the North Avenue MARTA station, with its parking deck built on the north end of th
Edith Bunker is a fictional 1970s sitcom character on All in the Family, played by Jean Stapleton. She was the wife of Archie Bunker, mother of Gloria Stivic, mother-in-law of Michael "Meathead" Stivic and after 1975, grandmother of Joey Stivic, her cousin was Maude Findlay, one of Archie's nemeses. While Edith was a traditional and subservient wife, Jean Stapleton was a noted feminist. Series creator Norman Lear said on All Things Considered that his father told his mother to "stifle". Edith Bunker was an undereducated but kind and loving woman, she didn't have as much of a political opinion as the rest of the family. Her main role was to be the woman. A native of New York City, she was born in October 1927 and died in her sleep of a stroke in September 1980, at age 52, she attended Millard Fillmore High School and was in the graduating class of 1943. Her high school had only one reunion and, the 30th, in 1973, which she attended. There is not an exact date brought up when she met Archie, but the place was the Puritan Maid Ice Cream Parlor.
In the episode "Archie Goes Too Far" Edith reads her diary and reveals that she was receiving letters in May 1943 from Archie while he was overseas serving in the Army Air Corps. Her character and accent changed somewhat between the second seasons. In the earliest episodes, she was the "put-upon wife," bemoaning her husband's behavior or comments: during the first season, Jean Stapleton spoke more in her own range, rather than the nasal, high pitched voice for which Edith is remembered. By the second season, she became the character more familiar to viewers: kind, utterly non-judgmental and dedicated to her husband. In the first season, she pronounced her husband's name as "Ahchie" or "Archie." In the 1st season 2nd episode "Writing the President" Edith remarks how before her marriage, in 1946 she got a job and started working for the "Hercules Plumbing Company". By the second season, her husband became "Awwchie." In the third season episode "The Battle of the Month" and fourth season episode "Gloria Sings the Blues," Edith reveals that her parents divorced after a nasty fight and that although they stayed married, things were never the same between them.
This affected Edith and her views on marriage, marital fighting, as well as how to treat other people. In the fourth season episode "Archie the Gambler," Edith reveals that her father was addicted to gambling and brought his family to ruin. Edith was the voice of reason and rock of understanding contributing a unique perspective to a topic, she was decidedly less bigoted than Archie. Though her opinions sometimes differed from Archie's, she was intensely loyal to her husband stuck up for him and stood by him in his times of need. Edith was hardly the sharpest member of the family and could be a tad slow on the uptake, but she was the happiest and wisest character on the show. For example, in a conversation with Gloria, Edith stated that she favored capital punishment, "as long as it ain't too severe." In the episode "Cousin Liz", Edith is at first shocked at the revelation, but throws her arms around Veronica and warmly accepts her as Liz's "true next-of-kin", giving her the tea-set Liz's spouse would have inherited.
Edith was popular because she was the sweetest character on the show, unconditionally loving everyone she knew and managing to keep high spirits when she faced tragedy. Despite cooperating with Archie, Edith doesn't share much of her husband's prejudices. Examples of this is were shown through her friendships with drag queen Beverly LaSalle and Louise Jefferson, both of whom Archie is less cooperative with, when the Jeffersons lived next door to the Bunkers. In contrast, in a memorable episode in the show's second season, Edith uncharacteristically snaps at Archie telling him to "stifle". Edith, who otherwise never cursed loudly instructed the family to "Leave me alone, dammit!" After a visit to the doctor Gloria explains to Archie that he needs to be sensitive to the fact that Edith is going through menopause. On in the episode, a frustrated Archie yells at Edith "When I had the hernia I didn't make you wear the truss. Now if you're gon na have a change of life, you got. I'm gonna give you 30 seconds now come on, change!"
In another episode, Edith, in a conversation with Gloria, wondered whether men go through "women-pause." When All in the Family premiered in 1971, Edith was a housewife. In 1974 Edith got a part-time job as a caretaker at the Sunshine Home, she was a partner in Archie's business, Archie's Place, the tavern he purchased in 1977. Edith loses her job at the Sunshine Home in 1979, but in an early episode of Archie Bunker's Place, she is able to find a simi
Jean Stapleton was an American character actress of stage and film. Stapleton is best known for playing Edith Bunker, the long-suffering yet devoted wife of Archie Bunker, on the 1970s sitcom All in the Family, a role that earned her three Emmys and two Golden Globes for Best Actress in a comedy series, she made occasional appearances on the All in the Family follow-up series Archie Bunker's Place, but asked to be written out of the show during the first season due to becoming tired of the role. Stapleton was born on January 19, 1923, in Manhattan, New York City, the daughter of Marie A. an opera singer, Joseph E. Murray, a billboard advertising salesman. Stapleton began her career in 1941 aged 18 in summer stock theatre and made her New York debut in the Off-Broadway play American Gothic, she featured on Broadway theatre in several hit musicals, such as Funny Girl, Damn Yankees and Bells Are Ringing, recreating her parts from the latter two musicals in the film versions of Damn Yankees and Bells Are Ringing.
Stapleton's early television roles included parts in Starlight Theatre, Robert Montgomery Presents, Lux Video Theater, Woman with a Past, The Philco-Goodyear Television Playhouse, The Patty Duke Show, Dr. Kildare, My Three Sons, Car 54, Where Are You?, Dennis the Menace, Naked City, as Rosa Criley in a 1963 episode of NBC's medical drama about psychiatry, The Eleventh Hour, entitled "The Bride Wore Pink". In 1962, Stapleton guest-starred as Mrs. Larsen in "The Hidden Jungle", an episode of the TV series The Defenders, alongside her future All in the Family co-star Carroll O'Connor. Stapleton appeared in the feature films Something Wild, Up the Down Staircase and the Norman Lear comedy Cold Turkey. Stapleton bested both Mary Tyler Moore and Marlo Thomas for the "Best Actress in a Comedy" award on May 9, 1971, which happened to be Mother's Day, she was offered a role in the feature film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory as Mrs. Teevee, but declined because it coincided with the production of the All in the Family pilot.
Stapleton's best known role as Edith in All in the Family began in 1971. The show was broadcast on the CBS network for nine seasons from January 12, 1971 to April 8, 1979, for a total of 205 episodes; the role earned Stapleton two Golden Globes. She continued the role of Edith in the follow-up series Archie Bunker's Place, but decided to leave the show after appearing in only five episodes. Stapleton appeared in the Emmy award winning TV movie Tail Gunner Joe, dramatizing the life of U. S. Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, guest-starred in the sixth episode of the third season of The Muppet Show. In 1979, she featured in the original Canadian production of the musical Something's Afoot, broadcast on Showtime, she played the title role in the Hallmark Hall of Fame TV movie, Aunt Mary, which detailed the true story of Baltimore children's advocate Mary Dobkin. In 1982, Stapleton portrayed Eleanor Roosevelt in the TV movie Eleanor, First Lady of the World, focusing on the subject's life; the role earned her Golden Globe nominations for Best Actress.
She continued to guest-star in a number of television series during the 1980s including two episodes of Faerie Tale Theatre — in 1983 and 1985 editions entitled "Jack and the Beanstalk" as the Giant's Wife and "Cinderella" as the Fairy Godmother — Scarecrow and Mrs. King and The Love Boat. Stapleton co-starred in the film The Buddy System, alongside Susan Sarandon and Richard Dreyfuss, played Ariadne Oliver in the 1986 television adaptation of Dead Man's Folly, opposite Peter Ustinov as Hercule Poirot, she declined the role of Jessica Fletcher in the TV series Murder, She Wrote, which went to Angela Lansbury. From 1990-91, Stapleton co-starred with Whoopi Goldberg in 15 episodes of Bagdad Cafe, the television series based on the movie of the same name. In 1994, Stapleton played the role of Mrs. Piggle-Wiggle in a children's series of the same name based on the books by Betty MacDonald. In 1996, Stapleton appeared in the educational series Beakman's World as Beakman's mother and appeared on Everybody Loves Raymond playing Ray's imperious aunt.
The same year, she appeared in the Murphy Brown episode "All in the Family" playing Miles's grandmother, Nana Silverberg, played opposite John Travolta in Nora Ephron's hit film Michael as the eccentric rooming house owner, Pansy Milbank. Making a debut in the world of video games, Stapleton was the voice of Grandma Ollie on KinderActive, Turner Pictures, New Line Cinema's venture Grandma Ollie's Morphabet Soup; the game won a Teacher's Choice Award from Learning Magazine. On January 26, 1998, Stapleton guest-starred on the Jean Smart sitcom Style & Substance in the episode "A Recipe for Disaster", playing a former television chef who has an alcohol problem, she voiced John Rolfe's maid, Mrs. Jenkins, in Disney's 1998 direct-to-video animated film Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World, appeared in the film You've Got Mail as a close co-worker in whom Meg Ryan's character confides. From 1998, Stapleton took her "Eleanor" characterization to live theaters, now adapted as a one-woman show. In May 2000, Stapleton appeared in "Mother's Day", an episode of the TV series Touched by an Angel, portraying an angel named Emma who came to help Celine, taking care of her late best friend's mother.
Stapleton's final acting role was as Irene Silverman in the 2001 fact-based TV movie, Like Mother, Like Son: The Strange Story of Sante and Kenny Kimes, starring Mary
TaleSpin is an American animated television series based in the fictional city of Cape Suzette, that first aired in 1990 as a preview on Disney Channel and that year as part of The Disney Afternoon, with characters adapted from Disney's 1967 animated feature The Jungle Book, theatrically rereleased in the summer before this show premiered in the fall. The name of the show is a play on the rapid descent of an aircraft in a steep spiral; the two words in the show's name and spin, are a way to describe telling a story. The show is one of ten Disney Afternoon shows to use established Disney characters as the main characters, with the others being Darkwing Duck, DuckTales, Chip'n Dale: Rescue Rangers, Goof Troop, Quack Pack, Timon & Pumbaa and Jungle Cubs, it is one of the two animated television series based on The Jungle Book along with Jungle Cubs. The series was developed by writers Jymn Magon and Mark Zaslove, who were the supervising producers on the series as well as story editors. There were four production teams, each one headed by a producer/director: Robert Taylor, Larry Latham, Jamie Mitchell, Ed Ghertner.
Disney commissioned Magon and Zaslove with creating a thirty-minute animated program for them, with no requirements as to what the show should be about. Nearing the deadline for a pitch without having come up with anything, Magon hit upon the idea of making the story about Baloo, one of the central characters of Disney's The Jungle Book, theatrically rereleased; the pair decided to have Baloo work for an air delivery service, a concept featured on Disney's successful DuckTales. In order to add dramatic tension, they decided to maintain the impressionable son / bad father dynamic which had driven part of the plot of The Jungle Book, replacing the human Mowgli with the anthropomorphic bear Kit. Inspired by Cheers — one of the most popular programs on television — Magon and Zaslove created the character Rebecca, basing her on the character Rebecca Howe and giving her that character's arc of being an intelligent and headstrong yet inexperienced manager put in charge of a fledgling business. Deciding to make the show a period piece, the pair lastly decided to make one of the show's primary locations a neutral zone inspired by Rick Blaine's bar in Casablanca, where they inserted the character of Louie in place of Rick.
The decision to add Shere Khan to the cast was not made until in the show's development. Magon and Zaslove took inspiration from Hayao Miyazaki's 1989 manga Hikōtei Jidai, about a pigheaded man who flies a seaplane and fights air pirates. Two years after TaleSpin premiered, Miyazaki released an anime adaptation called Porco Rosso, which Zaslove felt took cues from TaleSpin. Famed Uncle Scrooge comic writer and artist Don Rosa wrote episode 6, "It Came from Beneath the Sea Duck", episode 9, "I Only Have Ice for You"; the series was animated by Walt Disney Animation Inc. Hanho Heung-Up Co. Ltd. Jade Animation, Tama Productions, Walt Disney Animation S. A. Sunwoo Entertainment, Wang Film Productions. After a preview of TaleSpin aired on The Disney Channel from May 5 to July 15, 1990, the series began its syndicated run in September of the same year; the original concept was embodied in the pilot episode and introductory television movie Plunder & Lightning, the sole nominee for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Animated Program in 1991.
After its premiere on September 7, 1990, Plunder & Lightning was re-edited into four half-hour episodes for reruns. The show was seen either on its own as a half-hour show, or as part of the two-hour syndicated programming block The Disney Afternoon. TaleSpin ended on its 65th episode which aired on August 8, 1991. However, reruns continued to be shown on The Disney Afternoon until September 1994. On October 2, 1995, TaleSpin began reruns on The Disney Channel as part of a two-hour programming block called "Block Party" which aired on weekdays in the late-afternoon/early-evening and which included Darkwing Duck, DuckTales, Chip'n Dale Rescue Rangers; the show was aired on Toon Disney, where it was first aired from April 1998 until January 2006 and from January 2007 until May 2008. Throughout its broadcast history, the series has been subjected to numerous edits. TaleSpin is set in a country called Usland; the city lies in a harbor protected by an enormous natural cliff wall. A single cleft in the wall is the harbor's only means of access.
The cleft is guarded by anti-aircraft artillery, preventing flying rabble-rousers or air pirates from entering the city. The characters in the world of TaleSpin are anthropomorphic animals; the time frame of the series is never addressed, but appears to be in the mid-to-late 1930s in the last stages of the Great Depression. In the show, the helicopter and jet engine are experimental devices, most architecture is reminiscent of the Art Deco style of that period. In one episode, Baloo comments that "The Great War ended 20 years ago," thus indicating that the series takes place in or around 1938. Radio is the primary mass medium, one episode briefly alludes to the characters having never heard of television; the series centers on the adventures of bush pilot Baloo the bear, whose air cargo freight business, "Baloo's Air Service", is poached by Rebecca Cunningham upon his default on delinquent bills with the bank and renamed "Higher for Hire". An orphan boy and former air pirate, the ambitious Grizzly Kit Cloudkicker, attaches to
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they support limited government, individual rights, democracy, gender equality, racial equality, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion. Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists. Liberalism sought to replace the norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, the divine right of kings and traditional conservatism with representative democracy and the rule of law. Liberals ended mercantilist policies, royal monopolies and other barriers to trade, instead promoting free markets. Philosopher John Locke is credited with founding liberalism as a distinct tradition, arguing that each man has a natural right to life and property, adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract.
While the British liberal tradition has emphasised expanding democracy, French liberalism has emphasised rejecting authoritarianism and is linked to nation-building. Leaders in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal tyranny. Liberalism started to spread especially after the French Revolution; the 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States. In Victorian Britain, it was used to critique the political establishment, appealing to science and reason on behalf of the people. During 19th and early 20th century, liberalism in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda as well as the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism; these changes, along with other factors, helped to create a sense of crisis within Islam, which continues to this day, leading to Islamic revivalism.
Before 1920, the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism faced major ideological challenges from new opponents: fascism and communism. However, during the 20th century liberal ideas spread further—especially in Western Europe—as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. Today, liberal parties continue to wield influence throughout the world. However, liberalism still has challenges to overcome in Asia; the fundamental elements of contemporary society have liberal roots. The early waves of liberalism popularised economic individualism while expanding constitutional government and parliamentary authority. Liberals sought and established a constitutional order that prized important individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech and freedom of association. Waves of modern liberal thought and struggle were influenced by the need to expand civil rights.
Liberals have advocated gender and racial equality in their drive to promote civil rights and a global civil rights movement in the 20th century achieved several objectives towards both goals. Continental European liberalism is divided between moderates and progressives, with the moderates tending to elitism and the progressives supporting the universalisation of fundamental institutions, such as universal suffrage, universal education and the expansion of property rights. Over time, the moderates displaced the progressives as the main guardians of continental European liberalism. Words such as liberal, liberty and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free". One of the first recorded instances of the word liberal occurs in 1375, when it was used to describe the liberal arts in the context of an education desirable for a free-born man; the word's early connection with the classical education of a medieval university soon gave way to a proliferation of different denotations and connotations.
Liberal could refer to "free in bestowing" as early as 1387, "made without stint" in 1433, "freely permitted" in 1530 and "free from restraint"—often as a pejorative remark—in the 16th and the 17th centuries. In 16th century England, liberal could have positive or negative attributes in referring to someone's generosity or indiscretion. In Much Ado About Nothing, William Shakespeare wrote of "a liberal villaine" who "hath confest his vile encounters". With the rise of the Enlightenment, the word acquired decisively more positive undertones, being defined as "free from narrow prejudice" in 1781 and "free from bigotry" in 1823. In 1815, the first use of the word "liberalism" appeared in English. In Spain, the liberales, the first group to use the liberal label in a political context, fought for decades for the implementation of the 1812 Constitution. From 1820 to 1823 during the Trienio Liberal, King Ferdinand VII was compelled by the liberales to swear to uphold the Constitution. By the middle of the 19th century, liberal was used as a politicised term for parties and movements worldwide.
Over time, the meaning of the word liberalism began to diverge in different parts of the world. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica: "In the United States, liberalism is associated with the welfare-state policies of the New Deal programme of the Democratic administration of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, where
All in the Family
All in the Family is an American sitcom TV-series, broadcast on the CBS television network for nine seasons, from January 12, 1971 to April 8, 1979. The following September, it was continued with the spin-off series Archie Bunker's Place, which picked up where All in the Family had ended and ran for four more seasons. All in the Family was produced by Bud Yorkin, it starred Carroll O'Connor, Jean Stapleton, Sally Struthers, Rob Reiner. The show revolves around the life of his family; the show broke ground in its depiction of issues considered unsuitable for a U. S. network television comedy, such as racism, infidelity, women's liberation, religion, abortion, breast cancer, the Vietnam War and impotence. Through depicting these controversial issues, the series became arguably one of television's most influential comedic programs, as it injected the sitcom format with more dramatic moments and realistic, topical conflicts; the show was an American version of an earlier British show, the BBC sitcom Till Death Us Do Part, with Archie Bunker modeled after his British counterpart, Alf Garnett.
All in the Family is regarded in the United States as one of the greatest television series of all time. Following a lackluster first season, the show soon became the most watched show in the United States during summer reruns and afterwards ranked number one in the yearly Nielsen ratings from 1971 to 1976, it became the first television series to reach the milestone of having topped the Nielsen ratings for five consecutive years. The episode "Sammy's Visit" was ranked number 13 on TV Guide's 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time. TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time ranked All in the Family as number four. Bravo named the show's protagonist, Archie Bunker, TV's greatest character of all time. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America ranked All in the Family the fourth-best written TV series and TV Guide ranked it as the fourth-greatest show of all time. All in the Family is about a typical working-class Caucasian family living in New York, its patriarch is Archie Bunker, an outspoken, narrow-minded man prejudiced against everyone, not like him or his idea of how people should be.
Archie's wife Edith is understanding, though somewhat naïve and uneducated. Their one child, Gloria, is kind and good-natured like her mother, but displays traces of her father's stubbornness and temper. Gloria is married to college student Michael Stivic – referred to as "Meathead" by Archie – whose values are influenced and shaped by the counterculture of the 1960s; the two couples represent the real-life clash of values between the Greatest Generation and Baby Boomers. For much of the series, the Stivics live in the Bunkers' home to save money, providing abundant opportunity for them to irritate each other; the show is set in the Astoria section of Queens, with the vast majority of scenes taking place in the Bunkers' home at 704 Hauser Street. Occasional scenes take place in other locations during seasons, such as Kelsey's Bar, a neighborhood tavern where Archie spends a good deal of time and purchases, the Stivics' home after Mike and Gloria move to the house next door; the house seen in the opening is at 89-70 Cooper Avenue near the junction of the Glendale, Forest Hills, Rego Park sections of Queens.
Supporting characters represent the demographics of the neighborhood the Jeffersons, a black family, who live in the house next door in the early seasons. Carroll O'Connor as Archie Bunker: Frequently called a "lovable bigot", Archie was an assertively prejudiced blue-collar worker. A World War II veteran, Archie longs for better times when people sharing his viewpoint were in charge, as evidenced by the nostalgic theme song "Those Were the Days". Despite his bigotry, he is portrayed as loving and decent, as well as a man, struggling to adapt to the changing world, rather than someone motivated by hateful racism or prejudice, his ignorance and stubbornness seem to cause his malapropism-filled arguments to self-destruct. He rejects uncomfortable truths by blowing a raspberry. Former child actor Mickey Rooney was Lear's first choice to play Archie, but Rooney declined the offer because of the strong potential for controversy, in Rooney's opinion, a poor chance for success. Scott Brady of the Western series Shotgun Slade declined the role of Archie Bunker, but appeared four times on the series in 1976 in the role of Joe Foley.
O'Connor appears in all but seven episodes of the series' run. Jean Stapleton as Edith Bunker, née Baines: Edith is Archie's kind-hearted wife. Archie tells her to "stifle" herself and calls her a "dingbat", although Edith defers to her husband's authority and endures his insults, on the rare occasions when Edith takes a stand, she proves to have a simple but profound wisdom. Despite their different personalities, they love each other deeply. Stapleton developed Edith's distinctive voice. Stapleton decided to leave at that time. During the first season of Archie Bunker's Place, Edith was seen in five of the first 14 episodes in guest appearances. After that point, Edith was written out as having suffered a stroke and died off-camera, leaving Archie to deal with the death of his beloved "dingbat". Stapleton appeared in all but four episodes of All in the Family. In the series' first episode, Edith is portrayed as being less of a ding