Samarium is a chemical element with the symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It is a moderately hard silvery metal that oxidizes in air. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, samarium assumes the oxidation state +3. Compounds of samarium are known, most notably the monoxide SmO, monochalcogenides SmS, SmSe and SmTe, as well as samarium iodide; the last compound is a common reducing agent in chemical synthesis. Samarium has no significant biological role but is only toxic. Samarium was discovered in 1879 by the French chemist Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran and named after the mineral samarskite from which it was isolated; the mineral itself was earlier named after a Russian mine official, Colonel Vassili Samarsky-Bykhovets, who thereby became the first person to have a chemical element named after him, albeit indirectly. Although classified as a rare-earth element, samarium is the 40th most abundant element in the Earth's crust and is more common than metals such as tin. Samarium occurs with concentration up to 2.8% in several minerals including cerite, samarskite and bastnäsite, the last two being the most common commercial sources of the element.
These minerals are found in China, the United States, India, Sri Lanka and Australia. The major commercial application of samarium is in samarium–cobalt magnets, which have permanent magnetization second only to neodymium magnets; the radioactive isotope samarium-153 is the active component of the drug samarium lexidronam, which kills cancer cells in the treatment of lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer and osteosarcoma. Another isotope, samarium-149, is a strong neutron absorber and is therefore added to the control rods of nuclear reactors, it is formed as a decay product during the reactor operation and is one of the important factors considered in the reactor design and operation. Other applications of samarium include catalysis of chemical reactions, radioactive dating and X-ray lasers. Samarium is a rare earth metal having a density similar to those of zinc. With the boiling point of 1794 °C, samarium is the third most volatile lanthanide after ytterbium and europium. At ambient conditions, samarium assumes a rhombohedral structure.
Upon heating to 731 °C, its crystal symmetry changes into hexagonally close-packed, however the transition temperature depends on the metal purity. Further heating to 922 °C transforms the metal into a body-centered cubic phase. Heating to 300 °C combined with compression to 40 kbar results in a double-hexagonally close-packed structure. Applying higher pressure of the order of hundreds or thousands of kilobars induces a series of phase transformations, in particular with a tetragonal phase appearing at about 900 kbar. In one study, the dhcp phase could be produced without compression, using a nonequilibrium annealing regime with a rapid temperature change between about 400 and 700 °C, confirming the transient character of this samarium phase. Thin films of samarium obtained by vapor deposition may contain the hcp or dhcp phases at ambient conditions. Samarium are paramagnetic at room temperature, their corresponding effective magnetic moments, below 2μB, are the 3rd lowest among the lanthanides after lanthanum and lutetium.
The metal transforms to an antiferromagnetic state upon cooling to 14.8 K. Individual samarium atoms can be isolated by encapsulating them into fullerene molecules, they can be doped between the C60 molecules in the fullerene solid, rendering it superconductive at temperatures below 8 K. Samarium doping of iron-based superconductors – the most recent class of high-temperature superconductors – allows enhancing their transition temperature to 56 K, the highest value achieved so far in this series. Freshly prepared samarium has a silvery luster. In air, it oxidizes at room temperature and spontaneously ignites at 150 °C; when stored under mineral oil, samarium oxidizes and develops a grayish-yellow powder of the oxide-hydroxide mixture at the surface. The metallic appearance of a sample can be preserved by sealing it under an inert gas such as argon. Samarium is quite electropositive and reacts with cold water and quite with hot water to form samarium hydroxide: 2 Sm + 6 H2O → 2 Sm3 + 3 H2 Samarium dissolves in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions containing the yellow to pale green Sm ions, which exist as 3+ complexes: 2 Sm + 3 H2SO4 → 2 Sm3+ + 3 SO2−4 + 3 H2 Samarium is one of the few lanthanides that exhibit the oxidation state +2.
The Sm2+ ions are blood-red in aqueous solution. The most stable oxide of samarium is the sesquioxide Sm2O3; as many other samarium compounds, it exists in several crystalline phases. The trigonal form is obtained by slow cooling from the melt; the melting point of Sm2O3 is rather high and therefore melting is achieved not by direct heating, but with induction heating, through a radio-frequency coil. The Sm2O3 crystals of monoclinic symmetry can be grown by the flame fusion method from the Sm2O3 powder, that yields cylindrical boules up to several centimeters long and about one centimeter in diameter; the boules are transparent when are orange otherwise. Heating the metastable trigonal Sm2O3 to 1900 °C converts it to the more stable monoclinic phase. Cubic Sm2O3 h
Duino Castle is a fourteenth-century fortification located in Duino, near Trieste, Italy, on the cliffs overlooking the Gulf of Trieste. Building commenced in 1389 at the order of the Wallsee family; the ruins of an older castle built in the eleventh century by the Patriarch of Aquileia are located on the grounds. In the nineteenth century, it became one of two residences for Prince Alexander von Thurn und Taxis and his wife Princess Marie of the Czech branch of the House of Thurn und Taxis. While not the wealthiest of the Thurn und Taxis line and Marie supported artists and writers, among these included Bohemian-Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke. While a guest of Princess Marie in early 1912, Rilke began to write his Duino Elegies, a collection of ten long philosophical and mystical poems which are considered to be his greatest work. Rilke dedicated his work to Princess Marie when they were completed in February 1922 and published the following year. Duino Castle remains property of the Thurn und Taxis family, is owned by Prince Alexander and Princess Marie's great-grandson, Prince Carlo Alessandro della Torre e Tasso, Duke of Castel Duino.
The castle has been opened to the public as a park. Near the castle are the ruins of the Old Castle which dates back to the 11th century, it belonged to the patriarchy of Aquileia. The castle dates back to 1389, when the Wallsee family commanded the construction of a strong fortress. Over time, the Wallsee family disappeared and the castle, after having been used as a prison, became the residence of the Luogar and Hofer. At the end of the 19th century it became the property of Prince Alexander Johann Vincenz Rudolf Hugo Karl Lamoral Eligius von Thurn und Taxis from the Czech branch of the House of Thurn and Taxis, it remains with the family to this day with his great-grandson Prince Carlo Alessandro della Torre e Tasso, Duke of Castel Duino the current owner. The castle has been opened to the public as a park. In 1912, Austrian-Bohemian writer and poet Rainer Maria Rilke began to write portions of his famous work, Duino Elegies, while visiting Duino Castle as a guest of the Princess Marie von Thurn und Taxis.
While walking along the cliffs overlooking the Adriatic Sea near the castle, Rilke claimed to hear a voice calling to him speaking the words of the first line, wenn ich schriee, hörte mich denn aus der Engel Ordnungen? which he wrote in his notebook. Within days, he produced drafts of the first two elegies in the series and drafted passages and fragments that would be incorporated into elegies—including the opening passage of the tenth elegy; the Duino Elegies are recognized by critics and scholars as his most important work and one of the chief transitional works between the apex of German Romanticism and Modernist poetry. They are ten intensely mystical poems that weigh beauty and existential suffering; the poems employ a rich symbolism of angels and salvation, are described as a metamorphosis of Rilke's "ontological torment" and an "impassioned monologue about coming to terms with human existence" discussing themes of "the limitations and insufficiency of the human condition and fractured human consciousness... man's loneliness, the perfection of the angels and death, love and lovers, the task of the poet".
Rilke finished the work in Switzerland after a ten-year period where depression and an existential crisis rendered him unable to continue writing. Upon publication in 1922, Rilke dedicated the work to the Princess, who he esteemed as one of his greatest patrons and closest friends. Castle of Duino Duino Castle
The Higher School Certificate is the credential awarded to secondary school students who complete senior high school level studies in New South Wales, Australia. It was first introduced in 1967, with the last major revision coming into effect in 2019, it is developed and managed by the NSW Education Standards Authority. The majority of students undertake HSC-related courses over the final two years of high school, though it is possible to undertake different study patterns over different time periods or through different teaching organisations. There are a great number of possible courses students can study, totalling over 100, in a wide range of subject areas. However, most schools offer students a smaller selection from; the only compulsory subject area is English, with one of English Advanced, English Standard, English as an Additional Language or Dialect, or English Studies required for the award of the HSC.. Individual schools may require their students to undertake certain courses, as is the case with Studies of Religion in many religious schools or Agriculture in agricultural schools.
However, these are internal school requirements separate from HSC requirements. Most courses offered comprise an HSC component; as a general rule the preliminary component must be completed prior to the HSC component. Furthermore, each subject is designated as either one or two "units"; each unit involves two hours of formal tuition per week, contributes a maximum mark of 50. The majority of courses are two unit courses, thus students receive marks out of 100 in these courses. 10 units is the minimum number of units required, however students can attempt more should they choose. If they do, their final ATAR mark is calculated using their best 2 units of English and 8 best other units. Extension courses, each with a value of one unit, may be included in the study program, meaning that a certain subject area may have up to four units, e.g. English plus English Extension 1 and English Extension 2. To be eligible for the award of the HSC a student must have satisfied the requirements in at least twelve preliminary level units, at least ten HSC level units, with the additional requirements that: at least two must be English units.
At least four subjects have been completed. No more than seven units of science are studied; this was changed from six units in 2019 with the addition of the Science Extension subject. Further restrictions may apply in certain subject areas. Note that these requirements are for the award of the HSC. Further requirements regarding study patterns apply if the student wishes to apply for a separate Australian Tertiary Admission Rank based on their HSC performance. There are two main types of courses available in the HSC: Board Developed Courses and Board Endorsed Courses. Board Developed Courses have a syllabus and final exam set by NESA, may be included in the calculation of the ATAR. Board Endorsed Courses are developed by the school, may vary from school to school in regards to content and assessment. Being the only mandatory course for HSC, for English, students must choose between one of the English courses available to study. English English English Extension 1 English Extension 2 English as an Additional Language or Dialect English Studies The following is a list of elective Board Developed Courses available to students.
HSIE: Aboriginal Studies Ancient History Business Studies Economics Geography History Extension Legal Studies Modern History Society and Culture Studies of Religion I Studies of Religion IIMathematics: Mathematics Standard 1 Mathematics Standard 2 Mathematics Advanced Mathematics Extension 1 Mathematics Extension 2 Science: Biology Chemistry Earth and Environmental Science Physics Investigating Science Science Extension Technology: Agriculture Design and Technology Engineering Studies Food Technology Industrial Technology Information Processes and Technology Software Design and Development Textiles and DesignCreative Arts: Dance Drama Music 1 Music 2 Music Extension Visual ArtsPDHPE: PDHPE Community and Family StudiesBoard Endorsed Courses: Ceramics Computing Applications Exploring Early Childhood Marine Studies Photography and Digital Imaging Sport and Recreation Activities Visual Design Work Studies Languages are offered as Beginners, Extension, Background Speakers and Heritage courses.
Only one course of any one language may be taken, with the exception of Extension, available only to students taking the Continuers course. Due to the large number of language courses, they have been listed separately; the letters B, C, E, BS, H indicate whi
Joseph J. Longobardi is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Delaware. Born in Wilmington, Longobardi received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Washington College in 1952 and a Bachelor of Laws from Temple University School of Law in 1957, he was in private practice in Delaware from 1957 to 1959. He was a deputy state attorney general of Delaware from 1959 to 1961, he was in private practice in Wilmington from 1964 to 1974. He was a member of the Delaware Tax Appeal Board from 1973 to 1974, he was a judge of the Delaware Superior Court from 1974 to 1982. He was a Vice Chancellor of the Delaware Court of Chancery from 1982 to 1984. Longobardi was nominated by President Ronald Reagan on April 4, 1984, to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of Delaware vacated by Judge James Levin Latchum, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on April 24, 1984, received his commission on May 3, 1984. He served as Chief Judge from 1989 to 1996.
Shediac is a Canadian parish in Westmorland County, New Brunswick. Shediac Parish is defined in the Territorial Division Act as being bounded: East by Botsford Parish, northeasterly by Northumberland Strait and the County line. Notwithstanding anything contained in paragraphs and, the dividing line between the Parishes of Botsford and Shediac shall be as follows: Beginning on the line separating the farms of the late Fidele LeBlanc and lands owned by Stephen Burk, where the said line crosses the main post road at Cap-Pelé, following said farm line and its prolongations north four degrees and thirty minutes east by the magnet of the year nineteen hundred and three to the shore of Northumberland Strait, from said place of beginning south along said farm line and its prolongations four degrees and thirty minutes west to the Cumberland grant line. Parish population total does not include incorporated municipalities. Highways and numbered routes that run through the parish, including external routes that start or finish at the parish limits: List of parishes in New Brunswick Greater Shediac Rural community of Beaubassin East Village of Cap-Pelé City of Dieppe District de services locaux de Grande-Digue Town of Shediac
In molecular biology, a CCAAT box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides with GGCCAATCT consensus sequence that occur upstream by 60–100 bases to the initial transcription site. The CAAT box signals the binding site for the RNA transcription factor, is accompanied by a conserved consensus sequence, it is an invariant DNA sequence at about minus 70 base pairs from the origin of transcription in many eukaryotic promoters. Genes that have this element seem to require it for the gene to be transcribed in sufficient quantities, it is absent from genes that encode proteins used in all cells. This box along with the GC box is known for binding general transcription factors. Both of these consensus sequences belong to the regulatory promoter. Full gene expression occurs when transcription activator proteins bind to each module within the regulatory promoter. Protein specific binding is required for the CCAAT box activation; these proteins are known as CCAAT box binding proteins/CCAAT box binding factors.
A CCAAT box is a feature found before eukaryote coding regions, but is not found in prokaryotes. In the direction of transcription of the template strand, the consensus sequence, or the calculated order of the most frequent residues, for the CAAT box was 3'-TG ATTGG -5'; the use of parentheses denotes that either base is present, but it is not specified as to their relative frequencies. For example, "" would mean that either thymine or cytosine are preferentially selected for. Within metazoa, the core binding factor -DNA complex retains a high degree of conservation within the CCAAT binding motif, as well as the sequences flanking this pentameric motif; the CCAAT motif in plants differs from metazoa in that it is a CAAT binding motif. Some sequences lack the CAAT-box completely. Secondly, the surrounding nucleotides in plants do not match the consensus sequence above determined by Bi et al; the CAAT box is what is known as a core promoter known as the basal promoter or the promoter, is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
This region, in particular for the CAAT box, is located about 60–100 bases upstream, however no less than 27 base pairs away, from the initial transcription site or a eukaryote gene in which a complex of general transcription factors bind with RNA polymerase II prior to the initiation of transcription. It is essential to the transcription that these core binding factors are able to bind to the CCAAT motif. Experiments in many laboratories have shown that mutations to the CCAAT motif that cause a loss of CBF binding decreases transcriptional activity in these promoters, suggesting that CBF-CCAAT complexes are essential for optimum transcriptional activity. In an experiment done with core binding factors and DNA complexes, researchers were able to determine the preferential sequences of the promoter in a region over and adjacent to the CAAT box, two regions on either side of the CAAT box. By using PCR-mediated random binding selection process, researchers were able to show that the sequence "3' - G ATTGG - 5'" flanking the ATTGG region was preferentially selected on the coding strand.
This was shown using an oligonucleotide sequence which contained 27 random nucleotides, flanked by a defined 20 nucleotide sequence on each side. While no single nucleotide was selected in every clone on either side of the ATTGG motif, there were several nucleotides in positions selected with high frequency. Most notably from the sequence above was the G residue towards the 5' end of the ATTGG; the other residues listed were notable, but there is a split between two residues. This same experiment yielded the same sequence as shown above when using a different oligonucleotide that contained an ATTGG core and flanked by 12 5' random nucleotides and 10 3' random nucleotides. Both these sequences are similar and confirmed in multiple experiments. For sequences that flanked the ATTGG motif with two adenine residues on its 5' end and G on its 3' end, seems to have inhibited formation of the CBF-DNA complex and subsequently occurred in only 1% of the promoter sequences. In another experiment performed with the major late promoter of adenoviruses from a variety of host species, it was shown that the mutation of the CAAT box and CCAAT sequence, thought to play a pivotal role in the of subgroup C human adenoviruses, in species with a deficient CAAT sequence.
The transcription initiation at mutant MLP species was reduced compared with that of the wild type or species in which there was a CAAT mutant. The failure to restore the functional adenoviruses, exhibited by a CAAT box, is consistent with the idea that the CAAT box plays a vital role in the adenovirus MLP and is preferred over other transcriptional elements; these core binding factors, or nuclear factors, are composed of three subunits – NF-YA, NF-YB, NF-YC. Whereas in animals each NF-Y subunit is encoded by a single gene, there has been a diversification in plants in both structure and function. Families of NF-Y consist of between 39 members per subunit. A large reason for this diversification is because of gene duplications and tandem duplications, which have helped contribute to the larger family sizes of NF-Y comp