Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively; the fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to: Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media; this is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose; this is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped; this is the concern of generalization. Orchestrate the elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience; this is the concern of map design. Modern cartography constitutes many theoretical and practical foundations of geographic information systems.
What is the earliest known map is a matter of some debate, both because the term "map" is not well-defined and because some artifacts that might be maps might be something else. A wall painting that might depict the ancient Anatolian city of Çatalhöyük has been dated to the late 7th millennium BCE. Among the prehistoric alpine rock carvings of Mount Bego and Valcamonica, dated to the 4th millennium BCE, geometric patterns consisting of dotted rectangles and lines are interpreted in archaeological literature as a depiction of cultivated plots. Other known maps of the ancient world include the Minoan "House of the Admiral" wall painting from c. 1600 BCE, showing a seaside community in an oblique perspective, an engraved map of the holy Babylonian city of Nippur, from the Kassite period. The oldest surviving world maps are from 9th century BCE Babylonia. One shows Babylon on the Euphrates, surrounded by Assyria and several cities, all, in turn, surrounded by a "bitter river". Another depicts Babylon as being north of the center of the world.
The ancient Greeks and Romans created maps from the time of Anaximander in the 6th century BCE. In the 2nd century CE, Ptolemy wrote his treatise on Geographia; this contained Ptolemy's world map – the world known to Western society. As early as the 8th century, Arab scholars were translating the works of the Greek geographers into Arabic. In ancient China, geographical literature dates to the 5th century BCE; the oldest extant Chinese maps come from the State of Qin, dated back to the 4th century BCE, during the Warring States period. In the book of the Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao, published in 1092 by the Chinese scientist Su Song, a star map on the equidistant cylindrical projection. Although this method of charting seems to have existed in China before this publication and scientist, the greatest significance of the star maps by Su Song is that they represent the oldest existent star maps in printed form. Early forms of cartography of India included depictions of the pole star and surrounding constellations.
These charts may have been used for navigation. "Mappae mundi are the medieval European maps of the world. About 1,100 of these are known to have survived: of these, some 900 are found illustrating manuscripts and the remainder exist as stand-alone documents; the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi produced his medieval atlas Tabula Rogeriana in 1154. By combining the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East with the information he inherited from the classical geographers, he was able to write detailed descriptions of a multitude of countries. Along with the substantial text he had written, he created a world map influenced by the Ptolemaic conception of the world, but with significant influence from multiple Arab geographers, it remained the most accurate world map for the next three centuries. The map was divided with detailed descriptions of each zone; as part of this work, a smaller, circular map was made depicting the south on top and Arabia in the center. Al-Idrisi made an estimate of the circumference of the world, accurate to within 10%.
In the Age of Exploration, from the 15th century to the 17th century, European cartographers both copied earlier maps and drew their own, based on explorers' observations and new surveying techniques. The invention of the magnetic compass and sextant enabled increasing accuracy. In 1492, Martin Behaim, a German cartographer, made the oldest extant globe of the Earth. In 1507, Martin Waldseemüller produced a globular world map and a large 12-panel world wall map bearing the first use of the name "America". Portuguese cartographer Diego Ribero was the author of the first known planisphere with a graduated Equator. Italian cartographer Battista Agnese produced at least 71 manuscript atlases of sea charts. Johannes Werner promoted the Werner projection; this was an equal-area, heart-shaped world map projection, used in the 16th and 17th centuries. Over time, other iterations of this map type arose; the Werner projection places its standard parallel at the North Pole. In 1569, mapmaker Gerardus Mercato
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Flash is the name of several superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Harry Lampert, the original Flash first appeared in Flash Comics #1. Nicknamed the "Scarlet Speedster", all incarnations of the Flash possess "super speed", which includes the ability to run and think fast, use superhuman reflexes, violate certain laws of physics, thus far, at least four different characters—each of whom somehow gained the power of "the speed force"—have assumed the mantle of the Flash in DC's history: college athlete Jay Garrick, forensic scientist Barry Allen, Barry's nephew Wally West, Barry's grandson Bart Allen. Each incarnation of the Flash has been a key member of at least one of DC's premier teams: the Justice Society of America, the Justice League, the Teen Titans; the Flash is one of DC Comics' most popular characters and has been integral to the publisher's many reality-changing "crisis" storylines over the years. The original meeting of the Golden Age Flash Jay Garrick and Silver Age Flash Barry Allen in "Flash of Two Worlds" introduced the Multiverse storytelling concept to DC readers, which would become the basis for many DC stories in the years to come.
Like his Justice League colleagues Wonder Woman and Batman, the Flash has a distinctive cast of adversaries, including the various Rogues and the various psychopathic "speedsters" who go by the names Reverse-Flash or Zoom. Other supporting characters in Flash stories include Barry's wife Iris West, Wally's wife Linda Park, Bart's girlfriend Valerie Perez, friendly fellow speedster Max Mercury, Central City police department members David Singh and Patty Spivot. A staple of the comic book DC Universe, the Flash has been adapted to numerous DC films, video games, animated series, live-action television shows. In live action, Barry Allen has been portrayed by Rod Haase for the 1979 television special Legends of the Superheroes, John Wesley Shipp in the 1990 The Flash series and Grant Gustin in the 2014 The Flash series, by Ezra Miller in the DC Extended Universe series of films, beginning with Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. Shipp portrays a version of Jay Garrick in the 2014 The Flash series.
The various incarnations of the Flash feature in animated series such as Superman: The Animated Series, Justice League, Batman: The Brave and the Bold and Young Justice, as well as the DC Universe Animated Original Movies series. The Flash first appeared in the Golden Age Flash Comics #1, from All-American Publications, one of three companies that would merge to form DC Comics. Created by writer Gardner Fox and artist Harry Lampert, this Flash was Jay Garrick, a college student who gained his speed through the inhalation of hard water vapors; when re-introduced in the 1960s Garrick's origin was modified gaining his powers through exposure to heavy water. Jay Garrick was a popular character in the 1940s, supporting both Flash Comics and All-Flash Quarterly. With superheroes' post-war decline in popularity, Flash Comics was canceled with issue #104 which featured an evil version of the Flash called the Rival; the Justice Society's final Golden Age story ran in All Star Comics #57. In 1956, DC Comics revived superheroes, ushering in what became known as the Silver Age of comic books.
Rather than bringing back the same Golden Age heroes, DC rethought them as new characters for the modern age. The Flash was the first revival, in the tryout comic book Showcase #4; this new Flash was, a police scientist who gained super-speed when bathed by chemicals after a shelf of them was struck by lightning. He adopted the name The Scarlet Speedster after reading a comic book featuring the Golden Age Flash. After several more appearances in Showcase, Allen's character was given his own title, The Flash, the first issue of, #105. Barry Allen and the new Flash were created by writers Robert Kanigher and John Broome and cartoonist Carmine Infantino; the Silver Age Flash proved popular enough that several other Golden Age heroes were revived in new incarnations. A new superhero team, the Justice League of America, was created, with the Flash as a main, charter member. Barry Allen's title introduced a much-imitated plot device into superhero comics when it was revealed that Garrick and Allen existed on fictional parallel worlds.
Their powers allowed them to cross the dimensional boundary between worlds, the men became good friends. Flash of Two Worlds was the first crossover in which a Golden Age character met a Silver Age character. Soon, there were crossovers between the Justice Society. Allen's adventures continued in his own title until the event of Crisis on Infinite Earths; the Flash ended as a series with issue #350. Allen's life had become confused in the early 1980s, DC elected to end his adventures and pass the mantle on to another character. Allen died heroically in Crisis on Infinite Earths #8. Thanks to his ability to travel through time, he would continue to appear oc
Iron Man is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was co-created by writer and editor Stan Lee, developed by scripter Larry Lieber, designed by artists Don Heck and Jack Kirby; the character made his first appearance in Tales of Suspense #39, received his own title in Iron Man #1. A wealthy American business magnate and ingenious scientist, Anthony Edward "Tony" Stark suffers a severe chest injury during a kidnapping; when his captors attempt to force him to build a weapon of mass destruction, he instead creates a powered suit of armor to save his life and escape captivity. Stark develops his suit, adding weapons and other technological devices he designed through his company, Stark Industries, he uses successive versions to protect the world as Iron Man. Although at first concealing his true identity, Stark declared that he was, in fact, Iron Man in a public announcement. Iron Man was a vehicle for Stan Lee to explore Cold War themes the role of American technology and industry in the fight against communism.
Subsequent re-imaginings of Iron Man have transitioned from Cold War motifs to contemporary matters of the time. Throughout most of the character's publication history, Iron Man has been a founding member of the superhero team the Avengers and has been featured in several incarnations of his own various comic book series. Iron Man has been adapted for several animated TV films; the Marvel Cinematic Universe character is portrayed by Robert Downey Jr. in the live action film Iron Man, a critical and box office success. Downey, who received much acclaim for his performance, reprised the role in a cameo in The Incredible Hulk, two Iron Man sequels Iron Man 2 and Iron Man 3, The Avengers, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War and will do so again in Avengers: Endgame in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Iron Man was ranked 12th on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes" in 2011, third in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012. Iron Man's Marvel Comics premiere in Tales of Suspense #39 was a collaboration among editor and story-plotter Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, story-artist Don Heck, cover-artist and character-designer Jack Kirby.
In 1963, Lee had been toying with the idea of a businessman superhero. He wanted to create the "quintessential capitalist", a character that would go against the spirit of the times and Marvel's readership. Lee said, I think, it was the height of the Cold War. The readers, the young readers, if there was one thing they hated, it was war, it was the military... So I got a hero, he was a weapons manufacturer, he was providing weapons for the Army, he was rich, he was an industrialist... I thought it would be fun to take the kind of character that nobody would like, none of our readers would like, shove him down their throats and make them like him... And he became popular, he set out to make the new character a wealthy, glamorous ladies' man, but one with a secret that would plague and torment him as well. Writer Gerry Conway said, "Here you have this character, who on the outside is invulnerable, I mean, just can't be touched, but inside is a wounded figure. Stan made it much an in-your-face wound, you know, his heart was broken, you know broken.
But there's a metaphor going on there. And that's, I think, what made that character interesting." Lee based this playboy's looks and personality on Howard Hughes, explaining, "Howard Hughes was one of the most colorful men of our time. He was an inventor, an adventurer, a multi-billionaire, a ladies' man and a nutcase." "Without being crazy, he was Howard Hughes," Lee said. While Lee intended to write the story himself, a minor deadline emergency forced him to hand over the premiere issue to Lieber, who fleshed out the story; the art was split between Heck. "He designed the costume," Heck said of Kirby, ``. The covers were always done first, but I created the look of the characters, like Tony Stark and his secretary Pepper Potts." In a 1990 interview, when asked if he had "a specific model for Tony Stark and the other characters?", Heck replied "No, I would be thinking more along the lines of some characters I like, which would be the same kind of characters that Alex Toth liked, an Errol Flynn type."
Iron Man first appeared in 13- to 18-page stories in Tales of Suspense, which featured anthology science fiction and supernatural stories. The character's original costume was a bulky gray armored suit, replaced by a golden version in the second story, it was redesigned as sleeker, red-and-golden armor in issue #48 by that issue's interior artist, Steve Ditko, although Kirby drew it on the cover. As Heck recalled in 1985, "he second costume, the red and yellow one, was designed by Steve Ditko. I found it easier than drawing that bulky old thing; the earlier design, the robot-looking one, was more Kirbyish."In his premiere, Iron Man was an anti-communist hero, defeating various Vietnamese agents. Lee regretted this early focus. Throughout the character's comic book series, technological advancement and national defense were constant themes for Iron Man, but issues developed Stark into a more complex and vulnerable character as they depicted his battle with alcoholism and other personal difficulties.
From issue #59 to its final issue #99, the anthological science-fictio
Alan Davis is an English writer and artist of comic books, known for his work on titles such as Captain Britain, The Uncanny X-Men, ClanDestine, Excalibur, JLA: The Nail and JLA: Another Nail. Alan Davis was born on 18 June 1956. Davis began his career in comics on an English fanzine, his first professional work was a strip called The Crusader in Frantic Magazine for Dez Skinn's revamped Marvel UK line. Davis's big break was drawing the revamped Captain Britain story in The Mighty World of Marvel. At the time, he was working full-time in a warehouse in Corby doing work that included loading trucks, he had no interest in pursuing a career in comics, as he considered drawing to be a hobby. Due to his inexperience, Davis did not leave enough room for word balloons in the five-page first installment, so it had to be recut to six pages. Afterwards, Alan Moore took over writing duties on Captain Britain, he drew 14 issues of the monthly Captain Britain title, reprinted in trade paperback. Davis and Moore formed a close working partnership as creators.
R. and Quinch for 2000AD. Davis replaced Garry Leach on Marvelman in Warrior and yet again worked with Moore, he drew the story "Harry Twenty on the High Rock" in 2000AD. In 1985 Davis received his big break in the United States when he was hired by DC Comics to draw Batman and the Outsiders, written by Mike W. Barr. Davis took over from Jim Aparo, his work proved popular enough for him to be assigned artistic duties on DC's flagship title Detective Comics in 1986, again with Barr writing. During the "Batman: Year Two" storyline, Davis encountered difficulties with his editor and left after the first issue of the four-issue storyline; the remaining three issues were illustrated by Todd McFarlane. In the story, which featured Joe Chill, the murderer of Batman's parents, Barr wanted Chill to have a large gun, he asked Davis to draw him with a Mauser with an extended barrel, similar to the one used by the Paul Kirk version of Manhunter. However, after Davis rendered Chill with this firearm throughout Detective Comics #575 and on its cover, he obtained copies of the pages for Batman #404 by Frank Miller and David Mazzucchelli, scheduled to be released months before the "Year Two" storyline, saw that Chill was depicted using a smaller handgun without the extended barrel.
When asked by editorial to redraw the gun in his artwork, Davis refused. Dick Giordano redrew the gun in the artwork. Davis accepted an offer by Uncanny X-Men writer Chris Claremont to work on Marvel Comics' X-Men books. With Claremont, Davis drew two New Mutants Annuals and three issues for Uncanny X-Men. In 1987 the duo launched the monthly series Excalibur, which featured a team consisting of Captain Britain and Meggan together with former X-Men members Kitty Pryde and Rachel Summers; the stories, set in England, saw appearances by many characters from Moore's and Davis' Captain Britain stories of the early 1980s, including the Crazy Gang and the Technet. Davis' pencils were inked by Paul Neary and Mark Farmer. Davis left with issue 24 due to deadline pressures, but returned with issue 42, this time as writer. During this second run, according to Davis, " Terry Kavanagh spoiled me, gave me near total freedom, encouraged me to experiment." Among the new characters he created for his second run on the title were Feron, Cerise and Kylun.
In 1994 Davis created a new series of original characters called the ClanDestine, which featured the Destines, a family of long-lived, magically-powered British superhumans. Davis penciled the title for the first eight issues, he departed after issue 8, the series was canceled with issue 12. In 1996 Davis drew the two issue crossover miniseries X-Men and The ClanDestine. In 1991, Davis reunited with writer Barr to draw the sequel to "Year Two", the one-shot Batman: Full Circle. During much of the 1990s Davis drew many of Marvel and DC Comics major characters and titles, including JLA: The Nail and The Avengers, he was commissioned to write both main X-Men series in 1999, but he left the following year. Starting in October 2002 he wrote and drew for Marvel Killraven, a six-issues miniseries revamping the title character of the 1970s. After a return to Uncanny X-Men, working again with Claremont, Davis wrote and drew in 2006–2007 a six-issue Fantastic Four: The End limited series for Marvel. In February 2008, Davis wrote and pencilled a five-part ClanDestine miniseries and the one-shot Thor: Truth of History for Marvel.
Davis and his wife Heather have a son, a daughter, Pauline. Thomas had been born when Davis began his work on the Captain Britain stories in 1981, Pauline was born a few years later. Batman and the Outsiders #22–36 Detective Comics #569–575 Batman: Full Circle, graphic novel Legion of Superheroes, vol. 4, No. 100, Annual No. 6 JLA: The Nail, miniseries, #1–3 Superboy's Legion, miniseries, #1–2 Batman: Gotham Knights No. 25 JLA: Another Nail, miniseries, #1–3 Captain Britain, vol. 2, #1–14 The Daredevils #1–11 Marvel Superheroes #377–388 Mighty World of Marvel, vol. 2, #7–16 2000 AD #287–307. 317, 350–351, 352–359, 363–367, 509.
Adam Kubert is an American comics artist known for his work for publishers such as Marvel Comics and DC Comics, including work on Action Comics, Astonishing Spider-Man & Wolverine, The Incredible Hulk, Ultimate Fantastic Four, Ultimate X-Men, Wolverine. Kubert was rated by Wizard magazine as one of the "Hot 10 Writers and Artists" in the industry in 2008, he is the son of Joe Kubert and brother of Andy Kubert, both comic book artists as well, the uncle of comics editor Katie Kubert. Born in Dover, New Jersey he is an instructor at the Joe Kubert School located there, which Joe Kubert founded, at which he and Andy studied. Adam Kubert is the son of Joe Kubert, his siblings include a sister and brothers David and Andrew. Comics editor Katie Kubert is his niece, he and his siblings grew up in New Jersey. He began his professional comics career at age 12 as a letterer, he attended the Rochester Institute of Technology and graduated with a degree in medical illustration. He subsequently attended his father's The Kubert School in New Jersey.
Adam Kubert began his comics career as a letterer for DC Comics. His first credited artwork for the company is the story "Gremlins" published in Sgt. Rock #394. In 1988, Adam Kubert drew the Jezebel Jade limited series, a spin-off from the Jonny Quest series, for Comico, he collaborated with his brother on Adam Strange and the Batman versus Predator intercompany crossover. Adam Kubert is known for his work at Marvel Comics. From 1993 to 1996 he illustrated 17 issues of writer Larry Hama's run on Wolverine between issues #75 to 102, his first issue on the series featured the after affects of Magneto removing the adamantium from Wolverine's body. Kubert drew the Weapon X limited series as part of the "Age of Apocalypse" storyline in 1995; the following year, he drew the Onslaught: X-Men and Onslaught: Marvel Universe one-shots which lead into the "Heroes Reborn" crossover. From 1997 to 1998 he illustrated 12 issues of Peter David's run on The Incredible Hulk from #454 to 467, as well as the -1 issue.
From late 1998 to early 1999 Kubert drew X-Men #81 - 84, on which he was teamed up with European colorist Richard Isanove, who subsequently followed Kubert to Ultimate X-Men, employing the pencils-to-color approach seen on most of Ultimate X-Men covers. In 2001, Kubert drew the new Ultimate X-Men title, penciling the first four issues, illustrating 16 various issues beginning with #7, before leaving the title with issue #33. In 2004, he began a run on Ultimate Fantastic Four, once again with writers Mark Millar and Brian Michael Bendis, illustrating that series' first six issues, issues 13-18. Both Adam and his brother Andy signed exclusive contracts with DC Comics in June 2005. Kubert's first project for DC was illustrating "Last Son", a Superman story arc co-written by Geoff Johns and Richard Donner, which ran in Action Comics #844–847, 851 and Action Comics Annual #11. Further delay forced DC Comics to bring in substitute creative teams and delay the fourth part of the "Last Son" storyline and the 3D issue to #851, released in early July 2007.
The final part of the storyline was in Action Comics Annual #11. Following his work on Superman he penciled the "Final Crisis" tie-in, DC Universe: Last Will and Testament, written by Brad Meltzer, his last work for his latest tenure at DC was the Batman and The Outsiders Special, released in February 2009. This issue, written by Peter Tomasi, highlighted Alfred Pennyworth's efforts to recruit a new team of Outsiders in the wake of Batman's apparent death. After the release of the comic book, Kubert said he was pleased with his work at DC and had done, "what set out to do,", to draw Superman. May 2009 marked Adam Kubert's return to Marvel, his first interior work being published as one of two stories in Wolverine #73 and 74. Following this he contributed several covers to New Mutants and Wolverine: Weapon X, penciled the "Dark Reign" tie in, The List: Amazing Spider-Man; when he returned to penciling for Marvel, he continued to do some work for DC, contributing the stories for the Wednesday Comics "Sgt.
Rock" feature, drawn by his father. He has since stated that he is Marvel-exclusive, but they are allowed him to work on the "Sgt. Rock" feature as he had signed on to do it before his contract at DC had expired. Kubert's next job was providing pencils on Astonishing Wolverine. In 2012, Kubert penciled issues # 8 -- # 12 of the Marvel crossover miniseries Avengers vs. X-Men, he drew issues #4–6 of Jonathan Hickman's run on The Avengers. In June 2017, Kubert began penciling Peter Parker: The Spectacular Spider-Man written by Chip Zdarsky; the revamped title being billed as a “back-to-basics” approach for the character. Kubert and his brother Andy teach at The Kubert School, founded by their father, who taught there before his passing in 2012. 1992 Eisner Award for Best Inker for Batman versus Predator Jezebel Jade #1–3 Jonny Quest #6 Action Comics #844–846, 851, Annual #11 Adam Strange #1–3 Batman & the Outsiders Special #1 Batman versus Predator #1–3 Clash #1–3 DC Universe: Last Will and Testament #1 Doc Savage #1–4 Justice League of America vol. 2 #0 Sgt.
Rock #394, 401, 417, 422 Star Trek #38 The Warlord #95, 99–100, Annual #5 Wednesday Comics #1–12 Adam Kubert at the Comic Book DB Adam Kubert at The Kubert School Adam Kubert at Mike's Amazing World of Comics Adam Kubert at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators
Uncanny X-Men published as The X-Men, is an American comic book series published by Marvel Comics since 1963, is the longest-running series in the X-Men comics franchise. It features a team of superheroes called the X-Men, a group of mutants with superhuman abilities led and taught by Professor X; the title was created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, met with a lukewarm reception, was cancelled in 1970. Interest was rekindled with the debut of a new, international team. Under the guidance of David Cockrum and Chris Claremont, whose 16-year stint began with August 1975's Uncanny X-Men #94, the series grew in popularity worldwide spawning a franchise with numerous spin-off "X-books", including New Mutants, X-Factor, Excalibur, X-Force, Generation X, the titled X-Men, a number of prefixed titles such as New X-Men, Astonishing X-Men, Essential X-Men, All-New X-Men and Extraordinary X-Men. Created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the series launched in September 1963, introducing in its first issue the original five X-Men and their teacher, Professor X, as well as their nemesis, the supervillain Magneto.
Although Lee would deny it, it was noticed by contemporary writer Arnold Drake, that the concept of the series emulated his own earlier series for National Periodical Publications's, The Doom Patrol, in many respects. However, National's editorial staff did not support Drake's concerns. Published bimonthly, it became a monthly with issue #14. Lee's run lasted 19 issues, featured X-Men battling villains such as Magneto's Brotherhood of Evil Mutants which included the Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver; the series was placed in the Marvel Universe, with guest appearances by Namor in #6 and the Avengers in #9. The jungle adventure hero Ka-Zar and the Savage Land were introduced in issue #10. Roy Thomas wrote the series from #20 to #44. Thomas and artist Werner Roth created the Banshee in #28; the X-Men #45 featured a crossover with The Avengers #53. After brief runs by Gary Friedrich and Arnold Drake – the latter of which introduced the new X-Men Lorna Dane and Havok, during which the series adopted a new logo designed by Jim Steranko – Thomas returned to the series with issue #55 and was joined by artist Neal Adams the following issue for an acclaimed run of stories.
After a battle with the Hulk in issue #66, the title ceased publishing original material and featured reprints in issues #67 through #93. X-Men was relaunched in May 1975 by Len Wein and Dave Cockrum; the title featured a new, international team consisting of Cyclops, Banshee and Wolverine, along with new characters Storm, Nightcrawler and Thunderbird. The original plan was to continue Giant-Size X-Men as a quarterly, but instead original stories were printed in the book, again bimonthly. Chris Claremont's first issue as writer, #94, featured all the original X-Men leaving the team with the exception of Cyclops. Sunfire left, having agreed to assist the X-Men on one successful mission only. Thunderbird was killed in #95. Moira MacTaggert, a human ally of the X-Men, to be established as a former fiancée of Xavier, debuted in #96. Marvel Girl became the Phoenix in issue #101; this was followed by the first Shi'ar space opera story. Cockrum was replaced as penciller by John Byrne as of #108. Byrne became co-plotter, during his run the series became a monthly title again.
The series title was changed to The Uncanny X-Men with issue #114. For the remainder of the decade the X-Men fight enemies such as Stephen Lang and his Sentinels, Banshee's cousin Black Tom and the Juggernaut, the Shi'ar Erik the Red and the Imperial Guard, Wolverine's former colleagues, Canadian superhero team Alpha Flight, MacTaggert's son Proteus. In 2010, Comics Bulletin ranked Claremont and Byrne's run on The X-Men second on its list of the "Top 10 1970s Marvels"; the "Dark Phoenix Saga" in 1980 led to a change in the line-up of the team, with the death of Phoenix, Cyclops leaving the team to mourn her. Comics writers and historians Roy Thomas and Peter Sanderson observed that "'The Dark Phoenix Saga' is to Claremont and Byrne what'the Galactus Trilogy' is to Stan Lee and Jack Kirby, it is a landmark in Marvel history, showcasing its creators' work at the height of their abilities." The storyline saw the introduction of recurring antagonists the Hellfire Club, its Inner Circle consisting of Sebastian Shaw, Emma Frost, Harry Leland, Donald Pierce, along with Mastermind a member of Magneto's Brotherhood.
Teenage mutant Kitty Pryde was introduced in #129 and joined the X-Men in #139. Dazzler, a disco-singing, roller-skating mutant, was introduced in #130, but did not join the team, instead having a solo title. A new Brotherhood of Evil Mutants, led by Mystique, was introduced in the "Days of Future Past" storyline in which a time-travelling Kitty Pryde tried to avert a dystopian future caused by the Brotherhood assassinating Presidential candidate Senator Robert Kelly. Byrne plotted the story wanting to depict the Sentinels as a genuine threat to the existence of the mutant race, he left the series after #143, being replaced by a returning Cockrum, who in turn was succeeded by Paul Smith and John Romita Jr. By the mid-1980s The Uncanny X-Men had become one of the best-selling American comic