Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Kane Phillips is a fictional character from the Australian Channel Seven soap opera Home and Away, played by Sam Atwell. He first appeared during the episode airing on 9 April 2001 and made his final appearance on 5 March 2009. In 2004, viewers saw. Atwell told of the lengths his character goes to hide his illness from Kirsty. “He’s just focused on not ruining Kirsty’s exam chances.” He added. But when he realises his mobile is in the house he creates a diversion to grab it and wears a disguise!” Kane is first seen in school at Summer Bay High, when a group of Year 9 students talk about a Dance party he is hosting. Kane tries to woo one of his teachers, Shauna Bradley by getting her tickets to see Savage Garden in concert but she declines. Kane's brother, Scott kidnaps Shauna and Kane is forced into being an accessory, however, he saves Shauna. Kane tries his luck with Dani Sutherland, on a break from Will Smith; this leads to Kane raping Dani one day. Will is jumped by several of Kane's friends.
Local headmaster Donald Fisher is given a kicking for his troubles. Kane stands trial with Morag Bellingham presiding as the judge and is found not guilty, leaving Dani distraught. After Kane tearfully apologizes to Dani, he leaves the bay; the following year, Kane returns to the bay and agrees to a mediation session with Dani and local counsellor Flynn Saunders. This fails. Kane takes a job aboard a boat named The Mirgini, to set sail for the sesquentenary celebrations of Summer Bay, it doesn't sit well when Dani's boyfriend Josh West discover this. The boat begins sinking and Kane is washed up on a deserted beach with Dani's mother Shelley and sister Kirsty for a week. Kane saves Shelley from a snake and the three of them are rescued. Kane begins a relationship with Kirsty. Shelley finds out and tells her husband, Rhys and he warns Kane off; the couple run away as they can't live without each other. While on the run, Kane struggles to find them work and Kirsty is nearly sexually assaulted by a drunk.
Kane realizes he has to take Kirsty back home. Kane, being cruel to be kind, throws her out of his car. Kane soon returns to win Kirsty back. Seb Miller, Kirsty's current boyfriend punches him. Kirsty can't fight her feelings for Kane and they reunite, breaking Seb's heart; when Kane and Kirsty become common knowledge once more, Dani decides to accept it as she feels trying to keeping them apart will only bring them closer together. When Dani drives back from university once night, she runs over Kane. Kane is rushed to hospital and Kirsty arrives by his bedside keeping a constant vigil. Kane cannot remember the whole story at first but tells the police. Kane wants Kirsty to use his version of events when questioned but the police question Kirsty at home. Dani stands trial, with Morag as the judge once again; when the prosecutor insinuates that Dani wanted to kill Kane, she breaks down on the stand admitting so. The jury render a verdict of guilty and Dani is imprisoned. Kane leaves town in the aftermath of the trial for a while.
After the Sutherlands fall into a mineshaft, Kane is accused. He manages to dig the family out, injuring his hands in the process. In spite of this, Rhys is still frosty with Kane. Kane proposes to Kirsty and she accepts, their secret wedding is held on the same day as Rhys' wedding to Beth Hunter. Irene Roberts offers the couple a room with her at the beach house. Kirsty tells Kane she is pregnant with his baby but this is revealed to be a lie. Kane nearly strikes Kirsty during an argument, she flees and when she returns, Kirsty takes out an AVO against Kane, they reconcile and Kirsty does fall pregnant for real but tragically miscarries. Sarah Lewis tells Kirsty Kane is cheating on her but he denies it. Kane and Kirsty are drawn into a hostage situation with Sarah and several other Summer Bay residents which culminates in Sarah shooting Noah Lawson dead before committing suicide. Several weeks Kane discovers he has testicular cancer but decides to keep it quiet as Kirsty is taking her HSC, he tells Flynn, a doctor and his wife, Sally Fletcher that he plans to tell Kirsty that he is going away on a boat trip for a week so she will not suspect he is having an operation.
Kirsty finds out and stands by him. Kane is shocked when his father Gus reappears in his life and is hostile towards him as Scott had beaten him in his childhood. After being convinced to give Gus a second chance by Kirsty, Kane find himself framed for a robbery that he didn't commit. Kane gets nowhere. Morag, who ruled in Kane's favor twice before in court, defends him; the evidence is stacked against Kane and Scott lies during his testimony, exacerbating Kane's plight. Before the jury return a verdict, Kane tells Kirsty to pack and they flee the bay, with Kirsty several months pregnant. Three years on, Irene goes to meet Kirsty, she agrees to look after Kane and Kirsty's son, now three years old. Kane turns up at the b
Nambour is a town and locality in South East Queensland, Australia, 101 kilometres north of the state capital, Brisbane. The town lies in the sub-tropical hinterland of the Sunshine Coast at the foot of the Blackall Range and has a population of 11,187, it was the administrative centre and capital of the Maroochy Shire and is now the administrative centre of the Sunshine Coast Region. The greater Nambour region includes surrounding suburbs such as Burnside, Coes Creek, Perwillowen, has an estimated population of 15,550; the name is derived from the Aboriginal word "naamba", referring to the red-flowering bottle brush Callistemon viminalis. In 1862, Tom Petrie with 25 Turrbal and Kabi Kabi men including Ker-Walli and Billy Dinghy entered Petrie's Creek with the view to exploit the large cedar growing in the vicinity. Near Rosemount, they encountered some resident aboriginals with whom they had a traditional ceremony together. Petrie's group afterwards made a permanent logging camp further up the creek in the area now known as Nambour.
At this camp, Petrie branded the 25 aboriginals. With a piece of prepared glass, he cut his logging symbol of a P inside a circle into each of the men's arms; these aboriginals, as well as local Maroochy men such as Puram, worked hard, returning with Petrie to build the roadway, fell the timber and transport the logs downriver. The Nambour area had its first permanent European settlement in 1870; the town was still just called Petrie's Creek. In 1890 the Maroochy Divisional Board was established. In 1891, the rail link with Brisbane was completed, at its opening Petrie's Creek was renamed "Nambour", after the Nambour cattle station. A fire in 1924 destroyed many of the timber buildings along the main street. Petrie's Creek Post Office opened on 1 June 1888 and was renamed Nambour by 1890; the Nambour branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association was founded on 1 November 1928. In 1931 they established their QCWA Rest Rooms in the Shire Hall. In September 1958 they opened their own building at 10 Short Street.
The town was bypassed by the Bruce Highway on 16 October 1990, which now forms the locality's north-eastern boundary. This alleviated most of the local traffic congestion. Along the middle of the roadway of Mill and Howard Streets, a piece of Queensland Rail history is still on display - the Nambour to Coolum Tramline; the Tramline was used to transport passengers and sugar cane in the early 1920s. The Tramline forms part of the Moreton Central Sugar Mill Cane Tramway, The tramway closed at the end of 2001. Much of the track and signal lighting still remains; the Nambour & District Historical Museum, more known as the Nambour Museum began with an opening ceremony held on 20 April 1996. The Nambour Public Library opened in 1982 and had a major refurbishment in 1998 with a minor refurbishment in 2016. In the 2011 census, Nambour had a population of 10,221. Nambour has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Mill Street, Currie Street, Howard Street: Moreton Central Sugar Mill Cane Tramway 17 & 19 Mill Street, 14 & 16 Bury Street: former Moreton Central Sugar Mill Worker's HousingAnother heritage listing associated with the Moreton Central Sugar Mill is the Store Road, Maroochy River: Tramway Lift Bridge over Maroochy River According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 11,187 people in Nambour.
52.9% of the population were female and 47.1% were male The median age was 40 years Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 4.4% of the population. 77.1% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 4.0% and New Zealand 3.6%. 87.7% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 33.5%, Catholic 16.0% and Anglican 13.5%. Nambour is represented by the following politicians: Nambour's primary industry has been sugar, with extensive cane fields surrounding the town, the Moreton Central Sugar Mill in the town centre; the mill itself began operating in 1897 until it was closed in 2003. The long-term future of the sugar industry in the area is in doubt. Other industries in the area include tourism, the growing of tropical fruits; the Big Pineapple tourist attraction on the southern outskirts of the town reflects both of these pursuits. The Big Pineapple Music Festival attracts thousands of visitors to Nambour.
Other tourist attractions include Thrill Hill Waterslide Park, the Big Cow, the Big Macadamia nut. Situated near Nambour is the Queensland Government's Maroochy Research Station, a major subtropical fruit and nut research and extension centre; the 61 ha research facility was established in 1945, has an office and laboratory complex, netted orchards, postharvest coolrooms and a biotechnology facility. With access to national and international funding sources, specialist staff work in conjunction with investigators from other research agencies; the main shopping areas in Nambour are Nambour Plaza which has 40 stores, Nambour Mill Village Shopping Centre and Centenary Square Shopping Centre. The TransLink Transit Authority is the authority that coordinates and integrates the public rail and bus services in South-East Queensland, of which Nambour is in Zone 6. Nambour is serviced by several Queensland Rail passenger trains, including the Tilt Train and is one and a half hours north of Brisbane by rail.
Regular services use the Sunshine Coast line. The region connected to Brisbane via the Bruce Highway. Greyhound Australia interstate coach
Home and Away
Home and Away is an Australian television soap opera. It was created by Alan Bateman and commenced broadcast on the Seven Network on 17 January 1988. Bateman came up with the concept of the show during a trip to Kangaroo Point, New South Wales, where he noticed locals were complaining about the construction of a foster home and against the idea of foster children from the city living in the area; the soap opera was going to be called Refuge, but the name was changed to the "friendlier" title of Home and Away once production began. The show premiered with a ninety-minute pilot episode. Since each subsequent episode has aired for a duration of twenty-two minutes and Home and Away has become the second longest-running drama series in Australian television. In Australia, it is broadcast from Mondays to Thursdays at 7:00 pm.'Home and Away' follows the lives and loves of the residents in Summer Bay, a fictional seaside town of New South Wales. The series focused on the Fletcher family – Tom and Pippa, their five foster children, Frank Morgan, Carly Morris, Lynn Davenport, Steven Matheson and Sally Fletcher – who moved from the city into the Summer Bay House, where they assumed the new job of running the caravan park, took in a sixth foster child, Bobby Simpson.
Home and Away was not without controversy. During the first season alone, it featured several adult-themed storylines such as teen pregnancy, rape and alcohol addiction and drug overdose; the series has dealt with similar storylines over the years which have exceeded its restricted time slot. Palm Beach in Sydney's Northern Beaches district has been used as the location for Summer Bay since 1988; the exterior scenes are filmed at Palm Beach, while the interior scenes are filmed at the Australian Technology Park in Redfern. Home and Away has been sold to over eighty countries around the world, making it one of Australia's successful media exports, it is popular in the United Kingdom, is one of the highest-rating shows on RTÉ Television in Ireland and TV2 in New Zealand. In Australia and Away is the most awarded program at the Logie Awards, with a total of forty-six wins, including Best Drama Program; some cast members have won several other awards such as the Gold Logie for Most Popular Personality on Australian Television, Silver Logie for Most Popular Actor, Most Popular Actress.
In 2015, Home and Away was inducted into the Logie Hall of Fame. After the Seven Network cancelled their soap opera Neighbours on 12 July 1985 due to low ratings, rival network Ten picked it up and turned it into a success. A couple of years Seven's head of drama, Alan Bateman, became desperate to get back into the soap market and began to work out how to launch another soap, not a copy of Neighbours. While on a trip to Kangaroo Point, New South Wales with his family, Bateman began talking to locals who were "up in arms" over the construction of a foster home for children from the city. Seeing the degree of conflict the "influx of parentless children on a tight-knit community" was having, Bateman came away with the idea for a new serial, he explained "Nobody in the community wanted them to move in and I began to wonder how streetwise city kids would adapt to the new lifestyle. I thought, there is my slice of life in a community." Bateman set the serial in the fictional town of Summer Bay. While Seven Network executives were unconvinced by the idea, audience research was positive.
The soap opera was called Refuge, but the name was changed to the "friendlier" title of Home and Away once production began. Home and Away has since become the second-longest drama series in Australian television after Neighbours. During the show's first season in 1988, a rape storyline for the character Carly Morris outraged the public and a protest erupted, as viewers deemed it an inappropriate subject to be covering in an early evening time slot. In 2002, several former characters such as Frank Morgan, Carly Morris, Steven Matheson, Blake Dean and Sophie Simpson returned for a special storyline to mark the 150th anniversary of settlement in Summer Bay; the storyline featured a majority of the cast boarded onto a ferry boat for a night cruise. In July 2005, Home and Away celebrated its 4000th episode, which saw many former cast members return for Alf Stewart's surprise 60th birthday party. In March 2007, the commercial television industry's Annual Code Complaint Report revealed that Home and Away was the eighth most complained about show on Australian television, the only drama series in the top ten complaint list.
From 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006, there were 23 written complaints about the show as viewers thought it was inappropriate for it to be shown in its 7:00 pm timeslot. In March 2009, it was alleged that Seven had agreed to censor a then-upcoming lesbian kiss scene between Charlie Buckton and Joey Collins, after receiving many complaints from conservative groups and mothers who did not want their children exposed to same-sex relationships in a family show. Seven's head of creative drama, Bevan Lee confirmed that the censorship allegations were in fact false and that the scene would still go to air as planned. Home and Away celebrated its 21st year in production in Sydney on 23 July 2009; the mayor of Sydney's Pittwater Council presented
The Seven Network is a major Australian commercial free-to-air television network. It is owned by Seven West Media Limited, is one of five main free-to-air television networks in Australia. Channel Seven head. Since 2007, the Seven Network has been the highest rated television network and primary channel in Australia; the Seven Network is the broadcaster of popular franchises and programs, including the AFL, the Cricket, the Olympics, Sunrise, My Kitchen Rules, The Chase Australia, Australia's Got Talent, House Rules and Away, Better Homes & Gardens and Seven News. In 2011 the Seven Network won all 40 out of 40 weeks of the ratings season for total viewers. Seven is the first to achieve this since the introduction of the OzTAM ratings system in 2001; as of 2014, it is the second largest network in the country in terms of population reach. Seven's administration headquarters are in Eveleigh, completed in 2003. National news and current affairs programming are based between flagship station ATN-7 in Sydney and HSV-7 in Melbourne.
In 2009, Seven moved its Sydney-based production operations from Epping to a purpose-built high-definition television production facility at the Australian Technology Park in Eveleigh. The present Seven Network began as a group of independent stations in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth. HSV-7 Melbourne, licensed to The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, was launched on 4 November 1956, the first station in the country to use the VHF7 frequency. ATN-7 Sydney, licensed to Amalgamated Television Services, a subsidiary of Fairfax, was launched on 2 December 1956; the two stations did not share resources, instead formed content-sharing partnerships with their VHF9 counterparts by 1957: ATN-7 partnered with Melbourne's GTV-9, while HSV-7 paired up with Sydney's TCN-9. TVW-7 Perth, licensed to TVW Limited, a subsidiary of West Australian Newspapers, publisher of The West Australian, began broadcasting two years on 16 October 1959, as the city's first commercial station. BTQ-7 Brisbane followed on 1 November, signing on as Brisbane's second commercial television station.
ADS-7 Adelaide was launched on 24 October 1959 as the final capital city VHF7 station. The station swapped frequencies with SAS-10, with the latter becoming SAS-7HSV-7 began its relationship with the Victorian Football League in April 1957, when the station broadcast the first live Australian rules football match. Throughout this time, the stations operated independently of each other, with schedules made up of various simple, inexpensive, such as Pick a Box and spinoffs of popular radio shows. In the early 1960s, coaxial cable links, formed between Sydney and Melbourne, allowed the sharing of programmes and simultaneous broadcasts of live shows. In 1960, Frank Packer, the owner of Sydney's TCN-9, bought a controlling share of Melbourne's GTV-9, in the process creating the country's first television network and dissolving the ATN-7/GTV-9 and HSV-7/TCN-9 partnerships. Left without their original partners, ATN-7 and HSV-7 joined to form the Australian Television Network in 1963; the new grouping was soon joined by other capital-city channel 7 stations, ADS-7 Adelaide and BTQ-7 Brisbane.
The new network began to produce and screen higher-budget programs to attract viewers, most notably Homicide, a series which would continue for another 12 years to become the nation's longest running drama series. However, it was not until 1970 that a national network logo was adopted, albeit still with independently owned and operated stations with local advertising campaigns. Colour television was introduced across the network in 1975. Rupert Murdoch made an unsuccessful bid for the Herald and Weekly Times, owners of HSV-7, in 1979 going on to gain control of rival ATV-10. Fairfax, however bought a 14.9% share of the company in the same year. The 1980s saw the introduction of stereo sound, as well as a number of successful shows, most notably A Country Practice in 1981, Sons and Daughters, which began in 1982. Wheel of Fortune began its 25-year run in July 1981, produced from ADS-7's studios in Adelaide; the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow were shown live on the network the year before. Neighbours began on Seven in 1985, but low ratings in Sydney led to the cancellation of the new series at the end of the year, which moved to Network Ten and went on to achieve international success.
Perth based businessman Robert Holmes à Court, through his business the Bell Group, bought TVW-7 from its original owners, West Australian Newspapers in 1982. The Herald and Weekly Times, owner of HSV-7 and ADS-7, was sold to Rupert Murdoch in December 1986 for an estimated A$1.8 billion. Murdoch's company, News Limited, sold off HSV-7 to Fairfax soon afterwards, for $320 million. Fairfax went on to axe a number of locally produced shows in favour of networked content from its Sydney counterpart, ATN-7. Cross-media ownership laws introduced in 1987 forced Fairfax to choose between its print and television operations – it chose the former, sold off its stations to Qintex Ltd. owned by businessman Christopher Skase. Qintex had bought, subsequently sold off, stations in Brisbane and regional Queensland before taking control of the network; the next year, another new logo was introduced along with evening soap Home and Away and a relaunched Seven Nightly News, now known as Seven News. The network became national in 1988 when Skase bought TVW-7 for $130 million.
In 1989, the network cha
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile