The Samaveda, is the Veda of melodies and chants. It is an ancient Vedic Sanskrit text, part of the scriptures of Hinduism. One of the four Vedas, it is a liturgical text. All but 75 verses have been taken from the Rigveda. Three recensions of the Samaveda have survived, variant manuscripts of the Veda have been found in various parts of India. While its earliest parts are believed to date from as early as the Rigvedic period, the existing compilation dates from the post-Rigvedic Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit, c. 1200 or 1000 BCE contemporary with the Atharvaveda and the Yajurveda. Embedded inside the Samaveda is the studied Chandogya Upanishad and Kena Upanishad, considered as primary Upanishads and as influential on the six schools of Hindu philosophy the Vedanta school; the classical Indian music and dance tradition considers the chants and melodies in Samaveda as one of its roots. It is referred to as Sama Veda; the Samaveda is the Veda of Chants, or "storehouse of knowledge of chants". According to Frits Staal, it is "the Rigveda set to music".
It is a fusion of the Rig verses. It has far fewer verses than Rigveda, but Samaveda is textually larger because it lists all the chant- and rituals-related score modifications of the verses; the Samaveda text contains notated melodies, these are the world's oldest surviving ones. The musical notation is written immediately above, sometimes within, the line of Samaveda text, either in syllabic or a numerical form depending on the Samavedic Sakha. R. T. H. Griffith says that there are three recensions of the text of the Samaveda Samhita: the Kauthuma recension is current in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and since a few decades in Darbhanga, the Rāṇāyanīya in the Maharashtra, Gokarna, few parts of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and the Jaiminiya in the Carnatic, Tamil Nadu and Kerala The Samaveda comprises two major parts; the first part include four melody collections and the second part three verse "books". A melody in the song books corresponds to a verse in the arcika books; the Gana collection is subdivided into Gramageya and Aranyageya, while the Arcika portion is subdivided into Purvarcika and Uttararcika portions.
The Purvarcika portion of the text has 585 single stanza verses and is organized in order of deities, while Uttararcika text is ordered by rituals. The Gramageya melodies are those for public recitations, while Aranyageya melodies are for personal meditative use such as in the solitude of a forest; the Purvarcika collection were sung to melodies described in the Gramageya-Gānas index, the rules of how the verses mapped to verses is described in the Sanskrit texts such as the Puspasutra. Just like Rigveda, the early sections of Samaveda begin with Agni and Indra hymns but shift to abstract speculations and philosophy, their meters too shifts in a descending order; the sections of the Samaveda, states Witzel, have least deviation from substance of hymns they derive from Rigveda into songs. The purpose of Samaveda was liturgical, they were the repertoire of the udgātṛ or "singer" priests; the Samaveda, like other Vedas, contains several layers of text, with Samhita being the oldest and the Upanishads the youngest layer.
The Samaveda consists of 1,549 unique verses, taken entirely from Rigveda, except for 75 verses. The largest number of verse come from Books 8 of the Rig Veda; some of the Rigvedic verses are repeated more than once. Including these repetitions, there are a total of 1,875 verses numbered in the Samaveda recension translated by Griffith. Samaveda samhita is not meant to be read as a text, it is like a musical score sheet that must be heard. Staal states that the melodies existed before the verses in ancient India, the words of the Rigveda verses were mapped into those pre-existing melodies, because some early words fit and flow, while words do not quite fit the melody in the same verse; the text uses creative structures, called Stobha, to help embellish, transform or play with the words so that they better fit into a desired musical harmony. Some verses add in meaningless sounds of a lullaby, for the same reason, remarks Staal, thus the contents of the Samaveda represent a tradition and a creative synthesis of music, sounds and spirituality, the text was not a sudden inspiration.
The portion of the first song of Samaveda illustrates the link and mapping of Rigvedic verses into a melodic chant: Two primary Upanishads of Hinduism are embedded inside the Samaveda – the Chandogya Upanishad and the Kena Upanishad. Both are notable for the lifting metric melodic structure, but it is Chandogya which has played a historic role in the evolution of various schools of Hindu philosophy; the embedded philosophical premises in Chandogya Upanishad have, for example, served as foundation for Vedanta school of Hinduism. It is one of the most cited texts in Bhasyas by scholars from the diverse schools of Hinduism. Adi Shankara, for example, cited Chandogya Upanishad 810 times in his Vedanta Sutra Bhasya, more than any other ancient text; the Chandogya Upanishad belongs to the Tandya school of the Samaveda. Like Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, the Chandogya Upanishad is an anthology of texts that must have pre-existed as separate texts, were edited into a larger text by one or more ancient Indian scholars.
The precise chronology of Chandogya Upanishad is uncertain, but it is the youngest layer of text in the Samaveda, it is variously dated to have been composed by 8th to 6th century BCE in India. The Chandogya text combines a metric, melodic structure with a wide range of specu
Drumaleague Lough is a small freshwater in northwest Ireland. The ecology of Drumaleague Lough, other Leitrim waterways, remain threatened by zebra mussel and other invasive species; the origin of the lake name is unknown, but means the "Lake of the Ridge of two Stones, or Pillar-Stones". Drumaleague Lough lies 1 kilometre south of both Drumcong village and Carrickaport Lough, 1 kilometre southwest of Lough Scur; this eclipitical shaped lake is small, covering a surface-area of about 0.05 square kilometres, measuring 300 metres in length from west to east, 170 metres north to south, with depths of up to 6 metres and a soft mud bottom. Drumaleague Lough is connected to Lough Conway to the west, Lough Scur to the east by the Shannon–Erne Waterway; the presence, type, of fish found in Drumaleague Lough is not recorded. The primary human settlements near Drumaleague Lough is Drumcong village. Drumaleague Lough is bounded by the townlands of Letterfine to the north and east, Drumaleague to the west, Seltan to the south and east.
Two ancient crannogs existed at Drumaleague Lough during the Middle Ages at least. The crannogs were discovered during the 19th century, c. 1843 – c. 1852. Drumaleague crannog number one a good example of lacustrine dwelling, with the exception of the hearth-stones, was composed of wood Alder; the annexed plan conveys a good example of the general arrangement of a crannog, with an outer line of stakes enclosing a circle 18.3 metres in diameter. Stakes driven into the ground were positioned in a single row in some parts of the island, in double or treble rows, or clusters, in other parts for purposes related to some internal arrangement; because the foundation is soft, the layers of timber are deep. A, the central oblong portion, consists of a platform of round logs cut in lengths of 1.2m to 1.8m the floor of the hut. Drumaleague crannog number two measured 6.7 metres in diameter. The annexed section conveys a good example of the flooring of an oblong house for this type of crannog, surrounded by a regular circular enclosure formed of a single row of oak stakes F, F.
The upper stratum B, consisted of horizontal logs of alder, reposing upon a black peaty surface. 7cm – c. 20cm in diameter water soaked and rotten: this stratum of timber was 1 metre deep. A, a heap of stones with marks of fire on them, two other hearths were found in different parts of the island. G, the lower stratum of decayed and blackened sticks and branches of all descriptions lying in every direction: this layer extended as far as it was pierced in the examination, viz. about 1.2 cm, but was evidently of greater depth. D, D, two heaps of stones found in the lower stratum. E, the kitchen midden, in, a large quantity of bones of deer, oxen, &c. that lay 1.2 cm below the surface. An ancient canoe created from a single trunk of oak, 5.5m long, 55 cm broad, not formed for speed being square at stem and stern, having apertures or rowlocks cut in the side, was found embedded in the mud on the shore opposite one of the islands, about as deep below the level of the surface of the lake as the island itself.
The canoe was in tolerable preservation when found, but fell to pieces after being some time exposed to the air. The recording of large numbers of ancient dug-out canoes found in county Leitrim remind us that waterways provided a key means of transport both before and since the Middle Ages; the following archaeological artefacts were discovered at Drumaleague Lough in the 19th century, c. 1843 – c. 1852, preserved at the Royal Irish Academy museum, or at the National Museum of Ireland- The thin topstone of a quern, formed of micaceous quartzite, smooth upon the grinding surface, but otherwise rude and unfinished was found on Drumaleague crannog number two: the hole for the handle passes quite through, the grain-hole, 6.4 cm in diameter, is not directly in the centre. One cask of bones found on the Drumaleague crannog number two. A portion of a door-frame, with mortices and cheeks cut from one of the crannogs. List of loughs in Ireland Lough Conway Carrickaport Lough
Fahrenheit 88 is a shopping centre in Bukit Bintang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The Fahrenheit 88 building reopened in August 2010 after undergoing extensive renovation works. Management and leasing of the shopping centre is handled by the same company that manages the Pavilion Kuala Lumpur shopping centre; the Fahrenheit 88 building was known as KL Plaza and owned by the Berjaya Group. In 2007, Berjaya Group disposed the KL Plaza building for a total consideration of RM470 million to the Pavilion Group; the sale consisted of the 5-storey shopping podium for RM425 million, 59 units of flats located on top of the shopping centre for RM45 million. In early 2010, a publicity exercise was embarked by the Pavilion team, with major local press reporting on the rebranding of the building as Fahrenheit 88. Building renovation works underway during that time and costing RM100 million, will change the interior and exterior of the old and outdated building. Entrances are being repositioned and glass facades will be a prominent feature in the new design, allowing ample natural light to illuminate the interior.
This shopping centre is accessible by several railway lines. Kuala Lumpur Monorail, Fahrenheit 88 is located in close proximity to the Bukit Bintang Monorail station or Raja Chulan Monorail station. Sungai Buloh–Kajang MRT line, the MRT station is located in front of its next door neighbor lot 10 via PAVILION-Bukit Bintang station List of shopping malls in Malaysia
Hanka Pachale-Durante, is a German volleyball player. She represented her native country in at the 2004 Summer Olympics, finishing in ninth place, at the 2003 Women's European Volleyball Championship, finishing third. For the 2009–10 season, she played for Italian club Pavia, her father Siegfried Pachale was a discus thrower, placing fifth in the world while representing East Germany in the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Canada. Her mother was an internationally successful athlete, throwing the discus for the German national team. 1996 Olympic Games — 8th place 1998 World Championship — 13th place 2000 Olympic Games — 6th place 2001 European Championship — 9th place 2003 European Championship — 3rd place 2004 Olympic Games — 9th place 2005 FIVB World Grand Prix — 10th place 2005 European Championship — 11th place 2006 World Championship — 11th place 2007 European Championship — 6th place Evans, Hilary. "Hanka Pachale". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. "Hanka Pachale Durante: Players".
WorldofVolley. 2 October 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2017. "Hanka Pachale Bio and Results". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. 12 September 1976. Retrieved 14 November 2017. "Confédération Européenne de Volleyball". CEV. Retrieved 14 November 2017
There was frequent occurrence of racism in early American film, the earlier part of the twentieth century. An example of this includes The Birth of a Nation, which promoted white supremacy, amongst other things. Over time as race relations have improved and documentaries of racism have begun to be included into film; the film industry of the United States grew at first. Over time, plots began to develop and movies became better produced. In 1915, the film The Birth of a Nation by D. W. Griffith was released; the plot of the film showed that Ku Klux Klansmen were the saviors to the nation and that they would help to bring back a stable government. The movie included the use of actors in blackface. Over time, racism became embedded into the film of Hollywood. In 1927, the film The Jazz Singer was released. One of the central themes was the use of blackface by character Jack Robins. Scholar Corin Willis said about the movie: In contrast to the racial jokes and innuendo brought out in its subsequent persistence in early sound film, blackface imagery in The Jazz Singer is at the core of the film's central theme, an expressive and artistic exploration of the notion of duplicity and ethnic hybridity within American identity.
Of the more than seventy examples of blackface in early sound film 1927–53 that I have viewed, The Jazz Singer is unique in that it is the only film where blackface is central to the narrative development and thematic expression. In 1921, Paramount Pictures released the Rudolph Valentino movie The Sheik; the movie itself was a box office success but showed Arabs as savage beasts who auction off their own women. The film was followed up a few years with The Son of the Sheik, which portrayed racist overtones. Rudolph was asked by a New York Times reporter once whether or not his well-off character could fall for a savage. To Valentino's credit, he responded by saying: "People are not savages; the Arabian civilization is one of the oldest in the world...the Arabs are dignified and keen brained." In his essay "Arabs in Hollywood: An Undeserved Image", Scott J. Simon argues that of all the ethnic groups portrayed in Hollywood films, "Arab culture has been the most misunderstood and supplied with the worst stereotypes": Rudolph Valentino's roles in The Sheik and The Son of the Sheik set the stage for the exploration and negative portrayal of Arabs in Hollywood films.
Both The Sheik and The Son of the Sheik represented Arab characters as thieves, charlatans and brutes. He singled out A Son of the Sahara as "the strongest subconscious attack on the Arab culture of all the Arab movies of the 1920s". Racism against East Asian peoples in Hollywood roles began in the 1920s. Charlie Chan, a supposed "good Asian" was used as an antithesis to Fu Manchu, the so-called "bad Asian". In 1923, the British silent film serial The Mystery of Dr. Fu-Manchu came out; this movie ushered in the beginning of decades of movies with the Fu Manchu theme. In 1929, the American film The Mysterious Dr. Fu Manchu starring Warner Oland came out; the Show of Shows was released the same year and featured a stereotypical setting with Nick Lucas and Myrna Loy. Several Hollywood movies continue to portray Asian destinations as underdeveloped or of being lived in by savages; this includes showing elephant as a primary mode of transport in modern India or any of the similar stereotypes that has no resemblance to reality.
Throughout the early 1900s, many films that perpetuate stereotypes about Native Americans were made, in particular the stereotype of the "Noble Savage". The roles of Native Americans were reserved for Caucasian actors; the portrayal of indigenous Americans of the silent era most notably remains The Last of the Mohicans. In 1936, the Three Stooges mocked Native Americans in the comedy short, "Whoops, I'm an Indian!" In the 1940s, people like Dudley Dickerson were appearing in Three Stooges films. Dudley was used because of his bug-eyed portrayal of stereotypes of the time; the prevailing views in Hollywood at the time helped to prevent him from advancing his career, but he never complained about his line of work and enjoyed what he was doing. A Stooges short, The Yoke's on Me, showed a stereotypical view of the Japanese people. Movies of the era showed; the Charlie Chan and Fu Manchu stereotypes began to become more active in movies. Republic Movies released a fifteen episode serial Drums of Fu Manchu, released into a feature film.
This brought back the Fu Manchu stereotype after a few years of inaction in Hollywood. The "Devil Doctor" stereotype was absent from film between 1940 and 1965. Arab stereotypes played into the film of the time; this included the use of billionaires. The bellydancer stereotype first occurred on film in 1897 when Thomas Edison's kinetoscope showed the women dancing. Portrayal of East Asians in Hollywood Portrayal of Native Americans in film Racism in horror films Stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims in the United States Stereotypes of East Asians in the United States Stereotypes of African Americans Stereotypes of Hispanic and Latino Americans Stereotypes of Native Americans
The Wianno Senior is a 25-foot gaff rigged sloop. The boat is raced on Nantucket Sound by four Cape Cod yacht clubs: Bass River Yacht Club, Hyannis Yacht Club, Hyannis Port Yacht Club, Wianno Yacht Club; the boat was designed in 1913−14 in the village of Osterville, Cape Cod, for a group of sailors from the Wianno Yacht Club. They requested Horace Manley Crosby to design a sailboat for racing on Nantucket Sound. Manley Crosby was a member of the Crosby family, noted for building the famous Crosby catboats. Fourteen boats raced that summer; those fourteen boats were No. 1 Dione, No. 2 Wendy, No. 3 Telemark, No. 4 A. P. H. No. 5 Commy, No. 6 Snookums, No. 7 Bob White, No. 8 Sea Dog, No. 9 Marie, No. 10 Qui Vive, No. 11 Fantasy, No. 12 Whistle Wing, No. 13 Maxixe, No. 14 Ethyl. All but two of these original boats have been lost. No. 7 now known as Tirza is in Osterville MA and No. 11 Fantasy is in the collections of Mystic Seaport Museum in Mystic, CT. All the other original boats have been lost due to fires, or hurricanes.
See the book, The Senior published in 1989 for the boat's 75th anniversary, for more information of the history of the class. That history was adapted from the article "Warriors of Wianno"; the book contains several articles and photos by Wianno Senior owners and sailors. At about the same time, Wooden Boat magazine published two articles on the Wianno Senior as part of the boat's 75th anniversary; the first, "The Wianno Senior", describes the boat's history and construction and includes several photos. Page 66 shows a photo of the most famous Wianno Senior sailor, President Jack Kennedy, his boat, hull no. 94, is now on display at the John F. Kennedy Library in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts; the second article in that issue of Wooden Boat is by Jack Fallon. That article provides a short tutorial, Tuning Up on how to sail a Wianno Senior. Jack won the Scudder Cup, the annual class championship, a record nine times between 1949, when the Cup was established, 1976. More Pearl River Productions has published a DVD providing a video history of the Wianno Senior class.
That DVD provides updates to the class history beyond the 75th anniversary and discusses the recovery of the class from the devastating boat yard fire on December 10, 2003, in which 21 Seniors were destroyed, 18 of them the classic wooden Seniors. Two boat yards are still building Wianno Seniors. Crosby Yacht Yard, Inc. in Osterville, E M Crosby Boatworks in West Barnstable MA. About 200 Wianno Seniors have been built. Hull numbers through 173 were wooden boats. Hull number 219 will be launched in 2015 by E M Crosby Boatworks. Several hull numbers were omitted in the sequence. Wianno Senior Class Association