Angelina County, Texas
Angelina County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 86,771, the county was formed in 1846 from Nacogdoches County. It is named for a Hasinai Native American woman who assisted early Spanish missionaries and was named Angelina by them, Angelina County is a wet county as of November 2006 wet/dry election. In November 2007 the small community of Burke was the city in Angelina county to return to dry status. The Lufkin, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Angelina County, the countys first Anglo settlers were what John Nova Lomax described as Scotch-Irish backwoods folk. Cotton farmers and slaves did not come to Angelina County because it had poor soil, settlement was still thin when Texas won its independence. Angelina County was organized on April 22,1846, when Nacogdoches County was divided, the first permanent settler after the county was formed is thought to have been George W. Collins. The population increased quickly due to the good farming land and to the rivers.
The population reached 1,165,196 of whom were slaves, the first county seat was Marion, Jonesville became county seat in 1854, Homer in 1858, and Lufkin in 1892. Lufkin was favored by the route of the Houston and West Texas Railway, Angelina County was settled predominantly by natives of the southern United States, some of them slaveowners who established plantations in their new Texas home. Large plantations were owned by the Stearns, Kalty, however, many Angelina County farmers were relatively poor men who owned no slaves. In 1847 slaves numbered 154, out of a population of 834. In 1859 the number of slaves had grown to 427, valued at $269,550, cotton culture, occupied only 2,048 acres of county land in 1858, a relatively small area for East Texas. Between 1850 and 1860 improved land in the county increased from about 3,000 to about 16,000 acres, in 1861 Angelina County was the only county in East Texas, and one of only a handful of other Texas counties, to reject secession. This election result was startling when compared with that of Angelina Countys neighbor to the south, Tyler County.
Angelina County had given the Constitutional Union party candidate, John Bell, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 865 square miles, of which 798 square miles is land and 67 square miles is water. Angelina National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 80,130 people,28,685 households, the population density was 100 people per square mile. There were 32,435 housing units at a density of 40 per square mile
East Texas is a distinct cultural and ecological area in the U. S. state of Texas. The East Texas Regions includes Tyler, Marshall, Jacksonville, Mount Pleasant, most of the region consists of the Piney Woods ecoregion, and East Texas can sometimes be reduced to include only the Piney Woods. Houston is rarely regarded as a part of East Texas and is closely associated with the Coastal Bend along the Gulf of Mexico. At the fringes, towards Central Texas, the forests expand outward toward sparser trees, outside of the Greater Houston area the average population density is around 18–45 per square mile, with the population density near the Big Thicket dropping below 18 people per sq mi. East Texass population is large and is centered around the Golden Triangle which is Beaumont/Port Arthur/Orange in Southeast Texas. Moving north from the coast and Nacogdoches anchor the center of Deep East Texas. Only eight miles from the Texas border, Louisiana, is considered the economic and cultural center for the Ark-La-Tex, the area where Arkansas, East Texas receives more rainfall,35 to 60 inches, than the rest of Texas.
All of East Texas lies within the Gulf Coastal Plain, local vegetation varies from north to south with the lower third consisting of the temperate grassland extending from South Texas to South Louisiana. The upper two-thirds of the region dominated by temperate forest known as the Piney Woods, the Piney Woods are part of a much larger region of pine-hardwood forest that extends into Louisiana and Oklahoma. The Piney Woods thins out as it nears the Gulf of Mexico, west of the Piney Woods are the ranchlands and remnant oak forests of the East Central Texas forests ecoregion. The Sabine River, Trinity River, Neches River, Angelina River and Sulphur River are the rivers in East Texas. The Brazos cuts through the southwest portion of the region while the Red River forms its border with Oklahoma. In East Texas and the rest of the South, small rivers and creeks collect into swamps called Bayous, bald cypress and Spanish moss are the dominant plants in bayous. The most famous of these bayous are Cypress Bayou and Buffalo Bayou, Cypress Bayou surrounds the Big and Black Cypress rivers around Jefferson.
They flow east into Caddo Lake and the adjoining wetlands cover the rim, East Texas is often considered the westernmost extension of the Deep South. The predominant cultural influence comes from customs and traditions passed down from European-American and African-American Southerners who settled the region during the mid, african Americans were first brought to the area as enslaved workers for the plantations. These influences are noticeable in the sub-dialect of Texan English that is throughout the region. East Texas did not have the influence of late 19th and early 20th century European immigrants from Germany and Central Europe
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16. 6% of the total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013, China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants, the average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt-hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks.
In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical-, by the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics. The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well, in 1878 the worlds first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong. It was used to power an arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No.1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30,1882, in Appleton, Wisconsin, by 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone, at the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors, by 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land, as the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority. Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century, Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dams initial 1,345 MW power station was the worlds largest hydroelectric station in 1936
The bluegill is a species of freshwater fish sometimes referred to as bream, brim, or copper nose. It is a member of the sunfish family Centrarchidae of the order Perciformes and it is native to North America and lives in streams, rivers and ponds. It is commonly found east of the Rockies and it usually hides around, and inside, old tree stumps and other underwater structures. It can live in deep or very shallow water, and will often move back and forth. Bluegills like to find shelter among water plants and in the shade of trees along banks, bluegills can grow up to 12 inches long and about 4 1⁄2 pounds. They have very distinctive coloring, with blue and purple on the face and gill cover, dark olive-colored bands down the side. The fish are omnivores and will eat anything they can fit in their mouth and they mostly feed on small aquatic insects and fish. The fish play a key role in the chain, and are prey for muskies, trout, herons, snapping turtles. The bluegill is the fish of Illinois. The bluegill is noted for the spot that it has on the posterior edge of the gills.
The sides of its head and chin are a shade of blue. It usually contains 5–9 vertical bars on the sides of its body and it has a yellowish breast and abdomen, with the breast of the breeding male being a bright orange. The bluegill has three spines, ten to 12 anal fin rays, six to 13 dorsal fin spines,11 to 12 dorsal rays. They are characterized by their deep, flattened bodies and they have a terminal mouth, ctenoid scales, and a lateral line that is arched upward anteriorly. The bluegill typically ranges in size from four to 12 inches. The largest bluegill ever caught was four pounds,12 ounces in 1950, the bluegill is most closely related to the orangespotted sunfish and the redear sunfish, but different in a distinct spot at or near the base of the soft dorsal fin. Today they have introduced to almost everywhere else in North America, and have been introduced into Europe, South Africa, Asia, South America. Bluegills have found in the Chesapeake Bay, indicating they can tolerate up to 1. 8% salinity
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, an island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, an island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge. Example and its causeway, or the various Dutch delta islands, there are two main types of islands in the sea and oceanic. The word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland, Old English ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua. There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology, continents sit on continental lithosphere which is part of tectonic plates floating high on Earths mantle. Oceanic crust is part of tectonic plates, but it is denser than continental lithosphere, Islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust or geologically they are part of some continent sitting on continental lithosphere.
This holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere, continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent. A special type of island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, the Kerguelen Islands, New Caledonia, New Zealand, another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable, oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean, the few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean, one type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc.
These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring, examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, and most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles, another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples, which is the second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen. A third type of oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the tectonic plate above it
Game fish are fish pursued for sport by recreational anglers. They can be freshwater or saltwater fish, Game fish can be eaten after being caught, though increasingly anglers practice catch and release to improve fish populations. Some game fish are targeted commercially, particularly salmon. The species of fish pursued by anglers varies with geography, some fish are sought for their value as food while others are pursued for their fighting abilities or for the difficulty of pursuit. Big game fish are bony fish such as tuna, tarpon. In North America, anglers fish for common snook, salmon, bass, catfish, the smallest fish are called panfish, because they can fit in a normal cooking pan. Examples are crappies, rock bass and sunfish, panfish are often hunted by younger anglers. In the United Kingdom, game fish refers to Salmonids – that is, trout, other freshwater fish are called coarse fish. Some popular game fish have been transported worldwide, rainbow trout, for instance, can now be found nearly anywhere that the climate is appropriate, from their original home on the Pacific Coast of North America to the mountains of southern Africa.
As part of the catch and release practice encouraged to promote conservation, some of their goals are to improve the management of fisheries resources and to keep records on abundance, growth rates, age and strain identification. Some well known tagging programs in the United States are the South Carolina Marine Game Fish Tagging Program, the South Carolina Marine Game Fish Tagging Program began in 1974 and it is now the largest public tagging program in the Southeastern United States. Anglers are trained and receive a tag kit with tags, when they tag a fish, anglers use a reply postcard they receive in advance to send the information on the tag number, tag date, location and size. This program issues anglers who tag and release 30 or more species within a year a conservation award. When an angler recaptures a tagged fish, he should report the recapture, if possible the tag number and the mailing address should be reported along with the location and date of the recapture as well with the measurement of the fish.
The objective is to provide biologists with the information to determine growth rate through an accurate measurement. The Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program started operations in 1995 and keeps records on recaptured fish since and this is an annual program that starts in January and it is limited to 160 anglers. Anglers receive training workshops in February and March, the official guide to world salt and freshwater fish records is the World Record Game Fishes, published annually by the International Game Fish Association. The IGFA maintains records for nearly 400 species around the world, the records are categorised, with separate records for juniors, for the type of tackle and line used, for fly fishing, and locality records
Beaumont is a city in and the county seat of Jefferson County, Texas in the United States, within the Beaumont–Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area. Beaumont was founded as a town in 1835 by Northerners, the early European-American settlement had an economy based on the development of lumber and port industries. Rice became an important commodity crop in Texas, and is now cultivated in 23 counties, a big change occurred in 1901 with the Spindletop gusher, which demonstrated the potential of the huge oil field. With Spindletop, several companies developed in Beaumont, and some continue. The area rapidly developed as one of the major petro-chemical refining areas in the country, along with Port Arthur and Orange, Beaumont forms the Golden Triangle, a major industrial area on the Texas Gulf Coast. Beaumont is home of Lamar University, a national Carnegie Doctoral Research university with 14,966 students, including undergraduates and post graduates. Over the years, several corporations have been based in this city, gSUs Edison Plaza headquarters is still the tallest building in Beaumont.
In 1824 Noah and Nancy Tevis settled on the west bank of the Neches River, soon after that, a small community grew up around the farm, which was named Tevis Bluff or Neches River Settlement. They began planning a town to be out on this land. Their partnership, J. P. Pulsifer and Company, controlled the first 50 acres upon which the town was founded and this town was named Beaumont, after Jefferson Beaumont, the brother-in-law of Henry Millard. They added more property for a total of 200 acres, Beaumont became a town on 16 December 1838. Beaumonts first mayor was Alexander Calder, from the towns founding in 1835, business activities included real estate and retail sales. Later, other businesses were formed, especially in construction and operation, new building construction, lumber sales. The Port of Beaumont became a regional shipping center. Beaumont was a center for cattle raisers and farmers in its early years. With an active riverport by the 1880s, it became an important lumber and it exported rice as a commodity crop.
The Beaumont Rice Mill, founded in 1892 by Joseph Eloi Broussard, was the first commercially successful rice mill in Texas, in addition, Broussard founded a company to operate an irrigation system to support rice culture. This helped stimulate the expansion of cultivation from 1500 acres in 1892 to 400,000 acres in 23 counties by his death in 1956
88th United States Congress
The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eighteenth Census of the United States in 1960, and the number of members was again 435. Both chambers had a Democratic majority, november 22,1963, Lyndon Johnson became President of the United States on the death of President John Kennedy. March 30 – June 10,1964, The longest filibuster in the history of the Senate was waged against the Civil Rights Act of 1964, with 57 days of debate over a 73-day period. It ended when the Senate voted 71–29 to invoke cloture, with the carried out by southern members of the Democratic Party. August 2–4,1964, Gulf of Tonkin Incident June 10,1963, Equal Pay Act, 88–38 October 17,1963, Department of Defense Appropriations Act, Pub. L. 88–149 October 31,1963, Community Mental Health Centers Act, 88–164, title II, including Mental Retardation Facilities Construction Act December 17,1963, Clean Air Act, Pub. L. 88–206 July 2,1964, Civil Rights Act of 1964, 88–352 July 9,1964, Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964, Pub. L.
88–365 August 7,1964, Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Pub. L, 88–408 August 20,1964, Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, Pub. L. 88–452 August 31,1964, Food Stamp Act of 1964, 88–525 September 3,1964, Wilderness Act, Pub. L. 88–577 September 4,1964, Nurse Training Act, Pub. L, senators are ordered first by state, and by seniority. Harrison Chaplain, Frederick Brown Harris, Methodist Parliamentarian, Charles Watkins Floyd Riddick Secretary, Felton McLellan Johnston Sergeant at Arms, Joseph C. Duke Clerk, Ralph R. Roberts Doorkeeper, William Mosley Fishbait Miller Parliamentarian, Lewis Deschler Postmaster, H. H. Morris Sergeant at Arms, Zeake W. Johnson, Senate history Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present House of Representatives Session Calendar for the 88th Congress. Official Congressional Directory for the 88th Congress, 1st Session, official Congressional Directory for the 88th Congress, 2nd Session. Pocket Congressional Directory for the 88th Congress
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
He represented Texas 4th congressional district as a Democrat from 1913 to 1961. Rayburn was born in Roane County, Tennessee, on January 6,1882,24 days before Franklin D. Roosevelt and he was the son of Martha Clementine and William Marion Rayburn. In 1887 the Rayburn family moved to a farm near Windom. Rayburn graduated from East Texas Normal College in Commerce and became a schoolteacher and he won election to the Texas House of Representatives, beginning his first term in 1907. He attended the University of Texas School of Law while a state representative, during his third two-year term in the Texas House, he was elected Speaker of the House at the age of twenty-nine. The next year, he won election to the United States House of Representatives in District 4 and he entered Congress in 1913 at the beginning of Woodrow Wilsons presidency and served in office for almost 49 years, until the beginning of John F. Kennedys presidency. For the next 21 years, Rayburn was the leader of the House Democrats and his career as Speaker was interrupted twice, 1947–1949 and 1953–1955, when Republicans controlled the House.
During those periods of Republican rule, Rayburn served as Minority Leader, martin Jr. of Massachusetts, actually a close personal friend of Rayburns. Rayburn was instrumental to Lyndon Johnsons ascent to power, particularly his rapid rise to the position of Minority Leader, Johnson had been in the Senate for a mere four years when he assumed the role. Johnson owed his subsequent elevation to Majority Leader to Rayburn, like Johnson, Rayburn did not sign the Southern Manifesto. Rayburn was a friend of Jaja Wachuku, the first indigenous Speaker of the Nigerian House of Representatives. Although many Texas legislators were on the payroll of public service corporations, when the first check came after I entered the firm, Mr. Thurmond brought to my desk one-third of the amount of the check, explaining what it was for. I never did take a dollar of it, I have been guided by the principle in all my dealings. This practice of refusing to accept fees from clients with interests before the legislature was virtually unheard-of at the time, while serving in Congress, a wealthy oil man had a very expensive horse delivered to Rayburns farm in Bonham.
No one apparently knew the oil man delivered the horse except him, Rayburn, in shaping legislation, Rayburn preferred working quietly in the background to being in the public spotlight. As Speaker, he won a reputation for fairness and integrity, after he died his estate was valued at just under $300,000, which was mostly land he owned, and the amount of cash he had in various checking accounts was just over $26,000. Rayburn was well known among his colleagues for his after business hours Board of Education meetings in hideaway offices in the House, during these off-the-record sessions, the Speaker and powerful committee chairmen would gather for poker, and a frank discussion of politics. Rayburn alone determined who received an invitation to these gatherings, to be invited to one was a high honor
The largemouth bass is a freshwater gamefish in the sunfish family, a species of black bass native to North America. The largemouth bass is the fish of Georgia and Indiana, the state freshwater fish of Florida and Alabama. The upper jaw of a largemouth bass extends beyond the margin of the orbit. In comparison to age, a bass is larger than a male. The largemouth is the largest of the basses, reaching a maximum recorded overall length of 29.5 in. The fish lives 16 years on average, the juvenile largemouth bass consumes mostly small bait fish, small shrimp, and insects. Adults consume smaller fish, snails, frogs, salamanders and even small birds, mammals. It consumes younger members of larger species, such as pike, trout, white bass, striped bass. Prey items can be as large as 50% of the body length or larger. Studies of prey utilization by largemouths show that in weedy waters, less weed cover allows bass to more easily find and catch prey, but this consists of more open-water baitfish. With little or no cover, bass can devastate the prey population, fisheries managers must consider these factors when designing regulations for specific bodies of water.
Adult largemouth are generally apex predators within their habitat, but they are preyed upon by animals while young. Notably in the Great Lakes Region, Micropterus salmoides along with other species of native fish have been known to prey upon the invasive round goby. Remains of said fish have been found inside the stomachs of largemouth bass consistently and this feeding habit may impact the ecosystem positively, but more research must be conducted to verify this. Note that it is illegal to use Neogobius melanostomus as bait in the Great Lakes Region, largemouth bass are keenly sought after by anglers and are noted for the excitement of their fight. The fish will become airborne in their effort to throw the hook, but many say that their cousin species. Anglers most often fish for bass with lures such as plastic worms, jigs. A recent trend is the use of large swimbaits to target trophy bass that often forage on juvenile rainbow trout in California, fly fishing for largemouth bass may be done using both topwater and worm imitations tied with natural or synthetic materials