The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
The Breguet 14 was a French biplane bomber and reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War. It was built in large numbers and production continued for many years after the end of the war. Apart from its widespread usage, the Breguet 14 is known for being the first mass-produced aircraft to use large amounts of metal, rather than wood, in its structure; this allowed the airframe to be lighter than a wooden airframe of the same strength, in turn making the aircraft fast and agile for its size. The Breguet 14's strong construction allowed it to sustain considerable damage, in addition to being easy to handle and possessing favourable performance; the type has been considered to have been one of the best aircraft of the war. The Breguet 14 was designed by aviation pioneer and aeronautical engineer Louis Breguet. By this point, Breguet's company had built up a reputation for producing several capable aircraft and advanced aerodynamic test apparatus, including the Breguet-Richet Gyroplane, which held the distinction of being the first direct-lift aircraft in the world.
Breguet had been a key innovator in the field of all-metal construction, which he had employed on a successful series of biplanes during the pre-war years. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 led to large numbers of Breguet-built aircraft being inducted into the military air services of several nations, including many of the nations in the Triple Entente. Breguet himself flew as a military pilot early on in the war, soon recognised there was demand for aircraft fitted with more powerful engines in order to carry worthwhile payloads over anything beyond short distances. For his next design, he opted to abandon his previously-favoured tractor configuration in favour of a pusher configuration to better satisfy the inflexible requirements issued by the French general staff, which sought an unobstructed frontal viewpoint to benefit the observer. During the summer of 1915, the French Ministry of War held a competition, seeking to determine the most suitable type of aircraft to carry a bombload of 300 lb at a speed of 120 km/h over a minimum distance of 600 km.
Following an extensive evaluation, Breguet's submission to the contest, SN-3. The SN-3 would be developed into the Breguet Type IV, V, VI, which would be built in large quantities for military use. In spite of the expressed preference of French officials for the pusher configuration, Breguet remained a proponent of tractor aircraft. During June 1916, he decided to initiate work on a clean-sheet design for a military-oriented two-seater aircraft, assigned the designation of Breguet AV Type XIV. According to aviation authors J. M Bruce and Jean Noel, the French Army's Section Technique de l' Aéronautique received early information on the design and recommended that Breguet power it using a 200 hp engine by Hispano-Suiza. However, Breguet found that the engine would be incapable of delivered the desired performance, instead insisting on the adoption of a 12-cylinder Renault-built engine, powered the previous Breguet Type V; the Breguet Type XIV was both a aesthetically pleasing design. A distinctive characteristic of the Type XIV was its rectangular frontal radiator, as well as the shape of is cowling and the negative-stagger of its mainplanes.
It possessed a sturdy undercarriage, along with two-part ailerons on the upper wing only. On the prototype, the lower wing featured flaps along the trailing edges, that emulated the manner of operation of "single-acting ailerons" in only "coming up" from their "down" position at rest, as the aircraft accelerated during takeoff; the airframe was composed of duralumin, invented in Germany by one Alfred Wilm a decade earlier. The wing's main spar were rectangular duralumin tubes complete with either oak or ash lining-pieces at the attachment points and sheet steel sheaths around the spars; the box-unit wooden ribs had fretted ash flanges. The surfaces of the tail unit used welded steel tube structures. During its design phase, French officials were wary of the Type XIV's structure, having made such an extensive use of the new metal duralumin that it was claimed to be the first aircraft in the world to combine heavy use of the metal with oxy-welded joints. On 21 November 1916, the first prototype conducted its maiden flight, flown by Breguet himself.
The first flight had confirmed Breguet's opinion that the Renault engine was more suitable for the type. T. Aé of this determination and of the comparably worse performance of their recommended engine. On 11 January 1917, Breguet informed the S. T. Aé that the prototype had reached the point where he considered it to be representative of production-standard aircraft; that month, it participated in further trials and, by 7 February 1917, the S. T. Aé had issued a report, declaring that the prototype had attained an air speed of 172 km/h at an altitude of 2,000 meters. During November 1916, the S. T. Aé. Had issued its requirements for four different new aircraft types. Breguet submitted his new design for two of those categories - reconnaissance aircraft, bomber. Following its evaluation du
Czechoslovak Air Force
The Czechoslovak Air Force or the Czechoslovak Army Air Force was the air force branch of the Czechoslovak Army formed in October 1918. The armed forces of Czechoslovakia ceased to exist on 31 December 1992. By the end of the year, all aircraft of the Czechoslovak Air Force were divided between the Czech Air Force and the Slovak Air Force. On 30 October 1918, the establishment of Aviation Corps marked the beginning of the Czechoslovak Air Force. Under the First Republic, the air force was an integral service of the Czechoslovak army. During peacetime, the army aviation was a subordinate agency of the Ministry of National Defence within its 3rd Department of Aviation under the command of divisional general Jaroslav Fajfr, it was anticipated that individual squadrons and flights would be attached to various field corps and divisions in case of war with Germany. After the liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1945, the air force was once again organized as an integral part of the army within following ministerial departments: 1945–1950: Air Force Command of the Main Staff 1950–1957: Air Force Command In mid-1950s, following the example of Soviet Air Defence Forces, the State Air Defence was formed alongside the Air Force.
1957–1966: Air Force and State Air Defence Command 1966–1969: Main Department of Air Force and State Air Defence 1969–1976: Department of Air Force and State Air Defence In 1976, the State Air Defence formed its own command. 1976–1990: Air Force Command – see Air Forces Command structure in 1989In May 1990, the State Air Defence, Air Defence of Ground Forces and Frontline Aviation were merged to form an integrated branch of the armed forces – the Czechoslovak Air Force and Air Defence. 1990–1991: Air Force and State Air Defence Command 1991–1992: Air Force and Air Defence Command When the First Czechoslovak Republic was founded in October 1918 it was landlocked and surrounded by hostile neighbours. Its government realised the need for an air force, founded one with the motto "Our sea is in the air". From Austria-Hungary the new republic inherited only three military airfields and a handful of Hansa-Brandenburg aircraft. In the First World War few Czechs or Slovaks had served in the Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops or naval air corps, or in exile in the French Air Force or Imperial Russian Air Service.
But Czechoslovakia inherited much of Austria-Hungary's manufacturing industry, developed an aircraft industry. At first it tended to build foreign designs of aero engines under license; as the industry developed it designed more engines of its own. Czechoslovak aircraft builders included Aero, Beneš-Mráz, Praga and Zlin. Engine makers included Walter and Škoda. Aero was in the Vysočany quarter of Prague, its mixed construction and all-metal aircraft were competitive in the early 1930s, but by 1938, only its MB.200 was not obsolete. Avia, a branch of the enormous Škoda Works heavy machinery and military industrial enterprise, was different. Founded in 1919 in a former sugar refinery in the eastern Prague suburbs of Letňany and Čakovice, Avia made entire aeroplanes. Many of its engines were licensed Hispano-Suiza designs, it build the standard Czechoslovak fighter aircraft of the late 1930s, the B-534, of which a total 568 were built. The B-534 and its derivatives were among the last biplane fighters in operational use.
The state-controlled Letov factory was in Letňany, where in the late 1930s it employed about 1,200 people. It built the Š-28 army co-operation biplane, of which more than 470 were made; the entire airframe was not bolted or riveted. The Letov factory was the only Czechoslovak plant. By the late 1930s Czechoslovakia's bomber aircraft were obsolescent and the speed with which Nazi Germany was becoming a threat did not give Czechoslovak manufacturers enough time to develop a new bomber of their own. So in 1937 the government bought Tupolev SB twin-engined medium bombers from the Soviet Union, plus a license to build more in Czechoslovakia as the Avia B-71. 60 Soviet-built SB bombers were delivered in April and May 1938. This was followed by Aero building 101 of the B-71 version; the training of air force recruits had developed from a course of several months in the 1920s to two years by the late 1930s. In 1936 Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring wrote "The Czechoslovak Air Force must be considered as one of the leading air forces as regards personnel, considering its limited financial possibilities, more than satisfactory with regard to material and equipment".
As the Sudeten crisis with Germany worsened, the Czechoslovak Army and Air Force mobilised on 21 May 1938 and mobilised on 23 September. The air force had more than 100 airfields and 1,300 aeroplanes, of which 650 were front-line aircraft, but on 29 September the United Kingdom and France agreed to let Germany annex the Sudetenland, which German forces did without Czechoslovak armed forces being allowed to resist. The Munich Agreement was followed on 2 November 1938 by the First Vienna Award, in which Germany
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, as did many aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s. Biplanes offer several advantages over conventional cantilever monoplane designs: they permit lighter wing structures, low wing loading and smaller span for a given wing area. However, interference between the airflow over each wing increases drag and biplanes need extensive bracing, which causes additional drag. Biplanes are distinguished from tandem wing arrangements, where the wings are placed forward and aft, instead of above and below; the term is occasionally used in biology, to describe the wings of some flying animals.
In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other. Each provides part of the lift, although they are not able to produce twice as much lift as a single wing of similar size and shape because the upper and the lower are working on nearly the same portion of the atmosphere and thus interfere with each other's behaviour. For example, in a wing of aspect ratio 6, a wing separation distance of one chord length, the biplane configuration will only produce about 20 percent more lift than a single wing of the same planform; the lower wing is attached to the fuselage, while the upper wing is raised above the fuselage with an arrangement of cabane struts, although other arrangements have been used. Either or both of the main wings can support ailerons, while flaps are more positioned on the lower wing. Bracing is nearly always added between the upper and lower wings, in the form of wires and/or slender interplane struts positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage; the primary advantage of the biplane over a monoplane is to combine great stiffness with light weight.
Stiffness requires structural depth and, where early monoplanes had to have this added with complicated extra bracing, the box kite or biplane has a deep structure and is therefore easier to make both light and strong. A braced monoplane wing must support itself while the two wings of a biplane help to stiffen each other; the biplane is therefore inherently stiffer than the monoplane. The structural forces in the spars of a biplane wing tend to be lower, so the wing can use less material to obtain the same overall strength and is therefore much lighter. A disadvantage of the biplane was the need for extra struts to space the wings apart, although the bracing required by early monoplanes reduced this disadvantage; the low power supplied by the engines available in the first years of aviation meant that aeroplanes could only fly slowly. This required an lower stalling speed, which in turn required a low wing loading, combining both large wing area with light weight. A biplane wing of a given span and chord has twice the area of a monoplane the same size and so can fly more or for a given flight speed can lift more weight.
Alternatively, a biplane wing of the same area as a monoplane has lower span and chord, reducing the structural forces and allowing it to be lighter. Biplanes suffer aerodynamic interference between the two planes; this means that a biplane does not in practice obtain twice the lift of the similarly-sized monoplane. The farther apart the wings are spaced the less the interference, but the spacing struts must be longer. Given the low speed and power of early aircraft, the drag penalty of the wires and struts and the mutual interference of airflows were minor and acceptable factors; as engine power rose after World War One, the thick-winged cantilever monoplane became practicable and, with its inherently lower drag and higher speed, from around 1918 it began to replace the biplane in most fields of aviation. The smaller biplane wing allows greater maneuverability. During World War One, this further enhanced the dominance of the biplane and, despite the need for speed, military aircraft were among the last to abandon the biplane form.
Specialist sports aerobatic biplanes are still made. Biplanes were designed with the wings positioned directly one above the other. Moving the upper wing forward relative to the lower one is called positive stagger or, more simply stagger, it can help increase lift and reduce drag by reducing the aerodynamic interference effects between the two wings, makes access to the cockpit easier. Many biplanes have staggered wings. Common examples from the 1930s include the de Havilland Tiger Moth, Bücker Bü 131 Jungmann and Travel Air 2000, it is possible to place the lower wing's leading edge ahead of the upper wing, giving negative stagger. This is done in a given design for practical engineering reasons. Examples of negative stagger include Breguet 14 and Beechcraft Staggerwing. However, positive stagger is more common; the space enclosed by a set of interplane struts is called a bay, hence a biplane or triplane with one set of such struts connecting the wings on each side of the aircraft is a single-bay biplane.
This provided sufficient strength for smaller aircraft such as the First World War-era Fokker D. VII fighter and the Second World War de Havilland Tiger Moth basic trainer; the larger two-seat Curtiss JN-4 Jenny is a two bay biplane, the extra bay being necessary as overlong bays are prone to flexing and can fail. The SPAD S. XIII fighter, while appearing to be a two bay bip
American Expeditionary Forces
The American Expeditionary Forces was a formation of the United States Army on the Western Front of World War I. The AEF was established on July 1917, in France under the command of Gen. John J. Pershing, it fought alongside French Army, British Army, Canadian Army, Australian Army units against the German Empire. A minority of the AEF troops fought alongside Italian Army units in that same year against the Austro-Hungarian Army; the AEF helped the French Army on the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive in the summer of 1918, fought its major actions in the Battle of Saint-Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in the latter part of 1918. President Woodrow Wilson planned to give command of the AEF to Gen. Frederick Funston, but after Funston's sudden death, Wilson appointed Major General John J. Pershing in May 1917, Pershing remained in command for the entire war. Pershing insisted; as a result, few troops arrived before January 1918. In addition, Pershing insisted that the American force would not be used to fill gaps in the French and British armies, he resisted European efforts to have U.
S. troops deployed as individual replacements in decimated Allied units. This approach was not always well received by the western Allied leaders who distrusted the potential of an army lacking experience in large-scale warfare. In addition, the British Empire tried to bargain with its spare shipping to make the United States put its soldiers into British ranks. By June 1917, only 14,000 American soldiers had arrived in France, the AEF had only a minor participation at the front through late October 1917, but by May 1918 over one million American troops were stationed in France, though only half of them made it to the front lines. Since the transport ships needed to bring American troops to Europe were scarce at the beginning, the U. S. Army pressed into service passenger liners, seized German ships, borrowed Allied ships to transport American soldiers from ports in New York City, New Jersey, Virginia; the mobilization effort taxed the American military to the limit and required new organizational strategies and command structures to transport great numbers of troops and supplies and efficiently.
The French harbors of Bordeaux, La Pallice, Saint Nazaire, Brest became the entry points into the French railway system that brought the American troops and their supplies to the Western Front. American engineers in France built 82 new ship berths, nearly 1,000 miles of additional standard-gauge tracks, over 100,000 miles of telephone and telegraph lines; the first American troops, who were called "Doughboys", landed in Europe in June 1917. However the AEF did not participate at the front until October 21, 1917, when the 1st Division fired the first American shell of the war toward German lines, although they participated only on a small scale. A group of regular soldiers and the first American division to arrive in France, entered the trenches near Nancy, France, in Lorraine; the AEF used British equipment. Appreciated were the French canon de 75 modèle 1897, the canon de 155 C modèle 1917 Schneider, the canon de 155mm GPF. American aviation units received the SPAD XIII and Nieuport 28 fighters, the U.
S. Army tank corps used French Renault FT light tanks. Pershing established facilities in France to train new arrivals with their new weapons. By the end of 1917, four divisions were deployed in a large training area near Verdun: the 1st Division, a regular army formation. S. Marines; the fifth division, the 41st Division, was converted into a depot division near Tours. Supporting the two million soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean was a massive logistical enterprise, yet the U. S. Army's logistical skills had atrophied during the decades following the Civil War. In order to be successful, the Americans needed to create a coherent support structure with little institutional knowledge. After a rough start, the AEF developed support network appropriate for the huge size of the American force, it rested upon the Services of Supply in the rear areas, with ports, depots, maintenance facilities, clothing repair shops, replacement depots, ice plants, a wide variety of other activities. The Services of Supply initiated support techniques that would last well into the Cold War including forward maintenance, field cooking, graves registration, host nation support, motor transport, morale services.
The work of the logisticians enabled the success of the AEF and contributed to the emergence of the American Army as a modern fighting force. African Americans were made up 13 percent of the draftees. By the end of the war, over 350,000 African-Americans had served in AEF units on the Western Front. However, they were assigned to segregated units commanded by white officers. One fifth of the black soldiers sent to France saw combat, compared to two-thirds of the whites, they were three percent of AEF combat forces, under two percent of battlefield fatalities. "The mass of the colored drafted men cannot be used for combatant troops", said a General Staff report in 1918, it recommended that "these colored drafted men be organized in reserve labor battalions." They handled unskilled labor tasks as stevedores in the Atlantic ports and common laborers at the camps and in the Services of the Rear in Fr
An aircraft engine is a component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power. Aircraft engines are always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines, except for small multicopter UAVs which are always electric aircraft. In commercial aviation, the major players in the manufacturing of turbofan engines are Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, CFM International. A major entrant into the market launched in 2016 when Aeroengine Corporation of China was formed by organizing smaller companies engaged in designing and manufacturing aircraft engines into a new state owned behemoth of 96,000 employees. In general aviation, the dominant manufacturer of turboprop engines has been Whitney. General Electric announced in 2015 entrance into the market. 1848: John Stringfellow made a steam engine for a 10-foot wingspan model aircraft which achieved the first powered flight, albeit with negligible payload. 1903: Charlie Taylor built an inline aeroengine for the Wright Flyer.
1903: Manly-Balzer engine sets standards for radial engines. 1906: Léon Levavasseur produces a successful water-cooled V8 engine for aircraft use. 1908: René Lorin patents a design for the ramjet engine. 1908: Louis Seguin designed the Gnome Omega, the world's first rotary engine to be produced in quantity. In 1909 a Gnome powered Farman III aircraft won the prize for the greatest non-stop distance flown at the Reims Grande Semaine d'Aviation setting a world record for endurance of 180 kilometres. 1910: Coandă-1910, an unsuccessful ducted fan aircraft exhibited at Paris Aero Salon, powered by a piston engine. The aircraft never flew, but a patent was filed for routing exhaust gases into the duct to augment thrust. 1914: Auguste Rateau suggests using exhaust-powered compressor – a turbocharger – to improve high-altitude performance. VI heavy bomber becomes the earliest known supercharger-equipped aircraft to fly, with a Mercedes D. II straight-six engine in the central fuselage driving a Brown-Boveri mechanical supercharger for the R.30/16's four Mercedes D.
IVa engines. 1918: Sanford Alexander Moss picks up Rateau's idea and creates the first successful turbocharger 1926: Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IV, the first series-produced supercharged engine for aircraft use. 1930: Frank Whittle submitted his first patent for a turbojet engine. June 1939: Heinkel He 176 is the first successful aircraft to fly powered by a liquid-fueled rocket engine. August 1939: Heinkel HeS 3 turbojet propels the pioneering German Heinkel He 178 aircraft. 1940: Jendrassik Cs-1, the world's first run of a turboprop engine. It is not put into service. 1943 Daimler-Benz DB 670, first turbofan runs 1944: Messerschmitt Me 163B Komet, the world's first rocket-propelled combat aircraft deployed. 1945: First turboprop-powered aircraft flies, a modified Gloster Meteor with two Rolls-Royce Trent engines. 1947: Bell X-1 rocket-propelled aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. 1948: 100 shp 782, the first turboshaft engine to be applied to aircraft use. 1949: Leduc 010, the world's first ramjet-powered aircraft flight.
1950: Rolls-Royce Conway, the world's first production turbofan, enters service. 1968: General Electric TF39 high bypass turbofan enters service delivering greater thrust and much better efficiency. 2002: HyShot scramjet flew in dive. 2004: NASA X-43, the first scramjet to maintain altitude. In this entry, for clarity, the term "inline engine" refers only to engines with a single row of cylinders, as used in automotive language, but in aviation terms, the phrase "inline engine" covers V-type and opposed engines, is not limited to engines with a single row of cylinders; this is to differentiate them from radial engines. A straight engine has an number of cylinders, but there are instances of three- and five-cylinder engines; the greatest advantage of an inline engine is that it allows the aircraft to be designed with a low frontal area to minimize drag. If the engine crankshaft is located above the cylinders, it is called an inverted inline engine: this allows the propeller to be mounted high up to increase ground clearance, enabling shorter landing gear.
The disadvantages of an inline engine include a poor power-to-weight ratio, because the crankcase and crankshaft are long and thus heavy. An in-line engine may be either air-cooled or liquid-cooled, but liquid-cooling is more common because it is difficult to get enough air-flow to cool the rear cylinders directly. Inline engines were common in early aircraft. However, the inherent disadvantages of the design soon became apparent, the inline design was abandoned, becoming a rarity in modern aviation. For other configurations of aviation inline engine, such as U-engines, H-engines, etc.. See Inline engine. Cylinders in this engine are arranged in two in-line banks tilted 60–90 degrees apart from each other and driving a common crankshaft; the vast majority of V engines are water-cooled. The V design provides a higher power-to-weight ratio than an inline engine, while still providing a small frontal area; the most famous example of this design is the legendary Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, a 27-litre 60° V12 engine used in, among others, the Spitfires that played a major role in the Battle of Britain.
A horizontally opposed engine called a flat or boxer engine, ha