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Samavasarana of Tirthankara

In Jainism, Samavasarana or Samosharana "Refuge to All" is a term for the divine preaching hall of the Tirthankara. The word samavasarana is derived from two words, sama meaning general and avasara meaning opportunity. A place where all have a common opportunity of acquiring the wisdom.[1] The divine pavilion is built by heavenly beings (devas) after the tirthankara attain omniscience (Kevala Jnana).[2] The theme of Samavasaranas has been popular in Jain art.[3]


Samosharana of Tirthankara Rishabha (Ajmer Jain temple)

In samavasarana, the tirthankara sat on a throne without touching it (about two inches above it).[4] Around the tirthankara sit the ganadharas (chief disciples). Living beings sit in the following order:[5]

  • In the first hall, ascetics
  • In the second hall, one class of deva ladies
  • In the third hall, aryikas (nuns) and laywomen
  • In the next three halls, three other class of deva ladies
  • In the next four halls, the four classes of devas (heavenly beings)
  • Men, in the eleventh hall
  • Animals, in the last hall

According to Jain texts, there would be four wide roads with four huge columns, Manasthamba (literally, pride pillar), one in each side.[6] The total size of the hall varies depending upon the height of the people in that era. The size of Rishabhadeva's samavasarana was 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi).[7]



In samavasarana, a tirthankara sits facing the east, but appears to be looking in all directions.[5] Tirthankara sits on a soft cushion while preaching the Jain philosophy in plain terms.[8] All humans and animals can understand the discourse. Jain scriptures say that all creatures who listen would become less violent and greed less.[9] The speech of the tirthankara is distinctly heard by every one present.[5]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jain 2008, p. 97.
  2. ^ Jains
  3. ^ Wiley, Kristi L. (2009), Scarecrow Press, p. 184, ISBN 9780810868212  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ Jain 2008, p. 95.
  5. ^ a b c Jain 2008, p. 96.
  6. ^ Jain 2008, p. 93.
  7. ^ "APPENDIX 14". 
  8. ^ Jain 2008, p. 98.
  9. ^ Pramansagar 2008, p. 39-43.


  • Rai, Champat Jain (2008), Risabha Deva (Second ed.), India: Bhagwan Rishabhdeo Granth Mala, ISBN 9788177720228 
  • Pramansagar, Muni (2008), jain tattvavidya, India: Bhartiya Gyanpeeth, ISBN 978-81-263-1480-5 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]