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Samaritan Pentateuch

The Samaritan Pentateuch known as the Samaritan Torah, is a text of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, written in the Samaritan alphabet and used as scripture by the Samaritans. It constitutes their entire biblical canon; some six thousand differences exist between the Masoretic Text. Most are minor variations in the spelling of words or grammatical constructions, but others involve significant semantic changes, such as the uniquely Samaritan commandment to construct an altar on Mount Gerizim. Nearly two thousand of these textual variations agree with the Koine Greek Septuagint and some are shared with the Latin Vulgate. Throughout their history, Samaritans have made use of translations of the Samaritan Pentateuch into Aramaic and Arabic as well as liturgical and exegetical works based upon it, it first became known to the Western world in 1631, proving the first example of the Samaritan alphabet and sparking an intense theological debate regarding its relative age versus the Masoretic text.

This first published copy, much labelled as Codex B by August von Gall, became the source of most Western critical editions of the Samaritan Pentateuch until the latter half of the 20th century. Some Pentateuchal manuscripts discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls have been identified as bearing a "pre-Samaritan" text type. Wide agreement now exists among textual critics that the Samaritan Pentateuch represents an authentic ancient textual tradition despite the presence of some unique variants introduced by the Samaritans. Samaritans believe that God authored their Pentateuch and gave Moses the first copy along with the two tablets containing the Ten Commandments, they believe. Samaritans refer to their Pentateuch as קושטה. Samaritans include only the Pentateuch in their biblical canon, they do not recognize divine inspiration in any other book in the Jewish Tanakh. A Samaritan Book of Joshua based upon the Tanakh's Book of Joshua exists, but Samaritans regard it as a non-canonical secular historical chronicle.

According to a view based on the biblical Book of Ezra, the Samaritans are the people of Samaria who parted ways with the people of Judah in the Persian period. The Samaritans believe that it was not they, but the Jews, who separated from the authentic stream of the Israelite tradition and law, around the time of Eli, in the 11th century BCE. Jews have traditionally connected the origin of the Samaritans with the events described in 2 Kings 17:24–41 claiming that the Samaritans are not related to the Israelites, but to those brought to Samaria by the Assyrians. Modern scholarship connects the formation of the Samaritan community with events which followed the Babylonian captivity. One view is that the Samaritans are the people of the Kingdom of Israel who separated from the Kingdom of Judah. Another view is that the event happened somewhere around 432 BCE, when Manasseh, the son-in-law of Sanballat, went off to found a community in Samaria, as related in Nehemiah 13:28 and Josephus. Josephus himself, dates this event and the building of the temple at Shechem to the time of Alexander the Great.

Others believe that the real schism between the peoples did not take place until Hasmonean times when the Gerizim temple was destroyed in 128 BCE by John Hyrcanus. The script of the Samaritan Pentateuch, its close connections at many points with the Septuagint, its closer agreements with the present Hebrew text, all suggest a date about 122 BCE. Excavation work undertaken since 1982 by Yitzhak Magen has dated the temple structures on Gerizim to the middle of the 5th century BCE, built by Sanballat the Horonite, a contemporary of Ezra and Nehemiah, who lived more than one hundred years before the Sanballat, mentioned by Josephus; the adoption of the Pentateuch as the sacred text of the Samaritans before their final schism with the Palestinian Jewish community provides evidence that it was widely accepted as a canonical authority in that region. Manuscripts of the Samaritan Pentateuch are written in a different Hebrew script than is used in other Hebrew Pentateuchs. Samaritans employ the Samaritan alphabet, derived from the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet used by the Israelite community prior to the Babylonian captivity.

Afterwards, Jews adopted the Ashuri script, based on the Aramaic alphabet, which developed into the modern Hebrew alphabet. All manuscripts of the Samaritan Pentateuch consisted of unvocalized text written using only the letters of the Samaritan alphabet. Beginning in the 12th century, some manuscripts show a partial vocalization resembling the Jewish Tiberian vocalization used in Masoretic manuscripts. More a few manuscripts have been produced with full vocalization. However, many extant manuscripts show no tendency towards vocalization; the Pentateuchal text is divided into 904 paragraphs. Divisions between sections of text are marked with various combinations of lines, dots or an asterisk; the critical apparatus accompanying the London Polyglot's publication of the Samaritan Pentateuch lists six thousand instances where the Samaritan differs from the Masoretic Text. However, as different printed editions of the Samaritan Pentateuch are based upon different sets of manuscripts, the precise number varies from one edition to another.

Only a minority are significant. Loss of the gutturals in spoken Samaritan Hebrew

Sedum acre

Sedum acre known as the goldmoss stonecrop, mossy stonecrop, goldmoss sedum, biting stonecrop and wallpepper, is a perennial flowering plant in the family Crassulaceae. It is native to Europe, but naturalised in North America and New Zealand. Biting stonecrop is a tufted perennial herb. Much of the year the stems are semi prostrate and densely clad in leaves. At the flowering time in June and July, the stems lengthen and are erect, somewhat limp and pinkish-brown with the leaves further apart; the leaves are alternate and shortly cylindrical with a rounded tip. They are sometimes tinged with red; the starry flowers form a three to six-flowered cyme. The calyx has five fleshy sepals fused at the base, the corolla consists of five regular bright yellow petals, there are ten stamens, a separate gynoecium and five pistils; the fruit is five united, many-seeded follicles. The leaves contain an acrid fluid. Biting stonecrop is a low-growing plant that cannot compete with more vigorous, fast-growing species.

It is specially adapted for growing on thin dry soils and can be found on shingle, drystone walls, dry banks, seashore rocks, roadside verges, wasteland and in sandy meadows near the sea. Biting stonecrop spreads when allowed to do so, but is controlled, being shallow-rooted, it is used in hanging baskets and container gardens, as a trailing accent, in borders, or as groundcover. This plant grows as a creeping ground cover in dry sandy soil, but in the cracks of masonry, it grows well in poor soils, rock gardens, rich garden soil, under a variety of light levels


Messing-cum-Inworth is a civil parish in north-east Essex, 8.5 miles west of Colchester, 15 miles east of Chelmsford. The parish consists of two small villages. At the 2011 the population of the Civil Parish was 363; the parish of Messing-cum-Inworth is bounded by the parishes of Kelvedon to the west, Feering to the north, Birch to the east and Tiptree to the south. The highest point in the parish is no more than 69 metres above sea level dropping to 32 metres in the vicinity of Domsey Brook, it is situated in the Winstree ward of Colchester Borough Council. Amenities in Messing include Messing Primary School, a church, a pub/restaurant, a large garden centre, while Inworth hosts most of the small businesses in the parish; the parish was created on 1 April 1934 from part of Messing. John Haynes – First Governor of Connecticut, 1639-54 Reynald Bush – Patrilineal ancestor of George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush.

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome known as Asherson's syndrome, is an acute and complex biological process that leads to occlusion of small vessels of various organs. It was first described by Ronald Asherson in 1992; the syndrome exhibits thrombotic microangiopathy, multiple organ thrombosis, in some cases tissue necrosis and is considered an extreme or catastrophic variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome. CAPS has a mortality rate of about 50%. With the establishment of a CAPS-Registry more has been learned about this syndrome, but its cause remains unknown. Infection, medication, and/or surgery can be identified in about half the cases as a "trigger", it is thought that cytokines are activated leading to a cytokine storm with the fatal consequences of organ failure. A low platelet count is a common finding. Clinically, the syndrome may affect many organs systems. Peripheral thrombosis may be encountered affecting arteries. Intra-abdominal thrombosis may lead to pain. Cardiovascular, nervous and lung system complications are common.

The affected individual may exhibit skin necrosis. Cerebral manifestations may lead to encephalopathy and seizures. Myocardial infarctions may occur. Strokes may occur due to the arterial clotting involvement. Death may result from multiple organ failure. Individuals with CAPS exhibit a positive test to antilipid antibodies IgG, may or may not have a history of lupus or another connective tissue disease. Association with another disease such as lupus is called a secondary APS unless it includes the defining criteria for CAPS. Treatments may involve the following steps: Prevention includes the use of antibiotics for infection and parenteral anticoagulation for susceptible patients. Specific therapy includes the use of intravenous heparin and corticosteroids, plasma exchanges, intravenous immunoglobulin. Additional steps may have to be taken to manage circulatory problems, kidney failure, respiratory distress; when maintaining survival of the disease treatments include high doses of Rituxan to maintain stability.

Walsh, N: "Clinical picture still emerging in CAPS registry". Ob. Gyn. News 2006. Asherson, RA. "The Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome". Autoimmunity Reviews 2005. Hughes Syndrome foundation APS foundation of America, INC

Massacre in Rome

Massacre in Rome is a 1973 Italian war drama film directed by George Pan Cosmatos about the Ardeatine massacre which occurred at the Ardeatine caves in Rome, 24 March 1944, committed by the Germans as a reprisal for a partisan attack against the SS Police Regiment Bozen. The film stars Richard Burton as the Rome Gestapo chief Herbert Kappler, who carries out the killings of 335 randomly and hurriedly selected victims in revenge for partisans killing 33 Germans: using a ratio of ten Italian victims for every German. However, they had rounded up five more than continued on with their plan. Meanwhile, the Vatican issues no condemnation. SS personnel Richard Burton as SS-Obersturmbannführer Herbert Kappler John Steiner as SS-Standartenführer Eugen Dollmann Anthony Steel as SS-Sturmbannführer Domizlaf Brook Williams as SS-Hauptsturmführer Erich Priebke Dennis Burgess as SS-Sturmbannführer Hellmuth Dobbrick Anthony Dawson as SS-Brigadeführer Wilhelm HarsterLuftwaffe officers Peter Vaughan as Field Marshal Albert Kesselring Leo McKern as Luftwaffe General Kurt MälzerItalian fascists Guidarino Guidi as Interior Minister Guido Buffarini Guidi Renzo Montagnani as Police Chief "Questore" Pietro CarusoVatican officials Marcello Mastroianni as Father Pietro Antonelli Robert Harris as Father PancrazioOther characters Giancarlo Prete as Paolo Delia Boccardo as Elena Renzo Palmer as Giorgio Duilio Del Prete as Partisan The film is based on the book Death in Rome by Robert Katz, who did the screenplay with Cosmatos.

The names of the victims are shown in the closing credits, as opposed to the cast credits and crew members. Herbert Kappler is depicted in the film as being a tired worn out man, disillusioned with the Nazi cause and believes that the fall of Nazi Germany is imminent. In reality, Kappler was a zealous Nazi and was sent to Rome for this reason. During his time as head of the Sicherheitspolizei in Rome, Kappler organized the round-ups of thousands of innocent victims, oversaw raids on Jewish homes for looted valuables, was a key figure in transporting Italian Jews to Nazi death camps. Father Pietro Antonelli is a combination of several different Vatican officials who knew Kappler, the most significant of whom was Monsignor Hugh O'Flaherty. One prisoner, a deserter from the Austrian army who had pretended to be an Italian, was allowed to live, as a citizen of the Reich; the SS victims of the partisan attack are referred to throughout the film as "German soldiers", when in fact the company, attacked was part of the "Battalion Bozen", composed of ethnic Austrians from German-speaking South Tyrol annexed by Italy after the First World War.

The unit did not wear SS uniforms, but rather regular German police uniforms of the Ordnungspolizei. Kurt Mälzer is shown throughout the film giving direct orders to SS units and supervising the buildup to the massacre organized by Kappler. In reality, while several regular Wehrmacht officers did issue orders to the SS during this period, as well as Kappler and Mälzer discussing the operation and his men were under the SS and Police Leader chain of command, it was through these channels that most of the official orders concerning the massacre were issued. Another man working with the SS was Capt. Erich Priebke, mentioned in the film, he would hide for many years evading justice. On Nationwide TV in the 1990s, ABC News reporter Sam Donaldson found and confronted him about the massacre, leading him to say he "followed orders". Argentinian authorities arrested and extradited him to Italy. Colonel Dollmann was never Kappler's direct superior. In reality, Kappler answered to the office of SS-Obergruppenführer Karl Wolff, who maintained his headquarters in Rome.

Wolff is never mentioned in the film. In reality, he stood trial and was found guilty of killing Italian Jews as part of the operations in Italy: when he became sick, his sentence was reduced and he was released in 1971. At the time of the massacre, Herbert Kappler was 37 years old. Actor Richard Burton was just short of his 48th birthday when the film was produced, eleven years older than Kappler would have been at the time. Massacre in Rome on IMDb Massacre in Rome at Rotten Tomatoes

Paisley Terrier

The Paisley Terrier was a breed of terrier-type dog, now extinct. Originating in Scotland, the Paisley Terrier was bred as a pet and showdog version of the Skye Terrier, was the progenitor of today's Yorkshire Terrier; the breed was called the Paisley Terrier since most of the dogs came from that location, but it was called the Clydesdale Terrier, for another location in the Clyde Valley where the dogs were bred. The appearance of the Paisley Terrier was similar to the Skye Terrier, but it was shorter backed and weighed around 7 kg, about half the weight of today's Skye Terrier; the breed had a flowing "silvery, soft jacket" of blue and tan, was shown along with the hard-coated Skye Terriers. They were further described as having a great profusion of silky fur with profuse ear feathering. To differentiate it from the Skye, it was nicknamed the Silky. From the earliest time of the breed, the beauty of the coat won prizes at dog shows. Traditionally, the dogs were shown standing on a box, so that the length of the silky coat could be shown to its best advantage.

The Paisley Terrier was described in 1894 as "an excellent house dog, most suitable for a lady who wishes something more substantial than a toy", but the care requirements for the coat made it less desirable than some other popular breeds as a pet. In a book written in 1894, the author speculates that the Paisley Terrier was created by fanciers in Glasgow who selected Skye Terriers with short backs and long, silky coats "until they bred truly". Describing the Paisley Terrier in 1894, Rawdon Lee writes that "Though he can kill rats, maybe other vermin, the Paisley Terrier is a pet dog, is kept as such." The breed was a pet, it was a popular show dog. In 1903, the breed is referred to as "a fancier's dog, a sport from the Skye Terrier stock" and despite some fanciers of the time claiming that the breed had the "hardiness and fitness for terrier work... it is evident that a dog with a coat that looks like silk is a toy." Owners and breeders in the 1800s placed a high value on the beautiful blue and tan coat, would cover the dog's feet and tie the hair back over their eyes to keep the coat looking at its best for dog shows.

The Kennel Club recognised the Paisley Terrier in 1888 as a variety of the Skye Terrier though separate show classes had been held for the two types in 1887. However, there were so few entries that the Kennel Club did not continue to encourage offering the category at further exhibitions; the breed's success as a show dog may have led to its decline. Judges would give awards to the dogs with the long, attractive coat, since length of coat was a principal factor in Skye Terriers; the Paisleys, bred for long but soft coats, would win the prizes. Skye Terrier fanciers objected to the type being shown with Skyes, since they considered the Paisleys to be mixed breeds or crossed with Dandie Dinmont Terriers; the interest of fanciers declined, the breed began to disappear. A book published in 1918 describes Paisley Terriers as uncommon and "I doubt that you'll see one in the United States." But with the availability of Internet-based dog registries that will register breeds with little or no documentation, combined with the public's appetite for unique or rare pets, it is that there will be attempts to reconstitute the breed.

The famous 1860s showdog Huddersfield Ben came from Paisley Terrier stock in the 1860s, is considered by all authorities to be the founding sire of the Yorkshire Terrier breed, although the Yorkshire Terrier was not recognized until 1890. It is the ancestor of many other breeds, notably the Silky Terrier and the Biewer Terrier. Huddersfield Ben Yorkshire Terrier Dog terminology History of the Yorkshire Terrier by Joan Gordan