Maresme is a comarca located along the Catalan Mediterranean coast in Spain, between the comarques of Barcelonès and Selva, bordering with Vallès Oriental. Its capital and largest city is Mataró. Maresme's territory occupies a long and narrow area between the Mediterranean Sea and the hills of Serralada Litoral, Montnegre's and Corredor's hills in the northern half and Sant Mateu's hills in the southern half; this particular shape has conditioned the history of this comarca. The main distinct elements of its geography are the characteristic rieres; these short, intermittent water streams, which cross the comarca transversally every hundred meters, produce powerful and dangerous floods when it rains. Maresme has been very well connected with the rest of the comarca as well as with Barcelona thanks to old Camí Ral and railroad. Communications were enhanced in recent years with the construction of the C-32's Barcelona–Mataró section, the first autopista in Spain, its subsequent enlargement, the Mataró-Palafolls's section.
Official comarcal web site All the tourist information and services Maresme
Satire is a genre of literature, sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre, complex to classif
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.
Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.
This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.
While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books Poets' Graves
University of Toulouse
The University of Toulouse is a university in France, established by papal bull in 1229, making it one of the earliest universities to emerge in Europe. Since the closing of the university in 1793 due to the French Revolution, the University of Toulouse no longer exists as a single institution. However, there have been several independent "successor" universities inheriting the name; the current consortium of French universities, grandes écoles and other institutions of higher education and research in Toulouse and the surrounding region is known as Université fédérale de Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées. The formation of l'Université de Toulouse was imposed on Count Raymond VII as a part of the Treaty of Paris in 1229 ending the crusade against the Albigensians; as he was suspected of sympathizing with the heretics, Raymond VII had to finance the teaching of theology. Bishop Foulques de Toulouse was among the founders of the University. Among its first lecturers were Jean de Roland of Cremona. Other faculties were added later.
The University was located in the center of the city, together with the ancestors of student residences, the colleges. In 1969, l'Université de Toulouse split into three separate universities and numerous specialised institutions of higher education; the present-day Université de Toulouse was founded on 27 March 2007. It no longer represents a single university, as it is now the collective entity which federates the universities and specialised institutions of higher education. With more than 100,000 students, Midi-Pyrénées is the fifth-largest university area in France, it is a Research and Higher Education Cluster consisting of: Université Toulouse 1 Capitole – UT1 Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès – UT2J Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier – UT3 Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse – INPT École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Toulouse – INP-ENSAT École Nationale Supérieure d’Électrotechnique, d’Électronique, d’Informatique, d’Hydraulique et des Télécommunications – INP-ENSEEIHT École Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs en Arts Chimiques et Technologiques – INP-ENSIACET École Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tarbes – INP-ENIT École Nationale de la Météorologie.
Biology, Health & Biotechnologies Sciences for Ecology, Agronomy & Bioengineery Geosciences, Astrophysics & Space Sciences Mathematics, Informatics & Telecommunications Toulouse Doctoral School Electrical, Electronic Engineering & Telecommunications Systems Physics, Chemistry & Materials Sciences Mechanics, Civil & Process Engineering Aeronautics & Astronautics Behavior, Education, Cognition Art, Languages, Information & Communication Time, Societies & Cultures Legal & Political Sciences Management Sciences Toulouse School of Economics Jean Tirole, professor of economics, Economics Nobel Prize 2014 Paul Seabright, professor of economics Jean-Jacques Laffont, economist Raymond Aron, philosopher and political scientist Paul Fauconnet, sociologist Jean Jaurès, politician Maurice Hauriou and dean of the law faculty from 1906 to 1926 Pierre Laromiguière, philosopher Adrianus Turnebus, classical scholar Professor Ange Nzihou is a 2010 Presidential Green Chemistry Academic Award Recipient Patrice Hardel is the Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport Managing Director François Hussenot (22 March 1912 – 16 May 1951, graduated in 1935 from ISAE aeronautical engineer credited with the invention of one of the early forms of the flight data recorder Jean Botti is Chief Technical Officer of EADS since 2006.
Thomas Pesquet, European Space Agency astronaut Marcel Dassault was a French aircraft industrialist. He founded the company Dassault Aviation. Selman Riza and politician. Paul Sabatier, Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of Toulouse in 1905, Nobel Prize in Chemistry jointly with fellow
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Catalan literature is the name conventionally used to refer to literature written in the Catalan language. The focus of this article is not just the literature of Catalonia, but literature written in Catalan from anywhere, so that it includes writers from the Valencian Community, Balearic Islands and other territories where Catalan or its variants are spoken; the Catalan literary tradition is extensive, starting in the early Middle Ages. A Romantic revivalist movement of the 19th century, Renaixença, classified Catalan literature in periods; the centuries long chapter known as Decadència that followed the golden age of Valencian literature, was perceived as poor and lacking literary works of quality. Further attempts to explain why this happened have motivated new critical studies of the period, nowadays a revalorisation of this early modern age is taking place. Catalan literature reemerged in the 19th and early 20th centuries, to experience troubled times from the start of the Spanish Civil War on.
Many intellectuals were forced into exile and Catalan culture was repressed. However, this repression began to temper after the end of World War II. Many measures were introduced soon to protect and promote the Catalan language, such as the creation of official contests to award the best literary works in Catalan. Catalan, a Romance language, evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages, when it became a separate language from Latin. Literary use of the Catalan language is said to have started with the religious text known as Homilies d'Organyà, written either in late 11th or early 12th century, though the earlier Cançó de Santa Fe, from 1054–76, may be Catalan or Occitan. Another early Catalan poem is the mid-13th century Augats, seyós qui credets Déu lo Payre, a planctus Mariae. Ramon Llull, one of the major medieval Majorcan writers in the Catalan language is not only saluted for starting a Catalan literary tradition separated from the Occitan-speaking world of the time, but credited with enriching the language with his coining of a large number of words, his philosophy.
See Llibre de Meravelles and Blanquerna for more details on his works. These four major literary works are chronicles written between the 13th and 14th centuries narrating the deeds of the monarchs and leading figures of the Crown of Aragon, they are the following: Crònica de Jaume I known as "The book of deeds" Crònica de Bernat Desclot known as "Book of the king, Peter of Aragon". Crònica de Ramon Muntaner Crònica de Pere el Cerimoniós The first widespread vernacular writing in any Romance language was the lyric poetry of the troubadours, who composed in Occitan. Since Occitan and Catalan are indistinguishable before the 14th century, it is not surprising that many Catalans composed in the Occitan poetic koiné; the first Catalan troubadour may be Berenguier de Palazol, active around 1150, who wrote only cançons. Guerau III de Cabrera and Guillem de Berguedà, active in the generation after, were noted exponents of the ensenhamen and sirventes genres respectively. During this early period Occitan literature was patronised by the rulers of Catalonia—not considering their wide involvement in Occitanian politics and as Counts of Provence.
Alfonso II patronised many composers, not just from Catalonia, wrote Occitan poetry himself. The tradition of royal troubadours continued with his descendants Peter III James II of Aragon, the anonymous known only as "Lo bord del rei d'Arago", Frederick II of Sicily; the most prolific Catalan troubadour during the ascendancy of Occitan as language of literature, was Cerverí de Girona, who left behind more than one hundred works. He was the most prolific troubadour of any nationality. In the early 13th century, Raimon Vidal, from Besalú, composed his poetic grammar, the Razos de trobar; this was the earliest and most influential Occitan lyric treatise. The troubadour lyric followed the Catalans to Sicily in the century, where Jaufre de Foixa composed a Regles de trobar modelled on Vidal's earlier work. A third Catalan treatise on the language of the troubadours and composing lyric poetry, the Mirall de trobar, was written by a Majorcan, Berenguer d'Anoia; the first golden age of this language was developed in the Kingdom of Valencia around the 15th century under the variant of "Valenciano".
The Catalan language consolidated and differenciated in lyrical poetry, from Occitan language. The prose is cultivated, with influences from Italian humanism. Authors as the humanist Bernat Metge the preacher Vincent Ferrer, Francesc Eiximenis or Anselm Turmeda write works now considered as classical models of Catalan prose; the narrative and the fiction are shown in novels as Història de Jacob Xalabín, Paris i Viana or the chivalric roman Curial i Güelfa. In the 15th century the main centre of literary production is Valencia: the lyric poetry has outstanding Petrarchian poets: Jordi de Sant Jordi or Ausiàs Marc, or the elaborate poetry and prose of Joan Roís de Corella. In fiction could be outlined Jaume Roig's Espill or Tirant lo Blanc. Written by the Valencian writter Joanot Martorell, this epic romance was among its time's most influential novels, the last major book in Catalan literature until the 19th century; the early modern period, while productive for Castilian writers of the Spanish Golden Age, was termed La Decadència by 19th century Catalan scholars and writers.
This "decadent" period in Catalan literature came about because of a general declin