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Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella Salmonella bongori. S. enterica is the type species and is further divided into six subspecies that include over 2,600 serotypes. Salmonella was named after an American veterinary surgeon. Salmonella species are non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with cell diameters between about 0.7 and 1.5 μm, lengths from 2 to 5 μm, peritrichous flagella. They are chemotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions using organic sources, they are facultative anaerobes, capable of generating ATP with oxygen when it is available, or when oxygen is not available, using other electron acceptors or fermentation. S. enterica subspecies are found worldwide in the environment. S. bongori is restricted to cold-blooded animals reptiles. Salmonella species are intracellular pathogens. Nontyphoidal serotypes can be transferred from human-to-human.

They invade only the gastrointestinal tract and cause salmonellosis, the symptoms of which can be resolved without antibiotics. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, nontyphoidal Salmonella can be invasive and cause paratyphoid fever, which requires immediate treatment with antibiotics. Typhoidal serotypes can only be transferred from human-to-human, can cause food-borne infection, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever. Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella invading the bloodstream, or in addition spreads throughout the body, invades organs, secretes endotoxins; this can lead to life-threatening hypovolemic shock and septic shock, requires intensive care including antibiotics. The genus Salmonella is part of the family of Enterobacteriaceae, its taxonomy has the potential to confuse. The genus comprises two species, S. bongori and S. enterica, the latter of, divided into six subspecies: S. e. enterica, S. e. salamae, S. e. arizonae, S. e. diarizonae, S. e. houtenae, S. e. indica. The taxonomic group contains more than 2500 serotypes defined on the basis of the somatic O and flagellar H antigens.

The full name of a serotype is given for example, Salmonella enterica subsp.. Enterica can be abbreviated to Salmonella Typhimurium. Further differentiation of strains to assist clinical and epidemiological investigation may be achieved by antibiotic sensitivity testing and by other molecular biology techniques such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, whole genome sequencing. Salmonellae have been clinically categorized as invasive or noninvasive based on host preference and disease manifestations in humans. Salmonella was first visualized in 1880 by Karl Eberth in the Peyer's patches and spleens of typhoid patients. Four years Georg Theodor Gaffky was able to grow the pathogen in pure culture. A year after that, medical research scientist Theobald Smith discovered what would be known as Salmonella enterica. At the time, Smith was working as a research laboratory assistant in the Veterinary Division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the department was under the administration of a veterinary pathologist.

Salmonella Choleraesuis was thought to be the causative agent of hog cholera, so Salmon and Smith named it "Hog-cholerabacillus". The name Salmonella was not used until 1900, when Joseph Leon Lignières proposed that the pathogen discovered by Salmon's group be called Salmonella in his honor. Serotyping is done by mixing cells with antibodies for a particular antigen, it can give some idea about risk. A 2014 study showed that S. reading is common among young turkey samples, but it is not a significant contributor to human salmonellosis. Serotyping can assist identify the source of contamination by matchning serotypes in people with serotypes in the suspected source of infection. Appropriate prophylactic treatment can be identified from the known antibiotic resistance of the serotype. Most subspecies of Salmonella produce hydrogen sulfide, which can be detected by growing them on media containing ferrous sulfate, such as is used in the triple sugar iron test. Most isolates exist in a motile phase and a nonmotile phase.

Cultures that are nonmotile upon primary culture may be switched to the motile phase using a Craigie tube or ditch plate. RVS broth can be used to enrich for Salmonella species for detection in a clinical sample. Salmonella can be detected and subtyped using multiplex or real-time polymerase chain reactions from extracted Salmonella DNA. Mathematical models of Salmonella growth kinetics have been developed for chicken, pork and melons. Salmonella reproduce asexually with a cell division interval of 40 minutes. Salmonella species lead predominantly host-associated lifestyles, but the bacteria were found to be able to persist in a bathroom setting for weeks following contamination, are isolated from water sources, which act as bacterial reservoirs and may help to facilitate transmission between hosts. Salmonella is notorious for its ability to survive desiccation and can persist for years in dry environments and foods; the bacteria are not destroyed by freezing. They perish after being heated to 60 °C for 12 min.

To protect against Sal

Preston Strong

Preston Alton Strong is a convicted mass murderer. He was on death row in the state of Arizona. In 2012, Strong was convicted of murdering Doctor Satinder Gill in the city of Yuma, Arizona, a crime which took place in 2007. Strong was sentenced to life in prison for that crime. While serving this sentence, Strong was tried and convicted of the 2005 murder of a family of six, including four young children, in a crime that came to be known as the La Mesa Street Murders. Strong was sentenced to death in that case. Little is known about Strong's childhood and early life, aside from the fact that he was born in June 1966; as an adult, Strong worked at a Yuma area car dealership, but police have referred to him as a "career con man." Aside from the Gill and La Mesa Murders, Strong has several convictions in the state of Arizona for theft and forgery among other crimes. On June 24, 2005 Yuma Police Department officers were called to a house at 2037 La Mesa Street for a report that shots had been fired and someone was screaming for help.

When police arrived they discovered 35-year old Luis Rios in the back yard of the house, still alive but riddled with gunshot wounds. Rios died at Yuma Regional Medical Center from his injuries. Not knowing what the situation in the house was, but knowing Rios and his girlfriend had children in the home, police surrounded the house and treated the scene as a potential stand-off or hostage situation, but once police entered the house they discovered five more bodies. A now retired police officer, one of the first to enter the home told the local paper that the home was dark when they entered through a side door, but they came upon two bodies, lying on the floor; these were the bodies of 13 year old Andreas Crawford, 12 year old Enrique Bedoya who both died of asphyxiation. Police discovered 29 year old Adrienne Heredia, 9 year old Inez Newman who were both dead from asphyxiation and 6 year old Danny Heredia III, dead from multiple gunshot wounds. In the months and years following the crime, police received thousands of calls, anonymous tips and conducted over 1,300 interviews, but it was not until November 28, 2007 that police announced that Preston Strong was a suspect in the murders.

At the time of this announcement, Strong was in police custody for unrelated fraud charges. In the summer of 2014 Strong was charged with six counts of first degree murder in connection to the deaths. On April 25, 2017 Strong was found guilty on six first degree murder counts and sentenced to death. According to prosecutors in the case, Strong murdered the family because Rios, who at one time had been a close friend of Strong's, had stopped "giving Strong handouts."The case garnered national media attention, being covered publications such as People Magazine. Surviving members of Adrienne Heredia's family appeared on a 2006 episode of The Montel Williams Show, hoping psychic medium and author Sylvia Browne could provide them with answers to the case. On November 2, 2007, the body of 62 year old Dr. Satinder Gil was discovered inside his home with his head in a bath tub filled with water. He. had been suffocated, showed signs of blunt force trauma. $24,000 in cash, which a friend had delivered to Dr. Gil the day before the death, was missing from the home.

A friend of Dr. Gill's testified at trial that on the day before the body was found, the doctor had called her, offered to pay her $100 to go to his house and pick up and cash a $24,000 check; the friend said the doctor was acting strangely, that when she delivered the cash in the day the doctor did not open the door. Instead he only opened the door part-way, just enough to receive the money; the woman testified that she had agreed to meet the doctor that same night for dinner, but he never showed up. When a stranger called her from Dr. Gill's phone the next day, claiming to have found it by a canal, the friend panicked and called police to perform a welfare check; when no one answered the door at the doctor's home, firefighters broke in, finding the house filled with natural gas and lit candles. Surveillance video from a local WalMart store taken on November 1 showed Strong attempting to buy a $4,300 money order; the cashier told police she asked Strong for an identification and he claimed did not have any.

The cashier said that because Strong had no I. D. he opted to buy four smaller money orders, in amounts. Strong's girlfriend at the time testified in court that she had become suspicious of Strong when he gave her $9,500 in cash on the day the doctor's body was found; the girlfriend felt this was suspicious as she had been paying most of the couple's expenses and she did not know where he could have acquired so much cash overnight. The same day the doctor's body was found, Strong was taken into custody on unrelated fraud charges, on November 28, 2007 police announced Strong was a suspect in both the Gill and La Mesa cases. While awaiting trial for the Gill murder, Strong was sentenced to 3.5 years in jail on an unrelated theft charge. In 2012 Strong was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole in the murder of Dr. Santinder Gill, he received an additional 25.5 years in prison for armed robbery. Burglary, aggravated assault and attempted arson, all relating to the Gill case.

Two years while serving that sentence, he was re-arrested and tried for six counts of first degree murder in the La Mesa case. He was sentenced to death. Since the La Mesa case wrapped, Strong has continued to appeal both convictions, telling a reporter with The Arizona Republic he believed the police were guilty of criminal misconduct

Willy Bakken

Willy Bakken and pen name willy b was a Norwegian musician and popular culture writer. He hailed from Furnes. According to Bakken's own account, he became interested in rock music in 1963; as a guitarist he joined his first band in 1969. He released his first vinyl with the band Stangwolff in 1981, he played in the female band Crawdaddy Simone from 1983 The Willy B Review. In 1983 and 1984 he published two volumes of Norwegian rock history, titled Norge i rock, beat og blues, it has been called a "standard work". He became known for creating "rock family trees" about the fluctuating members of Norwegian rock bands. Bakken has been called a "rock archaeologist", a "rock oracle" and a living encyclopedia on popular culture, he contributed several articles to the biographical dictionary Norsk biografisk leksikon. He wrote for the comic magazines Fantomet, Agent X9 and James Bond-magasinet, the rock magazines Nye Takter from 1977 to 1983 and Rock Furore from 1988 to 1994 mostly for the daily newspaper Dagbladet and the musical magazine Backstage.

He issued fanzines such as Jello Submarine, ran his own publishing house Rockarkivet. In 1994 he released Vakre damer og blodig død about the history of the Norwegian pocket book, in 1996 he chronicled the publishing of Norwegian popular magazines in the book Drømmenes marked. Fredrik Wandrup had written that Bakken worked like a "professor of B culture". In 1999 he released the essay collection. 1, in 2002 he released the biography Sten Nilsen: Et liv med farger i svart/hvitt, about the book cover designer Sten Nilsen. When he died, he worked on a band biography about Motorpsycho, a chronicle on concerts in Oslo as well as an autobiography, he had been involved in the opening of the rock museum Rockheim. He was a teetotaler and vegetarian, he lived at Grorud, died from cancer in July 2010. After his death, a seminar on popular literature was held at the National Library of Norway. To the National Library, Bakken had donated much of his personal library; the collection spanned 2,500 rock albums, 5,000 books and magazines as well as 1,600 other items such as leaflets and postcards.

An exhibition of some of these items was held at the National Library between March and April 2011

Matsuo mine

Matsuo Mine, was an iron and sulphur mine located in the village of Matsuo, Iwate Prefecture in the Tohoku region of northern Japan. The area is now part of the city of Hachimantai; the mine closed in 1979 leaving a ghost town behind. The Hachimantai Plateau where the mine is located in Ōu Mountains of central Honshu is a volcanic area and the presence of sulphur deposits was well known from an early age. Iron pyrites were discovered by local villagers in 1882 in Matsuo village. In 1911, a Yokohama-based trading company, Matsuda-ya, began modern mine development at an altitude of 900 metres at the base of the peak of Higashi-Hachimantai. In 1934, the Japanese Government Railway Hanawa Line was extended to near the mine, Ōbuke Station was established. At one point, the Matsuo mine accounted for 30% of Japan’s sulphur production and 15% of its pyrite, boasting that it had the greatest production in Asia. In the late 1950s, it was the third largest mine in Japan in terms of tonnage of ore: 469,000 tons of iron ore and 200,000 tons of sulphur.

However, in the 1960s, the demand for sulphur was less, the production of low-cost sulphur as a byproduct of oil refining and the increasing availability of cheap imported iron ore caused the mine severe economic distress. In order to drastically reduce costs, the conversion to an open pit mine was considered and rejected. In 1969, the company went bankrupt. A new company was formed to concentrate on pyrite extraction; the Matsuo mine employed 1132 miners in 1920, 4145 miners in 1935, 8152 miners in 1940. During World War II, an unknown number of conscript Korean labourers were used; the peak number of employees was 13,594 in the year 1960. Due to the location of the mine, the company had to create a complete city for the workers and to provide numerous welfare facilities such as elementary and junior high schools and music halls. In an era before government public housing, the town had apartment blocks in reinforced concrete with flush toilets and central heating; the town was publicised as a "paradise on the cloud" to secure their families.

After the mine closed, all wooden buildings were incinerated to prevent the possibility of fire, leaving only the reinforced concrete structures. The original vegetation in the area was beech forest. However, due to smoke from sulphur smelting, the soil surrounding the mine has become acid, can no longer support most trees. Wastewater flowing from the mine is strongly acidic, includes large amounts of arsenic; as the flow is from 17 to 24 tons per minute, it affects the Kitakami River and Pacific coast of Iwate Prefecture. A waste water treatment plant remains in operation. Due to its misty climate the town has been described as the "real Silent Hill". Adam Dodd of Bloody Disgusting described 11 abandoned buildings in the mist as "eerie", ranking the location #6 in his article, "Eight Terrifying Places Horror Games Should Visit". Media related to Matsuo Mine at Wikimedia Commons

The Magic of Christmas (Samantha Jade album)

The Magic of Christmas is the fourth studio album by Australian singer Samantha Jade, was released through Sony Music Australia on 2 November 2018. It is her third album of covers following previous album Best of My Love. At the ARIA Music Awards of 2019, The Magic of Christmas was nominated for Best Adult Contemporary Album. In a statement regarding the album, Jade said: "Christmas is my favourite time of year, spending Christmas at home with my loved ones has always been a precious tradition for me. I hope my fans find the same joy sharing this music with their families and friends."Regarding the release of two albums in the same year, Jade described the achievement as "wild", stated that "I think it is rare to have two albums out in this day and age, so it is humbling and nice to be able to say, I have two records out". David from auspOp described the album as "a lovely traditional Christmas album" adding " but it isn't innovative or fresh". David said the album "...lands squarely in the middle of the road.

It lacks the grandeur and budget an artist of Samantha Jade's calibre deserves." Adding the album "feels undercooked."In 2019 the nominations for the ARIA Music Awards of 2019 were announced, with The Magic of Christmas included in the nominations for the Best Contemporary Album

Mean Dog Blues

Mean Dog Blues is a 1978 American drama film directed by Mel Stuart. It stars Kay Lenz. A friend driving under the influence injures a child. Paul Ramsey, a singer, offers to take the rap in court, only to be double-crossed and sentenced to five years in prison, he ends up with other inmates treated sadistically by a brutal prison official who makes them train his vicious attack dogs. Gregg Henry as Paul Ramsey Kay Lenz as Linda Ramsey Scatman Crothers as Mudcat Tina Louise as Donna Lacey George Kennedy as Captain Omar Kinsman Felton Perry as Jake Turner Gregory Sierra as Jesus Gonzales James Wainwright as Sergeant Wacker William Windom as Victor Lacey Mean Dog Blues on IMDb