Flora of China
The flora of China is diverse. More than 30,000 plant species are native to China, representing nearly one-eighth of the world's total plant species, including thousands found nowhere else on Earth. China contains a variety of forest types. Both northeast and northwest reaches contain mountains and cold coniferous forests, supporting animal species which include moose and Asiatic black bear, along with some 120 types of birds. Moist conifer forests can have thickets of bamboo as an understorey, replaced by rhododendrons in higher montane stands of juniper and yew. Subtropical forests, which dominate central and southern China, support an astounding 146,000 species of flora. Tropical rainforest and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a quarter of all the plant and animal species found in China; the flora of China has an online database which gives both its taxonomy. Media related to Flora of China at Wikimedia Commons eflora: Flora of China
Namibia the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence, its capital and largest city is Windhoek, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa, it imposed its laws, including racial rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In the 20th century and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation as the official representative of the Namibian people. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Namibia has a population of a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy; the large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world; the name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans; the dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San and Nama. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were peaceful. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. On their way further north, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment; the Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama and Herero. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola; some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey.
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama and 65,000 Herero; the survivors, when released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, forced labor, racial segregation, and
Kali is a genus of plants in the subfamily Salsoloideae in the amaranth family, Amaranthaceae. Common names of various members of this genus include tumbleweed for its wind-blown seed dispersal habit, Tartar thistle and Russian thistle for its origins; these species were part of the genus Salsola. The type species of the genus is Kali turgidum; the genus consists of ca. 23 species: Kali australe Akhani & E. H. Roalson Kali basalticum C. Brullo, Gaskin, Hrusa & Salmeri: endemic in Sicily at Mount Etna. Kali collinum Akhani & E. H. Roalson Kali dodecanesicum C. Brullo, Giusso, Ilardi: endemic on the Greek islands Rhodes and Nisyros. Kali gobicola Brullo & Hrusa, Kali griffithii Akhani & E. H. Roalson Kali jacquemontii Akhani & E. H. Roalson Kali ikonnikovii Akhani & E. H. Roalson Kali komarovii Akhani & E. H. Roalson Kali macrophyllum Galasso & Bartolucci, Kali monopterum Lomon. Kali nepalensis Brullo, Giusso & Hrusa, Kali paulsenii Akhani & E. H. Roalson Kali pellucidum Kali praecox Sukhor. Kali rosaceum Moench Kali sinkiangense Brullo, Giusso & Hrusa, Kali ryanii Brullo & Hrusa, Kali tamamschjanae Akhani & E.
H. Roalson Kali tamariscinum Akhani & E. H. Roalson Kali tragus Scop. Kali turgidum Guterm. Kali zaidamicum Akhani & E. H. Roalson In 2014, Mosyakin et al. proposed to conserve Salsola kali as nomenclatoral type for the genus Salsola. If the proposal will be accepted, all species of genus Kali would belong to Salsola again. Several species, most notably the central Asian Kali tragus, are invasive species outside their native range, they have encroached into parts of North America, where they are listed as noxious weeds by the United States Department of Agriculture. The salt-tolerant genus was first reported in the United States around 1877 in Bon Homme County, South Dakota transported as a stowaway in flax seed exported by Ukrainian farmers. South Dakota proved too harsh and dry for growing flax, by 1900 Kali had colonized as far west as the Pacific Coast, it was actively introduced by the USDA as experimental food for cattle that could be grown in hard times during droughts. Palatability of the young shoots is considered to be fair.
Cattle and horses eat it if nothing better is available. Small rodents and pronghorn graze on the young shoots. Kali thrives, it can be seen in Death Valley, in Colorado at elevations of 8500 feet
Salsola vermiculata known as Mediterranean saltwort, is a perennial plant in the family Amaranthaceae. It is native to arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East, North Africa and southern Europe where it is used as a fodder plant for livestock. Salsola vermiculata is a small, much-branched shrub ranging in height from 25 to 100 cm; the branches themselves branch and are wiry and woody at the base. The leaves are scale-like, clasping the stem and covered with minute hairs; the inflorescence is a leafy spike with solitary flowers in the axils of the leaves. The flowers have persistent, winged sepals and no petals and are about 10 mm in diameter; this plant is native to Syria, Israel and Saudi Arabia, as well as Egypt and Morocco. It is native to southern Europe, including Italy and Portugal, its natural habitat is semi-arid and arid grassland, it has been introduced to Pakistan and to California to provide forage in arid locations. In California it is regarded as an invasive species. Salsola vermiculata is part of the climax community in the Syrian steppe where it grows alongside Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada and Stipa barbata.
It grows on the Jordanian steppe along with Artemisia herba-alba and Achillea fragrantissima, but all three of these useful fodder species are becoming rare because of overgrazing. Exclusion of livestock from an area produces a large increase in the biomass of these species, it is of high value as a forage crop in arid areas. It is planted in the Middle East for grazing by cattle, sheep and camels. Natural regeneration occurs in both spring and autumn, but plants germinating in autumn are more drought tolerant and more to become established. Rainwater harvesting, in the form of contouring furrows that prevent run-off, increases the successful establishment and growth of S. vermiculata. Planting this and other native species, such as Atriplex halimus, shows high potential for the improvement of the Badia rangelands in Syria. Prolonged drought sometimes caused the plants to shed their leaves. In California, S. vermiculata has been shown to be an alternate host for the plant viruses that cause curly top, a disease of sugar beet and cucurbits.
Salsola vermiculata was first published in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum. Phylogenetic research led to the re-circumscription of the genus Salsola, in 2007, the species was transferred to Caroxylon vermiculatum Akhani & Roalson. In 2015, it was transferred to Nitrosalsola vermiculata Theodorova
State Herbarium of South Australia
The State Herbarium of South Australia is located in Adelaide, South Australia. It is Commonwealth herbaria in Australia; the Department of Environment and Natural Resources is the state agency, responsible for the Herbarium, but the Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium is charged with its establishment and maintenance. In 1954 the State Herbarium of South Australia was founded as part of the Adelaide Botanic Garden; the first flora collection of the state was produced by Richard Schomburgk in 1875. The State Herbarium's collections include collections of Ralph Tate, John McConnell Black, the moss herbarium of Professor David Guthrie Catcheside, the collections of the Field Naturalists Society of South Australia. Since 2000 the Herbarium has been located in the historic Tram Barn A building adjacent to the Adelaide Botanic Garden's Bicentennial Conservatory on Hackney Road, Adelaide. In late 2011 the Herbarium was due to list its one millionth specimen, is producing an on-line version of the Flora of South Australia, 5th edition.
EFloraSA Electronic flora of South Australia Retrieved 18 May 2018
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns and bamboos are trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years, it is estimated. A tree has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk; this trunk contains woody tissue for strength, vascular tissue to carry materials from one part of the tree to another. For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark. Below the ground, the roots spread out widely. Above ground, the branches divide into smaller shoots.
The shoots bear leaves, which capture light energy and convert it into sugars by photosynthesis, providing the food for the tree's growth and development. Trees reproduce using seeds. Flowers and fruit may be present, but some trees, such as conifers, instead have pollen cones and seed cones. Palms and bamboos produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead. Trees play a significant role in moderating the climate, they remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store large quantities of carbon in their tissues. Trees and forests provide a habitat for many species of plants. Tropical rainforests are among the most biodiverse habitats in the world. Trees provide shade and shelter, timber for construction, fuel for cooking and heating, fruit for food as well as having many other uses. In parts of the world, forests are shrinking as trees are cleared to increase the amount of land available for agriculture; because of their longevity and usefulness, trees have always been revered, with sacred groves in various cultures, they play a role in many of the world's mythologies.
Although "tree" is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition of what a tree is, either botanically or in common language. In its broadest sense, a tree is any plant with the general form of an elongated stem, or trunk, which supports the photosynthetic leaves or branches at some distance above the ground. Trees are typically defined by height, with smaller plants from 0.5 to 10 m being called shrubs, so the minimum height of a tree is only loosely defined. Large herbaceous plants such as papaya and bananas are trees in this broad sense. A applied narrower definition is that a tree has a woody trunk formed by secondary growth, meaning that the trunk thickens each year by growing outwards, in addition to the primary upwards growth from the growing tip. Under such a definition, herbaceous plants such as palms and papayas are not considered trees regardless of their height, growth form or stem girth. Certain monocots may be considered trees under a looser definition.
Aside from structural definitions, trees are defined by use. The tree growth habit is an evolutionary adaptation found in different groups of plants: by growing taller, trees are able to compete better for sunlight. Trees tend some reaching several thousand years old. Several trees are among the oldest organisms now living. Trees have modified structures such as thicker stems composed of specialised cells that add structural strength and durability, allowing them to grow taller than many other plants and to spread out their foliage, they differ from shrubs, which have a similar growth form, by growing larger and having a single main stem. The tree form has evolved separately in unrelated classes of plants in response to similar environmental challenges, making it a classic example of parallel evolution. With an estimated 60,000-100,000 species, the number of trees worldwide might total twenty-five per cent of all living plant species; the greatest number of these grow in tropical regions and many of these areas have not yet been surveyed by botanists, making tree diversity and ranges poorly known.
The majority of tree species are angiosperms. There are about 1000 species of gymnosperm trees, including conifers, cycads and gnetales. Most angiosperm trees are eudicots, the "true dicotyledons", so named because the seeds contain two cotyledons or seed leaves. There are some trees among the old lineages of flowering plants called basal angiosperms or paleodicots. Wood gives structural strength to the trunk of most types of tree; the vascular system of trees allows water and other chemicals to be di