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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is a solid chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of cations and anions. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral; these component ions can be inorganic, such as organic, such as acetate. Salts can be classified in a variety of ways. Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali salts. Salts that produce acidic solutions are acid salts. Neutral salts are those salts that are neither basic. Zwitterions contain an anionic and a cationic centre in the same molecule, but are not considered to be salts. Examples of zwitterions include amino acids, many metabolites and proteins. Solid salts tend to be transparent. In many cases, the apparent opacity or transparency are only related to the difference in size of the individual monocrystals. Since light reflects from the grain boundaries, larger crystals tend to be transparent, while the polycrystalline aggregates look like white powders.

Salts exist in many different colors, which arise either from the cations. For example: sodium chromate is yellow by virtue of the chromate ion potassium dichromate is orange by virtue of the dichromate ion cobalt nitrate is red owing to the chromophore of hydrated cobalt. copper sulfate is blue because of the copper chromophore potassium permanganate has the violet color of permanganate anion. Nickel chloride is green of sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate are colorless or white because the constituent cations and anions do not absorb in the visible part of the spectrumFew minerals are salts because they would be solubilized by water. Inorganic pigments tend not to be salts, because insolubility is required for fastness; some organic dyes are salts, but they are insoluble in water. Different salts can elicit all five basic tastes, e.g. salty, sour and umami or savory. Salts of strong acids and strong bases are non-volatile and odorless, whereas salts of either weak acids or weak bases may smell like the conjugate acid or the conjugate base of the component ions.

That slow, partial decomposition is accelerated by the presence of water, since hydrolysis is the other half of the reversible reaction equation of formation of weak salts. Many ionic compounds exhibit significant solubility in water or other polar solvents. Unlike molecular compounds, salts dissociate in solution into cationic components; the lattice energy, the cohesive forces between these ions within a solid, determines the solubility. The solubility is dependent on how well each ion interacts with the solvent, so certain patterns become apparent. For example, salts of sodium and ammonium are soluble in water. Notable exceptions include potassium cobaltinitrite. Most nitrates and many sulfates are water-soluble. Exceptions include barium sulfate, calcium sulfate, lead sulfate, where the 2+/2− pairing leads to high lattice energies. For similar reasons, most alkali metal carbonates are not soluble in water; some soluble carbonate salts are: potassium carbonate and ammonium carbonate. Salts are characteristically insulators.

Molten salts or solutions of salts conduct electricity. For this reason, liquified salts and solutions containing dissolved salts are called electrolytes. Salts characteristically have high melting points. For example, sodium chloride melts at 801 °C; some salts with low lattice energies are liquid near room temperature. These include molten salts, which are mixtures of salts, ionic liquids, which contain organic cations; these liquids exhibit unusual properties as solvents. The name of a salt starts with the name of the cation followed by the name of the anion. Salts are referred to only by the name of the cation or by the name of the anion. Common salt-forming cations include: Ammonium NH+4 Calcium Ca2+ Iron Fe2+ and Fe3+ Magnesium Mg2+ Potassium K+ Pyridinium C5H5NH+ Quaternary ammonium NR+4, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group Sodium Na+ Copper Cu2+Common salt-forming anions include: Acetate CH3COO− Carbonate CO2−3 Chloride Cl− Citrate HOC2 Cyanide C≡N− Fluoride F− Nitrate NO−3 Nitrite NO−2 Oxide O2− Phosphate PO3−4 Sulfate SO2−4 Salts with varying number of hydrogen atoms replaced by cations as compared to their parent acid can be referred to as monobasic, dibasic, or tribasic, identifying that one, two, or three hydrogen atoms have been replaced.

Examples include: Sodium phosphate monobasic Sodium phosphate dibasic Sodium phosphate tribasic Salts are formed by a chemical reaction between: A base and an acid, e.g. NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl A metal and an acid, e.g. Mg + H2SO

Stirling North, South Australia

Stirling North is a town located 7 kilometres east of Port Augusta in South Australia. The obsolete Leigh Creek coal rail line which runs between Port Augusta and Stirling North is the official border line separating the two towns, it acts as a satellite town to Port Augusta with the town's railway station lying at a major rail junction linking the Port Augusta power station and the main east-west rail link to the coal rail link to Leigh Creek. It lies on the junction of the Augusta Highway and the Flinders Ranges Way. At the 2016 census, Stirling North had a population of 2,673; the town of Stirling North was surveyed in 1859 as "Stirling North" after Edward Stirling Snr, but was renamed'Catninga' after a nearby creek. In 1916 however, this decision was overturned and the name was reverted to'Stirling North'. In 1871, a prison was established near the town. On 17 February 1994, suburban boundaries were assigned; the town has existed to service the railways, with Leigh Creek coal freighted down to Port Augusta for use in the power station.

The historic Pichi Richi Railway runs through Stirling North, between Port Augusta and Quorn, one of the only tourist attractions within the town. The town's historic Davenport Reservoir and Storage Tank is listed on the South Australian Heritage Register. Stirling North is not a tourist destination, but is used as a service stop by travellers who do not want to travel the extra 7 km into Port Augusta; the town is situated at the base of the Southern Flinders Ranges, is used by people travelling north. The town has a number of services including accommodation in the form of hotels, a public bar, a number of food shops, fuel outlets, a post office and public telephones. Only two sporting venues are present in the town, a tennis court, bike track, public school which has a large oval and a golf course. Town information and Facilities Port Augusta City Council site

Herma (Xenakis)

Herma is a piece for solo piano composed by Iannis Xenakis in 1961. It is based on a formulation of the algebraic equations of Boolean algebra, is an example of what Xenakis called symbolic music. Herma was the composer's first major work for piano, it was composed after a visit to Japan in 1961, where Xenakis befriended pianist and composer Yuji Takahashi. Xenakis completed the piece upon his return to Paris and dedicated it to Takahashi, who premièred the piece on February 2, 1962; the pianist's impression of that concert was that the piece "made some excited and wonder, others feel painful". Boolean algebra is the main mathematical principle behind Herma. Xenakis defines several pitch proceeds to apply various logical operations to them; the results are incorporated into music by using combinations of various sets. Stochastic procedures are used to select the place of notes within each set; the piece has been described by the pianist and critic Susan Bradshaw as " the label of the most difficult piano piece written", because of its extreme tempo.

Chung, Immin. 2003. "Mathematical and Architectural Concepts Manifested in Iannis Xenakis's Piano Music". Dissertation. Austin: University of Texas. Harley, James. 2004. Xenakis: His Life in Music. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97145-4. Hill, Peter. 1975. "Xenakis and the Performer". Tempo 112:17–22. Matthews, Denis. 1972. Keyboard music.: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-021250-7. Montague, Eugene. 1995. "The Limits of Logic: Structure and Aesthetics in Xenakis's Herma". M. A. thesis. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Amherst. Study based on the thesis available online. Sevrette, Daniel. 1973. "Étude statistique sur Herma". Dissertation, Schola Cantorum. Solomos, Makis. "À propos des premières œuvres de I. Xenakis". Thesis, University of Paris. Squibbs, Ron. 1996. "An Analytical Approach to the Music of Iannis Xenakis". Dissertation. New Haven: Yale University. Sward, Rosalie. 1981. "An Examination of the Mathematical Systems used in Selected Compositions of Milton Babbitt and Iannis Xenakis". Dissertation. Evanston: Northwestern University.

Wannamaker, Robert. 2001. "Structure and Perception in Herma by Iannis Xenakis". Music Theory Online 7/3

Beswick Pottery

John Beswick Ltd J. W. Beswick, was a pottery manufacturer, founded in 1894 by James Wright Beswick and his sons John and Gilbert in Longton, Stoke-on-Trent. In 1969, the business was sold to Co. Ltd.. The factory closed in 2002 and the brand John Beswick was sold in 2004; the pottery was chiefly known for producing high-quality porcelain figurines such as farm animals and Beatrix Potter characters and have become sought in the collectables market. Based at the Gold Street works in Longton, they produced tablewares and ornaments such as Staffordshire cats and dogs. James Wright Beswick died in 1921, but the company continued to expand under his grandson, John Ewart Beswick. In 1934 the introduction of high fired bone china meant they could produce high-quality figurines, such as famous race horses and champion dogs; the company was made a limited company, John Beswick Ltd, in 1936. In 1939 Arthur Gredington was appointed chief modeller and they began producing farm animal figurines. Arthur Gredington's range of 190 Rearing Horsemen is one of the largest produced by the company.

Under decorating manager Jim Hayward, there was a shift towards lifelike animal pieces, including cats, farm animals and wild animals. Continued expansion enabled the acquisition of the adjoining factory in 1945 to accommodate offices and new potting and firing facilities. In 1947, Lucy Beswick suggested bringing to life the illustrations in the Beatrix Potter books. In 1948, John Beswick secured the right to reproduce a range of 10 Beatrix Potter earthenware characters, the first of, Jemima Puddle-Duck, modelled by Arthur Gredington. In 1952, Beswick began manufacturing a range of Disney characters, including Snow White, Mickey Mouse and Bambi. Along with the designs of James Hayward, the high-quality pieces they produced have become sought. In 1969 Beswick was sold to Co.. Ltd, although animal figures continued to be produced, by 1989, the Beswick backstamp was dropped in favour of the Royal Doulton Royal Albert DA backstamp; the popularity of the Beatrix Potter characters was a factor in re-introducing the range in 1998 for the collectors market.

By the end of 2002, Royal Doulton ceased production of all Beswick products and in 2003 the Gold Street works were sold off to property developers. In 2004 the Beswick name and product design rights were sold off; the John Beswick name is now owned by Dartington Crystal, which continue to produce animal figurines. The Snowman and the Snowdog figures are just some of the nursery figures still being produced. Royal Doulton List of Bunnykins figurines Callows, Diana. Beswick Animals, Charlton Press, UK, ISBN 978-0-88968-322-8 Callows and John Callows. Beswick Collectables: A Charlton Standard Catalog, Charlton Press, UK, ISBN 978-0889683143

Henry John Whitehouse

Henry John Whitehouse was the second Episcopal bishop of Illinois. Whitehouse was born in the son of James Whitehouse and Eliza Higgs Norman. Whitehouse was described as a "thorough aristocrat by birth and training and accustomed to every luxury."He graduated from Columbia University in 1821, from the General Theological Seminary in 1824. Whitehouse was ordained deacon in 1824, was ordained priest in 1827. After his ordination as priest, he became rector of Christ Church in Pennsylvania. Two years he moved to become rector of St. Luke's Church in Rochester, New York, during which time he married his wife, he remained there for fifteen years before moving to New York in 1844 to become rector of St. Thomas Church. Whitehouse was elected coadjutor Bishop of Illinois in 1851, he was the 55th bishop in the ECUSA, was consecrated by Bishops Thomas Church Brownell, Alfred Lee, Manton Eastburn. Upon the death of Bishop Philander Chase, Whitehouse became bishop, but refused to take up his seat for nine years, until his salary demands were met.

The diocesan convention in 1860 charged him with dereliction of duty and condemned him. During the American Civil War, Whitehouse displayed decidedly pro-Southern sympathies, further alienating his Illinois flock. Whitehouse identified with high church Anglicanism, in 1868 he wrote of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Several of his clergy, led by Charles Edward Cheney, denounced the Anglo-Catholic idea, accusing Whitehouse of "unprotestantizing this Protestant Episcopal Church, corrupting her doctrine, debasing her worship, over-turning her long-established rites and usages." Whitehouse had his revenge when, on hearing of Cheney's unauthorized omissions of certain liturgical phrases, he attempted to have Cheney deposed, by 1871, he was successful in having Cheney suspended from the ministry. Cheney became one of the original clergymen of the Reformed Episcopal Church. While in England in 1867, Whitehouse delivered the opening sermon before the first Pan-Anglican conference at Lambeth Palace, by invitation of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

He was among the first American bishops to advocate for a cathedral system in the Episcopal Church. On August 8, 1835, Whitehouse married Evelina Harriet Bruen. Together, they were the parents of one daughter, they choose to give middle names to some of their children Meredyth and FitzHugh, which were surnames of women who had married into the Whitehouse family prior to 1800. Their children were: Henry Bruen Whitehouse, an attorney Edward Norman Whitehouse, a career Naval officer whose duties included the office of Paymaster Frederic Cope Whitehouse an attorney, but he engaged so ardently in his avocations of archaeology and Egyptology that his obituary in The New York Times referred to him as “the well-known Egyptologist.” He did not marry. William FitzHugh Whitehouse, yet another attorney who married Frances Sheldon, the niece of William B. Ogden, the First Mayor of Chicago. Louisa Bruen Whitehouse, who married Edwin Bernon Sheldon, brother of Frances Sheldon, the wife of William FitzHugh Whitehouse.

Francis Meredyth Whitehouse, the architect who married Mary Armour. Henry John Whitehouse died in Chicago on August 10, 1874, he is buried in the Whitehouse family plot in Green-Wood Cemetery, New York. Through his son William, he was the grandfather of Ambassador Sheldon Whitehouse, married to Mary Crocker Alexander in 1920, great-grandson was Ambassador Charles S. Whitehouse, his great-great-grandson, Sheldon Whitehouse, is a U. S. Senator from Rhode Island. In 1934, his son Francis, along with other members of the family, donated a "missionary window" at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in memory of his father; the windows, designed by Wilbur Herbert Burnham, were dedicated by Bishop William T. Manning. Batterson, Hermon Griswold. A Sketch-book of the American Episcopate. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippencott & Co. Retrieved 2009-07-31. Guelzo, Allen C.. For the Union of Evangelical Christendom: The Irony of the Reformed Episcopalians. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-02732-0; the National Cyclopaedia of American Biography.

IX. New York: James T. White & Co. 1899. Retrieved 2009-07-29. Photograph of Henry John Whitehouse, dated mid-1860s at the National Portrait Gallery, London

Northern Knights (cricket team)

Northern Knights is a first-class provincial cricket team in Ireland. Along with the North West Warriors and Leinster Lightning it makes up the Inter-Provincial Championship, with those teams and Munster Reds makes up the Interprovincial One-Day Trophy & Interprovincial Twenty20 Cup; the team represents Northern Cricket Union of Ireland which in turn covers most of eastern and much of western Ulster. In 2013, Cricket Ireland formed a three-day Interprovincial Championship, featuring teams from Leinster, NCU and the North West; the NCU team is known as the Northern Knights. On 8 April, they announced Eugene Moleon as Gavin Rogers as his assistant coach. Up to and including the 2016 Inter-Provincial Championship, the matches were not given first-class status. However, at an International Cricket Council meeting in October 2016, first-class status was awarded to all future matches. In January 2016, Simon Johnston head of Waringstown Cricket Club was appointed head coach of team replacing Eugene Moleon.

Denotes players with international caps. The Northern Cricket Union official website Euro Slam Dublin Chiefs ET20S