Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance. Household uses for soaps include washing and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, precursors to catalysts. Since they are salts of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula nMn+; the major classification of soaps is determined by the identity of Mn+. When M is Na or K, the soaps are called toilet soaps, used for handwashing. Many metal dications give metallic soap; when M is Li, the result is lithium soap, used in high-performance greases. Soaps are key components of most lubricating thickeners. Greases are emulsions of calcium soap or lithium soap and mineral oil. Many other metallic soaps are useful, including those of aluminium and mixtures thereof; such soaps are used as thickeners to increase the viscosity of oils.
In ancient times, lubricating greases were made by the addition of lime to olive oil. Metal soaps are included in modern artists' oil paints formulations as a rheology modifier. Most heavy metal soaps are prepared by neutralization of purified fatty acids: 2 RCO2H + CaO → 2Ca + H2O In a domestic setting, "soap" refers to what is technically called a toilet soap, used for household and personal cleaning; when used for cleaning, soap solubilizes particles and grime, which can be separated from the article being cleaned. The insoluble oil/fat molecules become associated inside micelles, tiny spheres formed from soap molecules with polar hydrophilic groups on the outside and encasing a lipophilic pocket, which shields the oil/fat molecules from the water making it soluble. Anything, soluble will be washed away with the water; the production of toilet soaps entails saponification of fats. Triglycerides are fats. An alkaline solution induces saponification whereby the triglyceride fats first hydrolyze into salts of fatty acids.
Glycerol is liberated. The glycerin can remain in the soap product as a softening agent, although it is sometimes separated; the type of alkali metal used determines the kind of soap product. Sodium soaps, prepared from sodium hydroxide, are firm, whereas potassium soaps, derived from potassium hydroxide, are softer or liquid. Potassium hydroxide was extracted from the ashes of bracken or other plants. Lithium soaps tend to be hard; these are used in greases. For making toilet soaps, triglycerides are derived from coconut, olive, or palm oils, as well as tallow. Triglyceride is the chemical name for the triesters of fatty acids and glycerin. Tallow, i.e. rendered beef fat, is the most available triglyceride from animals. Each species offers quite different fatty acid content, resulting in soaps of distinct feel; the seed oils give softer but milder soaps. Soap made from pure olive oil, sometimes called Castile soap or Marseille soap, is reputed for its particular mildness; the term "Castile" is sometimes applied to soaps from a mixture of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil.
The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in ancient Babylon. A formula for soap consisting of water and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC; the Ebers papyrus indicates the ancient Egyptians bathed and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents mention. In the reign of Nabonidus, a recipe for soap consisted of uhulu and sesame "for washing the stones for the servant girls"; the word sapo, Latin for soap was borrowed from an early Germanic language and is cognate with Latin sebum, "tallow". It first appears in Pliny the Elder's account. Historia Naturalis, which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair. Aretaeus of Cappadocia, writing in the first century AD, observes among "Celts, which are men called Gauls, those alkaline substances that are made into balls called soap".
The Romans' preferred method of cleaning the body was to massage oil into the skin and scrape away both the oil and any dirt with a strigil. The Gauls used soap made from animal fat. Zosimos of Panopolis, circa 300 AD, describes soapmaking. Galen describes soap-making using lye and prescribes washing to carry away impurities from the body and clothes; the use of soap for personal cleanliness became common in the 2nd century A. D. According to Galen, the best soaps were Germanic, soaps from Gaul were second best. A detergent similar to soap was manufactured in ancient China from the seeds of Gleditsia sinensis. Another traditional detergent is a mixture of pig pancreas and plant ash called "Zhu yi zi". True soap, made of animal fat, did not appear in China until the modern era. Soap-like detergents were not as popular as creams. Hard toilet soap with a pleasant smell was produced in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, when soap-making became an established industry. Recipes for soap-making are described by Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, who gave a recipe for producing glycerine from
Borscht is a sour soup common in Eastern Europe, with origins amongst the Eastern Slavs, popular across modern-day Russia and Belarus. The variety most associated with the name in English is of Ukrainian origin, includes beetroots as one of the main ingredients, which gives the dish its distinctive red color, it shares the name, with a wide selection of sour-tasting soups without beetroots, such as sorrel-based green borscht, rye-based white borscht and cabbage borscht. Borscht derives from an ancient soup cooked from pickled stems and umbels of common hogweed, a herbaceous plant growing in damp meadows, which lent the dish its Slavic name. With time, it evolved into a diverse array of tart soups, among which the beet-based red borscht has become the most popular, it is made by combining meat or bone stock with sautéed vegetables, which – as well as beetroots – include cabbage, onions and tomatoes. Depending on the recipe, borscht may be purely vegetarian, it is served with smetana or sour cream, hard-boiled eggs or potatoes, but there exists an ample choice of more involved garnishes and side dishes, such as uszka or pampushky, that can be served with the soup.
Its popularity has spread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Russian Empire, – by way of migration – to other continents. In North America, borscht is linked with either Jews or Mennonites, the groups who first brought it there from Europe. Several ethnic groups claim borscht, in its various local guises, as their own national dish consumed as part of ritual meals within Eastern Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Roman Catholic, Jewish religious traditions; the English word borscht spelled borsch, borsht, or bortsch, comes from Yiddish באָרשט. The latter derives from the word борщ, common to East Slavic languages, such as Ukrainian or Russian. Together with cognates in other Slavic languages, it comes from Proto-Slavic *bŭrščǐ'hogweed' and from Proto-Indo-European *bhr̥sti- < *bhares-/bhores-'point, stubble'. Common hogweed was the soup's principal ingredient before it was replaced with other vegetables, notably beetroot; the beetroot borscht was invented in what is now Ukraine and first popularized in North America by Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe.
Typical Ukrainian borscht is traditionally made from meat or bone stock, sautéed vegetables, beet sour. Depending on the recipe, some of these components may be substituted for; the stock is made by boiling meat, bones, or both. Beef, pork or a combination of both are most used, with brisket, ribs and chuck considered to give the most flavorful results if cooked on a high flame. Marrow bones are considered best for the bone stock. Meat stock is cooked for about two hours, whereas bone stock takes four to six hours to prepare. Meat and bones are removed afterwards and the meat is only added back into the soup about 10–15 minutes before the borscht is done; some recipes call for smoked meats, resulting in a distinctively smoky borscht, while others use poultry or mutton stock. Fasting varieties are made with fish stock to avoid the use of meat, while purely vegetarian recipes substitute forest mushroom broth for the stock; the vegetables most added to borscht are beetroots, white cabbage, parsley root, potatoes and tomatoes.
Some recipes may call for beans, tart apples, celeriac, zucchini or bell peppers. Parsnip may be used as a substitute for parsley root, tomato paste is used as well as or instead of fresh tomatoes; the traditional technique of preparing the soup is to precook the vegetables – by sautéing, boiling or baking – separately from the meat and only to combine them with the stock. This distinctive feature of borscht derives from the practice of slow cooking in the Russian oven, wherein the differences in cooking times of individual ingredients had to be taken into account in order to ensure that all components reach doneness at the same time; the importance of this method is reflected in the Russian language, where a variant in which all vegetables are added raw directly into the stock is referred to by the diminutive form borshchok rather than borshch. Vegetables are julienned, except for potatoes and zucchini, which are diced; the beetroots may be baked before being sprinkled with vinegar or lemon juice to preserve the color and braised separately from other vegetables.
Onions, parsley root and other root vegetables are sautéed and mixed with tomatoes or tomato paste. Dry beans are boiled separately. Potatoes and cabbage are boiled in the stock for about 15 minutes before the precooked vegetables are added; the dominant tastes in borscht are sour. This combination is traditionally obtained by adding beet sour, it is made by covering sliced beetroots with lukewarm preboiled water and allowing bacteria to ferment some of the sugars present in beetroots into dextran, acetic acid and lactic acid. Stale rye bread is added to hasten the process, but omitted in Jewish recipes, as chametz would make the sour unfit for Passover meals. Sugar and lemon juice may be added to balance the flavor. After about 2–5 days (or 2–3 weeks without the b
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central and Southeastern Europe all the way north and eastwards to Northeast Europe, Northern Asia, Central Asia, as well as in Western Europe and Western Asia. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit the majority of Central and Southeastern Europe. Today, there is a large Slavic diaspora throughout North America in the United States and Canada as a result of immigration. Slavs are the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe. Present-day Slavic people are classified into East Slavs, West Slavs, South Slavs. Slavs can be further grouped by religion. Orthodox Christianity is practiced by the majority of Slavs; the Orthodox Slavs include the Belarusians, Macedonians, Russians, Rusyns and Ukrainians and are defined by Orthodox customs and Cyrillic script, as well as their cultural connection to the Byzantine Empire.
Their second most common religion is Roman Catholicism. The Catholic Slavs include Croats, Kashubs, Poles, Slovaks and Sorbs and are defined by their Latinate influence and heritage and connection to Western Europe. There are substantial Protestant and Lutheran minorities among the West Slavs, such as the historical Bohemian Hussites; the second-largest religion among the Slavs after Christianity is Islam. Muslim Slavs include the Bosniaks, Gorani, Torbeši, other Muslims of the former Yugoslavia. Modern Slavic nations and ethnic groups are diverse both genetically and culturally, relations between them – within the individual groups – range from ethnic solidarity to mutual hostility; the oldest mention of the Slavic ethnonym is the 6th century AD Procopius, writing in Byzantine Greek, using various forms such as Sklaboi, Sklabēnoi, Sthlabenoi, or Sklabinoi, while his contemporary Jordanes refers to the Sclaveni in Latin. The oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic, dating from the 9th century, attest the autonym as Slověne.
These forms point back to a Slavic autonym which can be reconstructed in Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ, plural Slověne. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is considered a derivation from slovo denoting "people who speak", i. e. people who understand each other, in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud. Ancient Roman sources refer to the Early Slavic peoples as Veneti, who dwelled in a region of central Europe east of the Germanic tribe of Suebi, west of the Iranian Sarmatians in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD; the Slavs under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni first appear in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Byzantine historiographers under emperor Justinian I, such as Procopius of Caesarea and Theophylact Simocatta describe tribes of these names emerging from the area of the Carpathian Mountains, the lower Danube and the Black Sea, invading the Danubian provinces of the Eastern Empire.
Jordanes, in his work Getica, describes the Veneti as a "populous nation" whose dwellings begin at the sources of the Vistula and occupy "a great expanse of land". He describes the Veneti as the ancestors of Antes and Slaveni, two early Slavic tribes, who appeared on the Byzantine frontier in the early 6th century. Procopius wrote in 545 that "the Sclaveni and the Antae had a single name in the remote past; the name Sporoi derives from Greek σπείρω. He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, believe in one god, "the maker of lightning", to whom they made sacrifice, they lived in scattered housing, changed settlement. In war, they were foot soldiers with small shields and battle axes clothed, some entering battle naked with only genitals covered, their language is "barbarous", the two tribes are alike in appearance, being tall and robust, "while their bodies and hair are neither fair or blond, nor indeed do they incline to the dark type, but they are all ruddy in color. And they live a hard life, giving no heed to bodily comforts..."
Jordanes described the Sclaveni having forests for their cities. Another 6th-century source refers to them living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers and marshes. Menander Protector mentions a Daurentius who slew an Avar envoy of Khagan Bayan I for asking the Slavs to accept the suzerainty of the Avars. According to eastern homeland theory, prior to becoming known to the Roman world, Slavic-speaking tribes were part of the many multi-ethnic confederacies
Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain. It can be light or dark in color, depending on the type of flour used and the addition of coloring agents, is denser than bread made from wheat flour, it is higher in fiber than white bread and is darker in color and stronger in flavor. Dark rye bread was considered a staple through the Middle Ages. Many different types of rye grain have come from north-central and western and eastern Europe such as Scandinavia, Baltic countries, Ukraine, the Netherlands, France, Czech Republic, Austria and is a specialty in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Around 500 AD, the Saxons and Danes settled in Britain and introduced rye, well suited to its temperate climates. While rye and wheat are genetically similar enough to interbreed, their biochemistries differ enough that they affect the breadmaking process; the key issue is the enzyme which breaks starch down into sugar. While wheat amylases are not heat-stable and thus do not affect stronger wheat gluten that gives wheat bread its structure, rye amylase remains active at higher temperatures.
Since rye gluten is not strong, rye dough structure is based on complex polysaccharides, including rye starch and pentosans. As a result, amylases in rye flour can break down dough structure. There are two common solutions: The traditional manner, developed where obtaining wheat was traditionally impractical because of marginal growing conditions or supply difficulties, uses dough acidification to impede the function of rye amylases. Lowering dough pH, compromises the use of acid-intolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based "baker's yeast". Instead, addition of acidic Lactobacillus "sourdough" cultures lowers bread pH, facilitating growth of an acid-tolerant yeast strain, helping gelatinize starches in the dough matrix; the byproduct of this approach is lighter breads. In areas where high-gluten hard wheat is available, the need for a complex polyculture of bacteria and yeast can be reduced or removed by adding a large proportion of hard wheat flour to the rye flour, its added gluten compensates for amylase activity on the starch in the dough, allowing the bread to retain its structure as it bakes.
The "deli rye" tradition in the United States is based upon this mixing of grains. Use of high-gluten wheat flour makes possible multigrain breads, such as the "rye and Indian" bread of the American colonies, which combined rye and wheat with cornmeal in one loaf. Rye bread contains ferulic acid dehydrodimers. Pure rye bread contains only rye flour, without any wheat. German-style pumpernickel, a dark and close-textured loaf, is made from crushed or ground whole rye grains without wheat flour, baked for long periods at a low temperature in a covered tin. Rye and wheat flours are used to produce a rye bread with a lighter texture and flavor than pumpernickel. "Light" or "dark" rye flour can be used to make rye bread. Caramel or molasses for coloring and caraway seeds are added to rye bread. In the United States, breads labeled as "rye" nearly always contain caraway unless explicitly labeled as "unseeded." In Canada, breads labeled as "rye" have no seeds, whereas breads labeled as "kimmel" are rye with caraway seeds.
Some unique rye bread recipes include ground spices such as fennel, aniseed, cardamom, or citrus peel. In addition to caramel and molasses, ingredients such as coffee, cocoa, or toasted bread crumbs are sometimes used for both color and flavor in dark breads like pumpernickels; the addition of caraway seeds to rye bread is to counter the bloating that can be caused by the high fiber content of rye. Caraway has well-known anti-flatulence properties. A simple, all-rye bread can be made using a sourdough rye meal; such bread is known as "black bread" from their darker color than wheat breads. The German Vollkornbrot is something of an archetypical example, containing both rye meal and cracked whole rye grains, it is used both as an appetizer substrate for such things as smoked fish and caviar and as a sandwich bread. A similar, but darker, German-style pumpernickel, has an darker color derived from toasted leftover bread and other agents. Due to the density of the bread, the yeast in the starter is used at least as much for the fermentation character in the bread itself as it is for leavening.
Danish rugbrød, another archetypical example, is made with sour dough, with either straight rye flour or mixed with whole and/or cracked rye kernels. Any breads containing wheat flour are not considered white bread. A variety of seeds, such as pumpkin and caraway, may be added for taste. Rugbrød is a staple lunch food eaten topped with cold or warm fish and meats, cheese or any other cold cut; as stated above, all-rye breads may have long shelf life, measured in months rather than days, are popular as storage rations for long boat trips and outdoors expeditions. Such breads are sliced thin because of their density
Lard is fat from a pig, in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is a semi-soft white fat derived from fatty parts of the pig, with a high saturated fatty acid content and no trans fat. Rendering is by boiling, or dry heat; the culinary qualities of lard vary somewhat depending on the processing method. At retail, refined lard is sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Many cuisines use lard as a spread similar to butter, it is an ingredient in various savoury dishes such as sausages, pâtés, fillings, it is favored for the preparation of pastry because of the "flakiness" it provides. In western cuisine, it has ceded its popularity to vegetable oils, but many cooks and bakers still favor it over other fats for certain uses. Lard has always been an important cooking and baking staple in cultures where pork is an important dietary item, with pig fat being as valuable a product as pork. During the 19th century, lard was used to butter in North America and many European nations. Lard remained about as popular as butter in the early 20th century and was used as a substitute for butter during World War II.
As a available by-product of modern pork production, lard had been cheaper than most vegetable oils, it was common in many people's diet until the industrial revolution made vegetable oils more common and more affordable. Vegetable shortenings were developed in the early 1900s, which made it possible to use vegetable-based fats in baking and in other uses where solid fats were called for. Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle, though fictional, portrayed men falling into rendering vats and being sold as lard, it generated negative publicity. By the late 20th century lard began to be considered less healthy than vegetable oils because of its high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. However, despite its reputation, lard has less saturated fat, more unsaturated fat and less cholesterol than an equal amount of butter by weight. Unhydrogenated lard contains no transfats, it has been regarded as a "poverty food". Many restaurants in the western nations have eliminated the use of lard in their kitchens because of the health-related dietary restrictions of many of their customers, religious pork-based dietary restrictions such as Kashrut and Halal mean that some bakers will substitute beef tallow for lard.
In the 1990s and early 2000s, however and bakers rediscovered lard's unique culinary values, leading to a partial rehabilitation of this fat among "foodies". Negative publicity about the transfat content of the hydrogenated vegetable oils in vegetable shortening has driven this trend. Chef and food writer Rick Bayless is a prominent proponent of the virtues of lard for certain types of cooking, it is again becoming popular in the United Kingdom among aficionados of traditional British cuisine. This led to a "lard crisis" in late 2004. Lard can be obtained from any part of the pig; the highest grade of lard, known as leaf lard, is obtained from the "flare" visceral fat deposit surrounding the kidneys and inside the loin. Leaf lard has little pork flavor, making it ideal for use in baked goods, where it is valued for its ability to produce flaky, moist pie crusts; the next-highest grade is obtained from fatback, the hard subcutaneous fat between the pig's back skin and muscle. The lowest grade is obtained from the soft caul fat surrounding digestive organs, such as small intestines, though caul fat is used directly as a wrapping for roasting lean meats or in the manufacture of pâtés.
Lard may be rendered by two processes: dry. In wet rendering, pig fat is boiled in water or steamed at a high temperature and the lard, insoluble in water, is skimmed from the surface of the mixture or separated in an industrial centrifuge. In dry rendering, the fat is exposed to high heat in a oven without water; the two processes yield somewhat differing products. Wet-rendered lard has a more neutral flavor, a lighter color, a high smoke point. Dry-rendered lard has a caramelized flavor and has a lower smoke point. Industrially-produced lard, including much of the lard sold in supermarkets, is rendered from a mixture of high and low quality fat from throughout the pig. Lard is hydrogenated to improve its stability at room temperature. Hydrogenated lard sold to consumers contains fewer than 0.5 g of transfats per 13 g serving. Lard is often treated with bleaching and deodorizing agents and antioxidants such as BHT; these treatments prevent spoilage. Consumers wanting a higher-quality source of lard seek out artisanal producers, or render it themselves from leaf lard or fatback.
A by-product of dry-rendering lard is deep-fried meat and membrane tissue known as cracklings. Lard consists of fats, which in the language of chemistry are known as triglycerides; these triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids and the distribution of fatty acids varies from oil to oil. In general lard is similar to tallow in its composition. Pigs that have been fed different diets will have lard with a different fatty acid content and iodine value. Peanut-fed hogs or the acorn-fed pigs raised for Jamón ibérico therefore produce a somewhat different kind of lard compared to pigs raised in North American farms that are fed corn. Lard is one of the few edible oils with a high smoke point, attributable to its high saturated fatty acids content. Pure lard is useful for cooking since it
Garlic is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, leek and Chinese onion. Garlic is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran, has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use, it was known to ancient Egyptians, has been used both as a food flavoring and as a traditional medicine. In Ancient Rome, it was "much used for food among the poor". China produces some 80% of the world supply of garlic; the word garlic derives from Old English, meaning gar and leek, as a'spear-shaped leek'. Allium sativum is a bulbous plant, its hardiness is USDA Zone 8. It produces hermaphrodite flowers, it is pollinated by bees, butterflies and other insects. Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas naturalized; the "wild garlic", "crow garlic", "field garlic" of Britain are members of the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale, Allium oleraceum, respectively. Identification of the wild progenitor of common garlic is difficult, due to the sterility of its many cultivars which may all be descended from the species Allium longicuspis, which grows wild in central and southwestern Asia.
There are at least 120 cultivars originating from Central Asia, making it the main center of garlic biodiversity. In North America, Allium vineale and Allium canadense, known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion", are common weeds in fields. So-called elephant garlic is a wild leek, not a true garlic. Single clove garlic originated in the Yunnan province of China; some garlics have protected status in Europe, including: There are two subspecies of A. sativum, ten major groups of varieties, hundreds of varieties or cultivars. A. sativum var. ophioscorodon Döll, called Ophioscorodon, or hard-necked garlic, includes porcelain garlics, rocambole garlic, purple stripe garlics. It is sometimes considered to be a separate species, Allium ophioscorodon G. Don. A. sativum var. sativum, or soft-necked garlic, includes artichoke garlic, silverskin garlic, creole garlic. Garlic can be grown year-round in mild climates. While sexual propagation of garlic is possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by planting individual cloves in the ground.
In colder climates, cloves are planted in the autumn, about six weeks before the soil freezes, harvested in late spring or early summer. The cloves must be planted deep enough to prevent freeze/thaw, which causes white rot. Garlic plants can be grown together, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, are grown in containers of sufficient depth. Garlic does well in loose, well-drained soils in sunny locations, is hardy throughout USDA climate zones 4–9; when selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large bulbs from which to separate cloves. Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, will increase bulb size. Garlic plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels. There are different varieties or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic; the latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type, as garlic can be day-length sensitive.
Hardneck garlic is grown in cooler climates and produces large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly-packed cloves. Garlic scapes are removed to focus all the garlic's energy into bulb growth; the scapes can be cooked. Garlic plants are hardy and not affected by many pests or diseases. Garlic plants are said to repel moles. However, pathogens that affect garlic are nematodes and wood-decay fungus, which remain in the soil indefinitely after the ground has become infected. Garlic may suffer from pink root, a non-fatal disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red; the larvae of the leek moth attack garlic by mining into the bulbs. In 2016, world production of garlic was 26.6 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 80% of the total. India was the second largest producer with 5% of world production; the United States – ranked 10th in global production of garlic – grows less than 1% of China's production. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered in Gilroy, which calls itself the "Garlic Capital of the World".
Garlic is used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. The garlic plant's bulb is the most used part of the plant. With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Garlic cloves are used for medicinal purposes, they have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens with cooking. Other parts of the garlic plant are edible; the leaves and flowers on the head are sometimes eaten. They are milder in flavor than the bulbs, are most consumed while immature and still tender. Immature garlic is sometimes pulled, rather like a scallion, sold as "green garlic"; when green garlic is allowed to grow past the "scallion" stage, but not permitted to mature, it may produce a garlic "round", a bulb like a boiling onion, but not separated into cloves like a mature bulb. It imparts a garlic aroma in food, minus the spiciness. Green garlic is chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or hot
Paprika is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper. The most common variety used for making paprika is tomato pepper, sometimes with the addition of more pungent varieties, called chili peppers, cayenne pepper. In many languages, but not English, the word paprika refers to the plant and the fruit from which the spice is made. Although paprika is associated with Hungarian cuisine, the peppers from which it is made are native to the New World and were introduced to the Old World. Originating in central Mexico, paprika was brought to Spain in the 16th century; the seasoning is used to add color to many types of dishes. The trade in paprika expanded from the Iberian Peninsula to Africa and Asia, reached Central Europe through the Balkans under Ottoman rule, which explains the Hungarian origin of the English term. In Spanish, paprika has been known as pimentón since the 16th century, when it became a typical ingredient in the cuisine of western Extremadura.
Despite its presence in Central Europe since the beginning of Ottoman conquests, it did not become popular in Hungary until the late 19th century. Paprika can range from mild to hot – the flavor varies from country to country – but all plants grown produce the sweet variety. Sweet paprika is composed of the pericarp, with more than half of the seeds removed, whereas hot paprika contains some seeds, stalks and calyces; the red, orange or yellow color of paprika is due to its content of carotenoids. The plant used to make the Hungarian version of the spice was grown in 1569 by the Turks at Buda. Central European paprika was hot until the 1920s, when a Szeged breeder found a plant that produced sweet fruit, which he grafted onto other plants; the first recorded use of the word paprika in English is from 1896, although an earlier reference to Turkish paprika was published in 1831. The word derives from the Hungarian word paprika, a diminutive of the Serbo-Croatian word papar meaning "pepper", which in turn came from the Latin piper or modern Greek piperi.
Paprika and similar words, peperke and paparka, are used in various Slavic languages in the Balkans for bell peppers. Paprika is produced in various places including Hungary, Spain, the Netherlands and some regions of the United States. Hungary is a major source of commonly-used paprika, it is available in different grades: Noble sweet – pungent Special quality – the mildest Delicate – a mild paprika with a rich flavor Exquisite delicate – similar to delicate, but more pungent Pungent exquisite delicate – an more pungent version of delicate Rose – with a strong aroma and mild pungency Semi-sweet – a blend of mild and pungent paprikas. The most common Spanish paprika, Pimentón de la Vera, has a distinct smoky flavor and aroma, as it is dried by smoking using oak wood. Pimentón de Murcia is not smoked, traditionally being dried in kilns. Paprika is used as an ingredient in numerous dishes throughout the world, it is principally used to season and color rices and soups, such as goulash, in the preparation of sausages, mixed with meats and other spices.
In the United States, paprika is sprinkled raw on foods as a garnish, but the flavor is more brought out by heating it in oil. Hungarian national dishes incorporating paprika include gulyas, a meat stew, paprikash. In Moroccan cuisine, paprika is augmented by the addition of a small amount of olive oil blended into it; the red, orange or yellow color of paprika powder derives from its mix of carotenoids. Yellow-orange paprika colors derive from α-carotene and β-carotene, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas red colors derive from capsanthin and capsorubin. In a typical serving size of one teaspoon, paprika supplies 6 calories and is rich in vitamin A, moderate in vitamin B6 and vitamin E, provides no other nutrients in significant content; the dictionary definition of paprika at Wiktionary