A salt marsh or saltmarsh known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water, flooded by the tides. It is dominated by dense stands of salt-tolerant plants such as grasses, or low shrubs; these plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the salt marsh in trapping and binding sediments. Salt marshes play a large role in the aquatic food web and the delivery of nutrients to coastal waters, they support terrestrial animals and provide coastal protection. Salt marshes live on low-energy shorelines in temperate and high-latitudes which can be stable, emerging, or submerging depending if the sedimentation is greater, equal to, or lower than relative sea level rise, respectively; these shorelines consist of mud or sand flats which are nourished with sediment from inflowing rivers and streams. These include sheltered environments such as embankments and the leeward side of barrier islands and spits.
In the tropics and sub-tropics they are replaced by mangroves. Most salt marshes have a low topography with low elevations but a vast wide area, making them hugely popular for human populations. Salt marshes are located among different landforms based on their physical and geomorphological settings; such marsh landforms include deltaic marshes, back-barrier, open coast and drowned-valley marshes. Deltaic marshes are associated with large rivers where many occur in Southern Europe such as the Camargue, France in the Rhone delta or the Ebro delta in Spain, they are extensive within the rivers of the Mississippi Delta in the United States. In New Zealand, most salt marshes occur at the head of estuaries in areas where there is little wave action and high sedimentation; such marshes are located in Awhitu Regional Park in Auckland, the Manawatu Estuary, the Avon-Heathcote Estuary in Christchurch. Back-barrier marshes are sensitive to the reshaping of barriers in the landward side of which they have been formed.
They are common along much of the eastern coast of the Frisian Islands. Large, shallow coastal embayments can hold salt marshes with examples including Morecambe Bay and Portsmouth in Britain and the Bay of Fundy in North America. Salt marshes are sometimes included in lagoons, the difference is not marked, they have a big impact on the biodiversity of the area. Salt marsh ecology involves complex food webs which include primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers; the low physical energy and high grasses provide a refuge for animals. Many marine fish use salt marshes as nursery grounds for their young before they move to open waters. Birds may raise their young among the high grasses, because the marsh provides both sanctuary from predators and abundant food sources which include fish trapped in pools, insects and worms. Saltmarshes across 99 countries were mapped by al.. 2017. A total of 5,495,089 hectares of mapped saltmarsh across 43 countries and territories are represented in a Geographic Information Systems polygon shapefile.
This estimate is at the low end of previous estimates. The most extensive saltmarshes worldwide are found outside the tropics, notably including the low-lying, ice-free coasts and estuaries of the North Atlantic which are well represented in their global polygon dataset; the formation begins as tidal flats gain elevation relative to sea level by sediment accretion, subsequently the rate and duration of tidal flooding decreases so that vegetation can colonize on the exposed surface. The arrival of propagules of pioneer species such as seeds or rhizome portions are combined with the development of suitable conditions for their germination and establishment in the process of colonisation; when rivers and streams arrive at the low gradient of the tidal flats, the discharge rate reduces and suspended sediment settles onto the tidal flat surface, helped by the backwater effect of the rising tide. Mats of filamentous blue-green algae can fix silt and clay sized sediment particles to their sticky sheaths on contact which can increase the erosion resistance of the sediments.
This assists the process of sediment accretion to allow colonising species to grow. These species retain sediment washed in from the rising tide around their stems and leaves and form low muddy mounds which coalesce to form depositional terraces, whose upward growth is aided by a sub-surface root network which binds the sediment. Once vegetation is established on depositional terraces further sediment trapping and accretion can allow rapid upward growth of the marsh surface such that there is an associated rapid decrease in the depth and duration of tidal flooding; as a result, competitive species that prefer higher elevations relative to sea level can inhabit the area and a succession of plant communities develops. Coastal salt marshes can be distinguished from terrestrial habitats by the daily tidal flow that occurs and continuously floods the area, it is an important process in delivering sediments and plant water supply to the marsh. At higher elevations in the upper marsh zone, there is much less tidal inflow, resulting in lower salinity levels
Oliver Garfield Haywood, Jr. was a United States Army officer during World War II who served with the Manhattan Project. He transferred to the United States Air Force in 1947. After retiring from active duty in 1953, he became President and chief executive officer, chairman, of Huyck Corporation. Oliver Garfield Haywood, Jr. was born in Highland Mills, New York on 29 November 1911. He entered the United States Military Academy at West Point on 1 July 1932, graduated top of the class of 1936 on 12 June 1936, his class included Jr. who graduated sixth. Haywood was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Army Corps of Engineers, was posted to Vicksburg, Mississippi, as executive officer of the Waterways Experiment Station. In June 1937, went to Conchas Dam in New Mexico as assistant to the District Engineer, Captain Hans Kramer; the dam was under construction at the time, was a major undertaking. On 25 September 1938, Haywood entered Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a student officer.
While there he was promoted to first lieutenant on 12 June 1939. On 25 September 1939, he became a graduate student at Harvard University's Graduate School of Engineering, he received his Master of Science degree from Harvard on 20 June 1940, his Doctor of Science degree from MIT on 15 August. He was promoted to captain on 15 September. Haywood assumed command of Company C, 27th Engineer Battalion in Puerto Rico on 13 September 1940, he commanded the 130th Engineer Battalion there from 16 April 1941 until 31 December 1941. On 1 January 1942, he became executive officer of the 78th Engineers there, he was promoted to major in the wartime Army of the United States on 1 February 1942. He attended the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, from November 1942 to February 1943, before returning to Puerto Rico for duty on the staff of the Antilles Department, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 14 February 1943. In October 1943, Haywood was assigned to the G-1 Division of the War Department General Staff in Washington, D.
C. For his services in this role, he was promoted to colonel on 28 September 1944, was awarded the Legion of Merit. On 5 August 1945, he became Assistant Chief of Staff at headquarters, European Theater of Operations. For his services during the demobilization, he was awarded a second Legion of Merit. Haywood was transferred to the headquarters of the Manhattan Project on 12 April 1946, he was one of a number West Point graduates from the top ten percent of their classes who were transferred to the Manhattan Project at this time by the Secretary of War, Robert P. Patterson, at the request of the Manhattan Project's commander, Major General Leslie R. Groves, Jr. and over the objection of senior Army leaders. Their job was to replace reservists who had worked for the Project during the war and now were eligible for separation from the Army. Haywood participated in Operation Crossroads. Groves hoped that a new, permanent agency would soon be created to take over the responsibilities of the wartime Manhattan Project, but passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 through Congress took much longer than expected, involved considerable debate about the proper role of the military with respect to the development and control of nuclear weapons.
The act, signed by President Harry S. Truman on 1 August 1946 created a civilian agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, to take over the functions and assets of the Manhattan Project, but the AEC did not assume its role until 1 January 1947. At this point, Haywood was seconded to the AEC's Directorate of Research. Although he had been a colonel in the Army of the United States, Haywood only held the substantive rank of captain in the Army Corps of Engineers, his Army of the United States rank was terminated on 30 June 1947, he returned to duty with the War Department General Staff as a captain on 1 July 1947. Haywood elected to transfer to the newly created United States Air Force on 10 December 1947, he became a lieutenant colonel on 1 July 1948, was assigned to the Air Plans Division on 29 August 1948. Where he was involved in drawing up nuclear war plans. From July 1949 to May 1950 he attended the Air War College at Alabama. Haywood was seconded to the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico from February 1950 to October 1951, at a time when the first thermonuclear weapons were being developed.
Edward Teller once remarked that "Colonel Haywood is the only military man I would work for." Haywood served at the chief of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, was vice commander of the Atlantic Missile Range until his retirement from active duty in 1953. He remained with the Air Force Reserve, retiring with the rank of brigadier general in 1967. After leaving the Air Force, Haywood became the President and chief executive officer, the chairman of the board of Huyck Corporation in Stamford, Connecticut, he was chairman and acting president of the Hudson Institute in Indianapolis. Haywood died in Vero Beach, Florida, on 25 May 2002, he was survived by his daughters and Betty, sons and Robert. His wife, had predeceased him. Groves, Leslie. Now it Can be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-306-70738-4. OCLC 537684
Traverse, Northern Michigan's Magazine is a monthly magazine about life in Northern Michigan including Petoskey, Mackinac Island, Harbor Springs, Traverse City, Leelanau County, the Upper Peninsula, more. Founded in June, 1981, The magazine has 23,000 subscribers throughout the country and sells 8,000 copies on newsstands throughout the Midwest. Launched in 2008, MyNorth.com is the online home of Traverse, Northern Michigan’s Magazine and a portal to the Northern Michigan lifestyle. At MyNorth.com readers can access news plus a complete database of Northern Michigan attractions, travel ideas like Sleeping Bear Dunes and Mackinac, outdoors recreation, restaurant hot spots, breweries, northern style and events across Northern Michigan. The pages of Traverse Magazine are filled with four-color photography and articles on food, restaurants, outdoors recreation, essays and Northern Michigan lifestyle. Other magazines produced by the staff of Traverse Magazine include Northern Home & Cottage, MyNorth Vacation Guide, MyNorth Wedding, Meetings North, Senior Living, Holidays Up North and more.
Books published include The Cottage Cookbook, Reflections of a Life Up North. 2014: Traverse Magazine & MyNorth Media named to 50 Michigan Companies to Watch For 2007: Magazine of the Year, International Regional Magazine Association 2008: Silver award for general excellence and Regional Magazine Association 2007: Silver award for general excellence and Regional Magazine Association 2006: Bronze award for general excellence and Regional Magazine Association 2005: Silver award for general excellence and Regional Magazine Association 2003: Gold award for general excellence and Regional Magazine Association MyNorth http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/wiaa/news.newsmain?action=article&ARTICLE_ID=1303969 https://web.archive.org/web/20080907164315/http://www.emediawire.com/releases/Traverse/Magazine/emw566101.htm