Indiana University is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States. Indiana University has a combined student body of more than 110,000 students, which includes 46,000 students enrolled at the Indiana University Bloomington campus. Indiana University has a total of nine different campuses; each one of the campuses is an four-year degree-granting institution. The flagship campus of Indiana University is located in Bloomington. Indiana University Bloomington is the location of Indiana University; the Bloomington campus is home to numerous premier Indiana University schools, including the College of Arts and Sciences, the Jacobs School of Music, an extension of the Indiana University School of Medicine the School of Informatics and Engineering, which includes the former School of Library and Information Science, School of Optometry, the O'Neil School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Kelley School of Business.
In addition to its flagship campus, Indiana University comprises seven lesser extensions throughout Indiana: Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis is an urban expansion, co-locating degree programs of Indiana University alongside those of Purdue University and extending public higher education to the capitol. Located just west of downtown Indianapolis, it is the central location of several Indiana University schools, including the School of Medicine, the IU School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, the School of Dentistry, the School of Nursing, the School of Social Work, the Indiana University administrated Herron School of Art and Design, the Robert H. McKinney School of Law. Indiana University East is located in Richmond. Indiana University Fort Wayne, the system's newest campus, is located in Fort Wayne, it was established in 2018 after the dissolution of the former entity Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne, an extension similar to that of IUPUI under the administration of Purdue University.
IU Fort Wayne took over IPFW's academic programs in health sciences, with all other IPFW academic programs taken over by the new entity, Purdue University Fort Wayne. Indiana University Kokomo is located in Kokomo. Indiana University Northwest is located in Gary. Indiana University South Bend is located in South Bend. Indiana University Southeast is located in New Albany. Indiana University – Purdue University Columbus is located in Columbus. According to the National Association of College and University Business Officers, the value of the endowment of the Indiana University and affiliated foundations in 2016 is over $1.986 billion. The annual budget across all campuses totals over $3 Billion; the Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation is a not-for-profit agency that assists IU faculty and researchers in realizing the commercial potential of their discoveries. Since 1997, university clients have been responsible for more than 1,800 inventions, nearly 500 patents, 38 start-up companies.
In the 2016 Fiscal Year alone, the IURTC was issued 53 U. S. patents and 112 global patents. Richard G. Johnson - Acting Science Adviser to Ronald Reagan, physics professor at University of Bern, manager of the Space Sciences Laboratory of University of California - Berkeley. Trigger Alpert - Jazz bassist for the Glenn Miller Orchestra Joshua Bell - Grammy award-winning violinist and conductor Hoagy Carmichael - Composer, singer and bandleader John T. Chambers - Chairman and former CEO of Cisco Systems Nicole Chevalier - Operatic soprano Alton Dorian Clark - Hip-hop recording artist and record producer Pamela Coburn, soprano Suzanne Collins - Author of The Underland Chronicles and The Hunger Games trilogy Mark Cuban - Owner of the NBA's Dallas Mavericks John Cynn - Professional Poker Player. 2018 World Series of Poker Champion. Mary Czerwinski - Computer scientist at Microsoft Research and Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery Thomas P. Dooley - author and research scientist Judith Lynn Ferguson, author of 65 cookery related books, cookery editor of Woman's Realm women's magazine, Head of Diploma Course at Le Cordon Bleu- London Matt Fields - Fashion Designer - Founder of street wear brand Dope Couture George Goehl - Community organizer and executive director of People's Action Michael D. Higgins - 9th President of Ireland Lissa Hunter - Artist Jamie Hyneman - Host of the television series MythBusters Narendra Jadhav - Economist and writer Jason Jordan - Professional wrestler Nina Kasniunas - Political scientist and professor E.
W. Kelley - Businessman. News Jay Schottenstein - CEO of Schottenstein Stores Kyle Schwarber - Professional baseball player Tavis Smiley - Host of The Tavis Smiley Show. S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia Brad Stephens - former Austra
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom's Cabin. Published in 1852, the novel had a profound effect on attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the U. S. and is said to have "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War". Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Seminary and an active abolitionist, featured the character of Uncle Tom, a long-suffering black slave around whom the stories of other characters revolve; the sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings. Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible, it is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In the first year after it was published, 300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States. In 1855, three years after it was published, it was called "the most popular novel of our day." The impact attributed to the book is great, reinforced by a story that when Abraham Lincoln met Stowe at the start of the Civil War, Lincoln declared, "So this is the little lady who started this great war."
The quote is apocryphal. These include the affectionate, dark-skinned "mammy". In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool." Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Seminary and an active abolitionist, wrote the novel as a response to the passage, in 1850, of the second Fugitive Slave Act. Much of the book was composed in Brunswick, where her husband, Calvin Ellis Stowe, taught at his alma mater, Bowdoin College. Stowe was inspired to create Uncle Tom's Cabin by the slave narrative The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself. Henson, a enslaved black man, had lived and worked on a 3,700-acre tobacco plantation in North Bethesda, owned by Isaac Riley. Henson escaped slavery in 1830 by fleeing to the Province of Upper Canada, where he helped other fugitive slaves settle and become self-sufficient, where he wrote his memoirs.
Stowe acknowledged in 1853. When Stowe's work became a best-seller, Henson republished his memoirs as The Memoirs of Uncle Tom and traveled on lecture tours extensively in the United States and Europe. Stowe's novel lent its name to Henson's home—Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site, near Dresden, Canada—which since the 1940s has been a museum; the cabin where Henson lived while he was enslaved no longer exists, but a cabin on the Riley farm erroneously thought to be the Henson Cabin was purchased by the Montgomery County, government in 2006. It is now a part of the National Park Service National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom program, plans are underway to build a museum and interpretive center on the site. American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses, a volume co-authored by Theodore Dwight Weld and the Grimké sisters, is a source of some of the novel's content. Stowe said she based the novel on a number of interviews with people who escaped slavery during the time when she was living in Cincinnati, across the Ohio River from Kentucky, a slave state.
In Cincinnati the Underground Railroad had local abolitionist sympathizers and was active in efforts to help runaway slaves on their escape route from the South. Stowe mentioned a number of the inspirations and sources for her novel in A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin; this non-fiction book was intended to verify Stowe's claims about slavery. However research indicated that Stowe did not read many of the book's cited works until after she had published her novel. Uncle Tom's Cabin first appeared as a 40-week serial in The National Era, an abolitionist periodical, starting with the June 5, 1851, issue, it was intended as a shorter narrative that would run for only a few weeks. Stowe expanded the story however, it was popular, such that several protests were sent to the Era office when she missed an issue; because of the story's popularity, the publisher John P. Jewett contacted Stowe about turning the serial into a book. While Stowe questioned if anyone would read Uncle Tom's Cabin in book form, she consented to the request.
Convinced the book would be popular, Jewett made the unusual decision to have six full-page illustrations by Hammatt Billings engraved for the first printing. Published in book form on March 20, 1852, the novel sold 3,000 copies on that day alone, soon sold out its complete print run. A number of other editions were soon printed. In the first year of publication, 300,000 copies of Uncle Tom's Cabin were sold. At that point, however, "demand came to an unexpected halt.... No more copies were produced for many years, if, as is claimed, Abraham Lincoln greeted Stowe in 1862 as'the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war,' the
Black people is a term used in certain countries in based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies both between and within societies, depends on context. For many other individuals and countries, "black" is perceived as a derogatory, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding, classified as "black", these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds.
The Romans interacted with and conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, subsequently rendered as Moors in English. Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. Others are descendants of the historical Trans-Saharan trade in peoples and/or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, descendants of slaves from the Arab Slave Trade in North Africa. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Warrior King" raised a corps of 150,000 black soldiers, called his Black Guard. According to Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's University of the State of Bahia, in the 21st century Afro-multiracials in the Arab world, including Arabs in North Africa, self-identify in ways that resemble multi-racials in Latin America.
He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother, a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman and a father, a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, "I am not white but I am not black either. My blackness is tending to reddish". Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men, they used more black female slaves in domestic agriculture than males. The men interpreted the Qur'an to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children; when an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab master's child, she was considered as umm walad or "mother of a child", a status that granted her privileged rights. The child was given rights of inheritance to the father's property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father.
Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers' social status at birth and were born free. Some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608, he was not technically considered as a mixed-race child of a slave. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs. Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens; the government was accused of "deftly manipulat Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing. American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. According to Ayittey, "In Sudan... the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid." Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid.
In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "Negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, were either purchased by the Tuareg nobles from slave markets in the Western Sudan or taken during raids, their origin is denoted via the Ahaggar Berber word Ibenheren, which alludes to slaves that only speak a Nilo-Saharan language. These slaves were sometimes known by the borrowed Songhay term Bella; the Sahrawi autochthones of the Western Sahara observed a class system consisting of high castes and low castes. Outside of these traditional tribal boundaries were "Negro" slaves, who were drawn from the surrounding areas. In parts of the Horn of Africa, the local Afroasiatic speaking populations have long adhered to a construct similar to that of the Sahara and Maghreb. In Ethiopia and Somalia, the slave classes consisted of individuals of Nilotic and Bantu origin who were collectively known as Shanqella and Adone; these captives and others of analogous morphology were distinguished as tsalim barya in contrast with the Afroasiatic-speaking nobles or saba qayh.
The earliest representation of this tradition dates from a seventh or eighth century BC inscription belonging to the Kingdom of Damat. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Kho
Race and ethnicity in Latin America
There is no single system of races or ethnicities that covers all of Latin America, usage of labels may vary substantially. In Mexico, for example, the category mestizo is not defined or applied the same as the corresponding category of mestiço in Brazil. In spite of these differences, the construction of race in Latin America can be contrasted with concepts of race and ethnicity in the United States; the ethno-racial composition of modern-day Latin American nations combines diverse Amerindian populations, with influence from Iberian and other European colonizers, diverse African groups brought to the Americas as slave labor, recent immigrant groups from all over the world. Racial categories in Latin America are linked to both continental ancestry or mixture as inferred from phenotypical traits, but to socio-economic status. Ethnicity is constructed either as an amalgam national identity or as something reserved for the indigenous groups so that ethnic identity is something that members of indigenous groups have in addition to their national identity.
Racial and ethnic discrimination is common in Latin America where socio-economic status correlates with perceived whiteness, indigenous status and perceived African ancestry is correlated with poverty and lack of opportunity and social status. In Latin American concepts of race, physiological traits is combined with social traits such as socio-economic status, so that a person is categorized not only according to physical phenotype, but according to social standing. Ethnicity on the other hand is a system that classifies groups of people according to cultural and historic criteria. An ethnic group is defined by having a degree of cultural and linguistic similarity and an ideology of shared roots. Another difference between race and ethnicity is that race is conceptualized as a system of categorization where membership is limited to one category, is externally ascribed by other who are not members of that category without regards to the individuals own feeling of membership. Whereas ethnicity is seen as a system of social organization where membership is established through mutual identification between a group and its members.
The construction of race in Latin America is different from, for example, the model found in the United States because race mixing has been a common practice since the early colonial period, whereas in the United States it has been avoided. Blanqueamiento, or whitening, is a social and economic practice used to "improve" the race towards whiteness; the term blanqueamiento is rooted in Latin America and is used more or less synonymous with racial whitening. However, blanqueamiento can be considered in both the symbolic and biological sense Symbolically, blanqueamiento represents an ideology that emerged from legacies of European colonialism, described by Anibal Quijano's theory of coloniality of power, which caters to white dominance in social hierarchies Biologically, blanqueamiento is the process of whitening by marrying a lighter skinned individual in order to produce lighter-skinned offspring. Blanqueamiento was enacted in national policies of many Latin American countries Brazil and Cuba, at the turn of the 20th century.
In most cases, these policies promoted European immigration as a means to whiten the population. An important phenomenon described for some parts of Latin America such as Brazil and Mexico is "Whitening" or "Mestizaje" describing the policy of planned racial mixing with the purpose of minimizing the non-white part of the population; this practice was possible as in these countries one is classified as white with few white phenotypical traits and it has meant that the percentages of people identifying as black or indigenous has increased over the course of the twentieth century as the mixed class expanded. It has meant that the racial categories have been fluid. Unlike the United States where ancestry is used to define race, Latin American scholars came to agree by the 1970s that race in Latin America could not be understood as the “genetic composition of individuals” but instead “based upon a combination of cultural and somatic considerations. In Latin America, a person's ancestry is quite irrelevant to racial classification.
For example, full-blooded siblings can be classified by different races. During the Spanish colonial period, Spaniards developed a complex caste system based on race, used for social control and which determined a person's rights in society. There were four main categories of race: Peninsular - a Spaniard born in Spain, Criollo - a person of Spanish descent born in Mesoamerica, Indio - a person, a native of, or indigenous to, Negro - a person of African slave descent. There were other caste groups like the Mestizos/Mestizas that had one Spanish and one Indian parent; the Castizos which had one Mestizo parent and one Spanish parent, the children of a Castizo were accepted as a Criollo. Mulatto/Mulatta were the ones with one Spanish and one black parent, if a mulatto was born in slavery they were considered slaves as well unless the mother was free they would be free too. Speaking ethno-racial relations can be arranged on an axis between the two extremes of European and Amerindian cultural and biological heritage, this is a remnant of the colonial Spanish caste system which categorized individuals according to their perceived level of biological mixture between the two groups.
Additionally the presence of considerable portions of the population with African and Asian heritage further compl
In literature, a serial is a printing format by which a single larger work a work of narrative fiction, is published in smaller, sequential installments. The installments are known as numbers, parts or fascicles, may be released either as separate publications or within sequential issues of a periodical publication, such as a magazine or newspaper; the growth of moveable type in the 17th century prompted episodic and disconnected narratives such as L'Astrée and Le Grand Cyrus. At that time, books remained a premium item, so to reduce the price and expand the market, publishers produced large works in lower-cost installments called fascicles. Serialized fiction surged in popularity during Britain's Victorian era, due to a combination of the rise of literacy, technological advances in printing, improved economics of distribution. Most Victorian novels first appeared as installments in weekly periodicals; the wild success of Charles Dickens's The Pickwick Papers, first published in 1836, is considered to have established the viability and appeal of the serialized format within periodical literature.
During that era, the line between "quality" and "commercial" literature was not distinct. Other famous writers who wrote serial literature for popular magazines were Wilkie Collins, inventor of the detective novel with The Moonstone and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who created the Sherlock Holmes stories for serialization in The Strand magazine. While American periodicals first syndicated British writers, over time they drew from a growing base of domestic authors; the rise of the periodicals like Harper's and the Atlantic Monthly grew in symbiotic tandem with American literary talent. The magazines nurtured and provided an economic sustainability for writers, while the writers helped grow the periodicals' circulation base. During the late 19th century, those that were considered the best American writers first published their work in serial form and only in a completed volume format; as a piece in Scribner's Monthly explained in 1878, "Now it is the second or third rate novelist who cannot get publication in a magazine, is obliged to publish in a volume, it is in the magazine that the best novelist always appears first."
Among the American writers that wrote in serial form were Herman Melville. A large part of the appeal for writers at the time was the broad audiences that serialization could reach, which would grow their following for published works. One of the first significant American works to be released in serial format is Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, published over a 40-week period by The National Era, an abolitionist periodical, starting with the June 5, 1851 issue. Serialization was so standard in American literature that authors from that era built installment structure into their creative process. James, for example had his works divided into multi-part segments of similar length; the consumption of fiction during that time was different than in the 20th century. Instead of being read in a single volume, a novel would be consumed by readers in installments over a period as long as a year, with the authors and periodicals responding to audience reaction. In France, Alexandre Dumas and Eugène Sue were masters of the serialized genre.
The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte Cristo each appeared as a feuilleton. The Count of Monte Cristo was stretched out to 139 installments. Eugène Sue's serial novel Le Juif errant increased circulation of Le Constitutionnel from 3,600 to 25,000. Production in book form soon followed and serialization was one of the main reasons that nineteenth-century novels were so long. Authors and publishers kept the story going if it was successful since authors were paid by line and by episode. Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary was serialized in La Revue de Paris in 1856; some writers were prolific. Alexandre Dumas wrote at an incredible pace, oftentimes writing with his partner twelve to fourteen hours a day, working on several novels for serialized publication at once. However, not every writer could keep up with the serial writing pace. Wilkie Collins, for instance, was never more than a week before publication; the difference in writing pace and output in large part determined the author's success, as audience appetite created demand for further installments.
In the German-speaking countries, the serialized novel was popularized by the weekly family magazine Die Gartenlaube, which reached a circulation of 382,000 by 1875. In Russia, The Russian Messenger serialized Leo Tolstoy's Anna Karenina from 1873 to 1877 and Fyodor Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov from 1879 to 1880. In Poland, Bolesław Prus wrote several serialized novels: The Outpost, The Doll, The New Woman, his sole historical novel, Pharaoh. In addition, works in late Qing dynasty China had been serialized; the Nine-tailed Turtle was serialized from 1906 to 1910. Bizarre Happenings Eyewitnessed over Two Decades was serialized in Xin Xiaoshuo, a magazine by Liang Qichao; the first half of Officialdom Unmasked appeared in installments of Shanghai Shijie Fanhua Bao, serialized there from April 1903 to June 1905. Template:CLarification With the rise of broadcast—both radio and television series—in the first half of the 20th century, printed periodical fiction began a slow decline as newspapers and magazines shifted their focus from entertainment to information and news.
However, some serialization of novels in periodicals continued, with mixed success. The first several books in the Tales of the City series by Armistead Maupin appea
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove