Old Synagogue (Dortmund)

The Old Synagogue was the largest synagogue and cultural center of the Jewish community in Dortmund, Germany. The synagogue was opened in 1900. With a capacity of 1,300 seats it was one of the largest Jewish houses of worship in Germany. After the Nazi Party gained power in 1933, the local government forced the Jewish community to sell the property and decided to demolish the synagogue; the proceeds from the sale were seized by the Nazi regime. Demolition works began a few weeks before the Kristallnacht and were finished in December 1938. In 1958 -- 1965 the new Opernhaus Dortmund was built on the site. Since 1998 the forecourt is known as Platz der Alten Synagoge and a memorial stone as well as a memorial plaque was erected. Über Benno Jacob – Rabbiner in Dortmund 1906–1929 Jüdisches Leben in Europa jenseits der Metropolen


The Multi-spectral solar telescope array, or MSSTA, was a sounding rocket payload built by Professor A. B. C. Walker, Jr. at Stanford University in the 1990s to test EUV/XUV imaging of the Sun using normal incidence EUV-reflective multilayer optics. MSSTA contained a large number of individual telescopes, all trained on the Sun and all sensitive to different wavelengths of ultraviolet light. Like all sounding rockets, MSSTA flew for 14 minutes per mission, about 5 minutes of which were in space—just enough time to test a new technology or yield "first results" science. MSSTA is one of the last solar observing instruments to use photographic film rather than a digital camera system such as a CCD. MSSTA used film instead of a CCD in order to achieve the highest possible spatial resolution and to avoid the electronics difficulty presented by the large number of detectors that would have been required for its many telescopes. MSSTA and its sister rocket, NIXT, were prototypes for normal incidence EUV imaging telescopes that are in use today, such as the EIT instrument aboard the SOHO spacecraft, the TRACE spacecraft.

MSSTA flew three times: once in 1991, once in 1994, once in 2002. While Dr. Walker's 1991 telescope was the first in the series to carry the MSSTA moniker, the precursor to the MSSTA, the Stanford/MSFC Rocket Spectroheliograph, which carried two EUV telescopes in 1987, was the first mission to obtain high-resolution, full-disk solar images utilizing normal incidence EUV optics; the MSSTA I flown in 1991 carried 14 telescopes. Several Stanford Ph. D. degrees in Physics resulted from the MSSTA program. These include those earned by Dr. Joakim Lindblom, Dr. Maxwell J. Allen, Dr. Ray H. O'Neal, Dr. Craig E. DeForest, Dr. Charles C. Kankelborg, Dr. Hakeem M. Oluseyi, Dr. Dennis S. Martinez-Galarce, Dr. Paul F. X. Boerner. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph Experiment NIXT