Saltburn-by-the-Sea is a seaside town in North Yorkshire, England. The local council, a unitary authority, is Cleveland. Part of the North Riding of Yorkshire; the town is around 12 miles south east of Middlesbrough, the ward of Saltburn had a population of 5,912 at the 2001 Census, increasing to 5,958 at the 2011 census. The development of Middlesbrough and Saltburn was driven by the discovery of iron stone in the Cleveland Hills, the monies of the Pease family of Darlington, the development of two railways to transport the minerals. Old Saltburn is the original settlement, located in the Saltburn Gill. Records are scarce on its origins, but it was a centre for smugglers, publican John Andrew is referred to as'king of smugglers'. In 1856, the hamlet consisted of the Ship Inn and a row of houses, occupied by farmers and fishermen. In the mid-18th century, authors Laurence Sterne and John Hall-Stevenson enjoyed racing chariots on the sands at Saltburn; the Pease family developed Middlesbrough as an industrial centre and, after discovery of iron stone, the Stockton & Darlington Railway and the West Hartlepool Harbour and Railway Company developed routes into East Cleveland.
By 1861, the S&DR reached Saltburn with the intention of continuing to Brotton and Loftus but the WHH&RCo had developed tracks in the area, leaving little point in the extending the S&DR tracks further. In 1858, while walking along the coast path towards Old Saltburn to visit his brother Joseph in Marske, Henry Pease saw a prophetic vision of a town arising on the cliff and the quiet and sheltered glen turned into a lovely garden; the Pease family owned Middlesbrough Estate and had control of the S&DR, agreed to develop Henry's vision by forming the Saltburn Improvement Company. Land was purchased from the Earl of Zetland, the company commissioned surveyor George Dickinson to lay out what became an interpretation of a gridiron street layout, detracted from by the railway which ran through the site. With as many houses as possible having sea views, the layout was added to by the so-called Jewel streets along the seafront—Coral, Ruby, Pearl and Amber Streets, said to be a legacy of Henry's vision.
After securing the best positions for development by the SIC, money was raised for construction by selling plots to private developers and investors. Most buildings are constructed using'Pease' brick, transported from Darlington by the S&DR, with the name Pease set into the brick; the jewel in Henry Pease's crown is said to have been The Zetland Hotel with a private platform, one of the world's earliest railway hotels. The parcel of land known as Clifton Villas was sold by the Saltburn Improvement Company in 1865 to William Morley from London who built the property,'The Cottage' on a site intended for 3 villas; the SIC stipulated on the land in the deed of covenant, that any trees planted along Britannia Terrace were not to exceed 1' 6" above the footpath to preserve sea views for Britannia Terrace residents and visitors. The Redcar to Saltburn Railway opened in 1861 as an extension of the Middlesbrough to Redcar Railway of 1846; the line was extended to Whitby as part of the Whitby Middlesbrough Union Railway.
The coastline at Saltburn lies east-west, along much of it runs Marine Parade. To the east of the town is the imposing Hunt Cliff, topped by Warsett Hill at 166 metres. Skelton Beck runs through the wooded Valley Gardens in Saltburn alongside Saltburn Miniature Railway before being joined by Saltburn Gill going under the A174 road bridge and entering the North Sea across the sandy beach; the A174 road number is now used for the Skelton/Brotton Bypass. A forest walk in the Valley Gardens gives access to the Italian Gardens and leads on to the railway viaduct. On the shore of Old Saltburn stands the Ship Inn, which dates to the 17th Century. In the town there are plenty of Victorian buildings. There is a thriving local theatre, The 53 Society, a public library; the Saltburn Cliff Lift is one of the world's oldest water-powered funiculars—the oldest being the Bom Jesus funicular in Braga, Portugal. After the opening of Saltburn Pier in 1869, it was concluded that the steep cliff walk was deterring people from walking from the town to the pier.
After the company was taken over by Middlesbrough Estates in 1883, they discovered that the wooden Cliff Hoist had a number of rotten supports. The Saltburn tramway, as it is known, was developed by Sir Richard Tangye's company, whose chief engineer was George Croydon Marks; the cliff tramway opened a year and provided transport between the pier and the town. The railway is water-balanced and since 1924 the water pump has been electrically operated; the first major maintenance was carried out in 1998, when the main winding wheel was replaced and a new braking system installed. Saltburn's attractions include a Grade II* renovated pier, the only pleasure pier on the whole of Northeast England and Yorkshire coast; the Saltburn Miniature Railway is a 15 in gauge railway that runs south from Cat Nab Station close to the beach, for about ½ mile inland to Forest Halt, where there is a woodland walk and the Italian Gardens. As a town founded by Quakers, The SIC had a ban on public houses. Alcohol was served in the hotels and the bars attached to them and in private members clubs which included.
Saltburn's first public house (independent of an existing
Cleveland is an area in the north-east of England. Its name means "cliff-land", referring to its hilly southern areas, which rise to nearly 1,500 ft. Historically, Cleveland, as a geographic area within the North Riding of Yorkshire, was located to the south of the River Tees and its largest town was Guisborough, until the rise of Middlesbrough in the 19th century. A non-metropolitan county of Cleveland was created in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, named after the historic region, but not covering it all, including land north of the River Tees in County Durham, it was situated around the Teesside urban area and included Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees and Redcar. The Bill as presented in November 1971 intended the administrative county to have been called "Teesside" and to have stretched further along the Yorkshire coast to include the town of Whitby; the administrative county was abolished in 1996 with its boroughs becoming unitary authorities and the Tees re-established as the border between North Yorkshire and County Durham.
Cleveland has a significant industrial heritage arising from its central role in the 19th century iron boom that led to Middlesbrough growing from a hamlet into a major industrial town in only a few decades. The Cleveland Hills, in the southern part of the district, were key suppliers of the ironstone, essential to the running of the blast furnaces alongside the River Tees. Middlesbrough's Teesport is still one of the United Kingdom's main ports and the area between Middlesbrough and Redcar is still populated by many heavy industrial plants, although this is much reduced from its 20th century peak. Between 1974 and 1996 most of Cleveland was incorporated into a non-metropolitan county of the same name, formed from parts of the North Riding of Yorkshire and County Durham. Unlike the traditional geographic area, the administrative county was formed around the Tees estuary and included lands on both sides of the river, it excluded the southernmost parts of traditional Cleveland, including much of the Cleveland Hills, although the original proposal for this administrative county was much larger and covered the coast down including Whitby and the Whitby Rural District.
The administrative county was called "Cleveland", instead of "Teesside" as proposed in the Local Government Bill, due to fears in areas not part of the old Teesside county borough that it represented a takeover. It was formed on 1 April 1974, from the former county boroughs of Teesside and Hartlepool, the Stockton Rural District from Durham, from the North Riding of Yorkshire, the urban districts of Guisborough, Loftus and Marske-by-the-Sea and Skelton and Brotton, along with some parishes from Stokesley Rural District; the four districts of the County of Cleveland were Hartlepool, Langbaurgh-on-Tees, Stockton-on-Tees, Middlesbrough. The county town was Middlesbrough, it had a total area of 225 square miles and an estimated population of 567,600 in 2000. The administrative county bordered County Durham to the north and North Yorkshire to the south, it faced the North Sea to the east. Cleveland was one of the areas in the first tranche of reviews conducted by the Banham Commission; the Commission's final recommendations, accepted by the government, were that each of the districts should be made a unitary authority, additionally that the Tees should be re-established as a ceremonial border.
This was fiercely contested by Cleveland County Council, who applied for judicial review over the decision. According to the Minister, David Curry, in the Commons debate on the order on 11 January 1995, this caused a delay from 1 April 1995 as the reorganisation date to 1 April 1996; as the first of the Orders to be laid before Parliament, it was done in two stages. The Cleveland Order 1995 had the main effect of abolishing the County Council, whilst The Cleveland Order 1995 abolished the actual administrative county, creating four new unitary authorities coterminous with each of the boroughs. A division was forced by the Opposition, on the first Order, with 310 in favour and 223 in opposition. Of Cleveland's 6 MPs, Mo Mowlam and Frank Cook voted against, with Tim Devlin and Michael Bates voted for. Stuart Bell and Peter Mandelson did not vote. On 1 April 1996, the Orders came into force; the district of Langbaurgh-on-Tees was renamed Redcar and Cleveland, the County of Cleveland was abolished, four unitary authorities created.
The post of Lord Lieutenant of Cleveland was abolished, with the area being split between the ceremonial counties of Durham and North Yorkshire. However, Cleveland Police and other institutions covering the four boroughs, were retained; the area is known as'Teesside' for some purposes, with the addition of Darlington, the term Tees Valley is sometimes used in media. Cleveland is a Church of England archdeaconry, in the Diocese of York, it covers a large area including Middlesbrough, Thirsk and Whitby. Cleveland was for many years the name of a constituency for the House of Commons; the Cleveland constituency had been created by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, by the division of the North Riding constituency, was succeeded by the Cleveland and Whitby for the February 1974 general election. The TS postcode area, which covers much of the former administrative county, is known as the Cleveland postcode area. Cleveland was adopted by the Royal Mail as a postal county in 1974; the area is varied geographically.
The Tees estuary is industrialised and urbanised. Much of the remainder of the lowland parts of Cleveland is farmland. East Cleveland ma
Newton under Roseberry
Newton under Roseberry is a village in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is on the A173, between Great Ayton and Guisborough and is close to the base of Roseberry Topping; the village is situated near the edge of the North York Moors National Park, close to the border of Redcar and Cleveland with Middlesbrough and the Hambleton district of North Yorkshire. A reference to Newton under Roseberry was featured in the folk-rock group America's "Hat Trick" from the Hat Trick album; the exact lyric stanza is: Newton-Under-Roseberry-Topping And it's cold and it's wet And you feel like you're part of all time The Anglican church of St Oswald's is a Grade II* listed building, with an Anglo-Saxon carving. Media related to Newton under Roseberry at Wikimedia Commons
Brotton is a village in the parish of Skelton and Brotton in North Yorkshire, England. The local council, a unitary authority, is Cleveland, it is situated 2.5 miles south-east of Saltburn-by-the-Sea, 12 miles east of Middlesbrough and 14 miles north-west of Whitby. In 2002, the village had a population of 5,384; the name of the village means, "town on the brow of a hill", is listed in the Domesday Book. The hill in question, Warsett Hill, tops the large Huntcliffe, the site of one of the many Roman signal stations built along the east coast to defend against Anglo-Saxon attack. Brotton was one of a number of manors granted by William the Conqueror to Robert de Brus, Lord of Skelton. Over recent years Brotton has become somewhat isolated because of a bypass, opened in 1998 between the villages of Skelton-in-Cleveland and Carlin How; the discovery of ironstone brought major changes to the village and a large increase in the population. The majority of former miners' homes are found in the'Brickyard' and'the Park' areas of the village.
Lumpsey Mine, the largest of the Brotton mines, opened in the 1880s and closed in 1954. During the First World War Lumpsey Mine had a rail-mounted artillery piece to defend the mine against Zeppelin attack. Brotton is close to the historic seaside town of Saltburn-by-the-Sea, known for its pier, Guisborough, with its ancient Priory and market; the village is divided into two parts:'Top End' and'Bottom End'. Brotton Anglican church is dedicated to St Margaret; the village contains a parade of shops on High Street, its public houses include The Crown, The Ship, The Green Tree and The Queen's Arms. Brotton has Badger Hill Primary School and St Peters Church of England school. There is a school for children with learning difficulties, Kilton Thorpe; the village secondary school, Freebrough Academy, has been rebuilt. The sculptor Charles Robinson Sykes, was born in the village, he designed the Spirit of Ecstasy mascot, used on Rolls-Royce cars. Media related to Brotton at Wikimedia Commons Skelton & Brotton Parish Council Redcar & Cleveland Borough Council "Welcome to Brotton History", This is the North East, Communigate.co.uk
Coatham is a place in the borough of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England and is now a district of Redcar. Coatham began as a market village in the 14th century to the smaller adjacent fishing port of Redcar but as their populations grew from the 1850s, the dividing space narrowed. Though Coatham is now only a mile-wide district in the town of Redcar, the need for definition was strong enough to warrant the western boundary being marked by a fence which ran the length of West Dyke Road and West Terrace. Coatham comprises the remaining coastal land north of the railway line from West Dyke Road to Warrenby in the west. Between 1875 and 1898, Coatham had a leisure pier, it was intended to extend 2,000 feet into the sea, but damage in the building stage from shipping and storms curtailed the distance to 1,800 feet. In October 1898, the pier was struck by the 757 tonnes Finnish freighter Birger; the ship had developed trouble during a storm in the North Sea and despite passing Grimsby and Whitby, she carried for South Shields.
During a ferocious storm she crashed onto the rocks at Coatham and wrecked a 60 feet section of the pier in the middle. Only two members of her crew of 15 were rescued; the present-day Redcar & Cleveland College was a grammar school before 1975. The majority of modern Coatham is Victorian housing, most notably at its northern tip by the Coatham Hotel built in 1860. A small boating lake, leisure centre, arcade complex and caravan park now occupies the remainder of Coatham's coast. To the east, the Tees Valley Wildlife Trust's Coatham Marsh Nature Reserve hosts 54 hectares of ancient Marsh and grassland. Since the mid-1990s political debate has been generated amongst Coatham's five thousand residents as to the future of the last undeveloped section of Coatham's coastal land known as Coatham Common/Coatham Enclosure - for the last 25 years used as a golf course and local recreation area. Residents are objecting at losing open space to the council's proposed housing and leisure development planned to revive the tourist industry.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom announced on 3 March 2010 that Redcar Council must register the land as a Village Green. Coatham is the town where Jane Gardam, twice winner of the Whitbread Prize, was brought up and where some of her novels are set. Coatham Marsh Wildlife Images A Redcar History site National Statistics - Coatham Ward 2001 Tees Valley Wildlife Trust Redcar & Cleveland Borough Council - Coatham Neighbourhood Service
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Normanby, Redcar and Cleveland
Normanby is an area in the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is not within the borough of Middlesbrough itself, it has a population of 7,000 residents. It lies between Ormesby, to the west, Eston, to the east, Teesville and South Bank to the north. Normanby is part of Redcar parliamentary constituency and is represented by Anna Turley in the House of Commons, it is part of the North East England European Parliament constituency, where it is represented by two Labour and a UK Independence Party MEP. In the 2015 local elections, the following members were returned to Redcar and Cleveland Borough Council: Flatts Lane Woodland Country Park is an area of woodland in Normanby, sheltered from the urban sprawl below in the Tees Valley, it provides residents with a place to exercise. It aims to give a'countryside experience' without a long journey to reach it. There is a visitors' centre --; some of the walkways in the park follow the course of the now defunct Cleveland Railway, which served the brickworks.
The visitors' centre has exhibits and information about wildlife and conservation, as well as serving as a base for the information-giving Ranger. The park boasts a variety of habitats, including both deciduous and coniferous woodlands and ponds. There are plenty of walks throughout the wooded areas of the park, an outdoor exercise area and a children's playground. There is a network of bridleways which horseriders are welcome to use. In the past, Flatts Lane veered from its present route and crossed the land now occupied by the Country Woodland Park, it was used by monks and traders to carry goods between markets and coastal ports. The cobbled path can still be seen in some places. Godfalter Hill is a prominent landmark topped by its distinctive beech trees making it visible for miles around. Flatts Lane Woodland Country Park, in Normanby, is an easy starting point for walks to Eston Nab, it is on the long distance path called the Tees Link. Normanby Hall is a mansion on the western side of Normanby.
The manor of Normanby was held at an early period of Skelton Castle. It came into the possession of the Percys, of the Moneys. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the estate belonged to William Pennyman, Esq; when he died, in 1718, buried at Eston Church, his daughters Elizabeth and Joanna, married two brothers – Rev. William Consett and Captain Matthew Consett, sons of William Consett of Linthorpe; the manor lands were split, Reverend William Consett taking the eastern part of the estate, upon which he built the elegant and commodious Normanby House, which became known as the Manor House. The other brother, Captain Matthew Consett, took the part of the manor with the ancient Hall; the Hall with a moiety of the estate was purchased in 1748, by Ralph Jackson, on the death of Captain Consett. The common fields around it were enclosed, in 1790, it descended through the Jackson family, in the late 1880s, to Major Charles Ward-Jackson M. P., lord of the manor, who died in 1930. In the twentieth century, it came into the hands of Charles Amer, a former jazzband leader, Middlesbrough F.
C. Chairman, owner of the Coatham Hotel, in Redcar, the Marton Hotel and Country Club and property developer. Amer sold the parkland belonging to the Hall and houses were built; the Hall itself, after several years as a retirement home, is now unoccupied and in a state of disrepair. In 1870-72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Normanby like this: NORMANBY, a village and a township in Ormsby parish, N. R. Yorkshire; the village stands 2 miles N E of Ormsby r. station, 4 W N W of Guisborough. The township extends to the coast. Real property, £7, 949. Pop. in 1851, 195. Houses, 397; the increase of pop. Arose from the opening of extensive ironstone works, from the establishing of glass furnaces. Norman by Hall is a chief residence. Bricks and tiles are made. There is a national school. Normanby is home to Zoë's Place, one of only two baby hospices in England, it offers palliative and respite care for babies and infants up to five years old, who have life-limiting or terminal illnesses.
It was opened by Ann Widdecombe in 2004. The hospice occupies the former Crossbeck Convent, bought in 1919 to serve as a home to the Catholic religious community of the Sisters of Mercy. There is Normanby Hall Cricket Club, alongside the Normanby Hall, it is a member of the Wales Cricket Board. It has teams competing in the North Yorkshire & South Durham Premier Division, Division 1 and Sunday Division 1. At junior level, teams compete under 13, under 15 and under 17 sections. Eston Cemetery is one of those places in the area, named at the time of the Eston Urban District Council, which included Normanby. Eston Cemetery can be said to be in Normanby. Still in active use, it was established in 1863, enlarged in 1882, built as an extension to the pre-reformation church of St Helen, one of the many churches belonging to Gisborough Priory. St Helen's has since been dismantled and rebuilt at Beamish Museum