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Samizdat was a form of dissident activity across the Eastern Bloc in which individuals reproduced censored and underground makeshift publications by hand, passed the documents from reader to reader. The practice of manual reproduction was widespread due to most typewriters and printing devices were inventorized and required permission to access; this grassroots practice to evade official Soviet censorship was fraught with danger, as harsh punishments were meted out to people caught possessing or copying censored materials. Vladimir Bukovsky summarized it as follows: "Samizdat: I write it myself, edit it myself, censor it myself, publish it myself, distribute it myself, spend time in prison for it myself." Etymologically, the word samizdat derives from sam and izdat, thus means "self-published". The Ukrainian language has a similar term: samvydav, from sam, "self", vydavnytstvo, "publishing house"; the Russian poet Nikolai Glazkov coined a version of the term as a pun in the 1940s when he typed copies of his poems and included the note Samsebyaizdat on the front page.

Tamizdat refers to literature published abroad from smuggled manuscripts. All Soviet-produced typewriters and printing devices were inventorized, with their typographic samples collected right at the factory and stored in the government directory; because every typewriter has micro features which are individual as much as human fingerprints, it allowed the KGB investigators to promptly identify the device, used to type or print the text in question, apprehend its user. However, certain East German and Eastern European-made Cyrillic typewriters, most notably the Erika, were purchased by Soviet citizens while travelling to nearby socialist countries, skipped the sample collection procedure and therefore presented more difficulty to trace. Western-produced typewriters, purchased abroad and somehow brought or smuggled into the Soviet Union, were used to type Cyrillic text via Latin characters. To prevent capture, regular bookbinding of ideologically-approved books have been used to conceal the forbidden texts within.

Samizdat copies of texts, such as Mikhail Bulgakov's novel The Master and Margarita or Václav Havel's essay The Power of the Powerless were passed around among trusted friends. The techniques used to reproduce these forbidden texts varied. Several copies might be made using carbon paper, either on a typewriter. Before glasnost, most of these methods were dangerous, because copy machines, printing presses, typewriters in offices were under control of the organisation's First Department, i.e. the KGB: reference printouts from all of these machines were stored for subsequent identification purposes, should samizdat output be found. Samizdat distinguishes itself not only by the ideas and debates that it helped spread to a wider audience but by its physical form; the hand-typed blurry and wrinkled pages with numerous typographical errors and nondescript covers helped to separate and elevate Russian samizdat from Western literature. The physical form of samizdat arose from a simple lack of resources and the necessity to be inconspicuous.

In time, dissidents in the USSR began to admire these qualities for their own sake, the ragged appearance of samizdat contrasting with the smooth, well-produced appearance of texts passed by the censor's office for publication by the State. The form samizdat took gained precedence over the ideas it expressed, became a potent symbol of the resourcefulness and rebellious spirit of the inhabitants of the Soviet Union. In effect, the physical form of samizdat itself elevated the reading of samizdat to a prized clandestine act. Samizdat originated from the dissident movement of the Russian intelligentsia, most samizdat directed itself to a readership of Russian elites. While circulation of samizdat was low, at around 200,000 readers on average, many of these readers possessed positions of cultural power and authority. Furthermore, because of the presence of "dual consciousness" in the Soviet Union, the simultaneous censorship of information and necessity of absorbing information to know how to censor it, many government officials became readers of samizdat.

Although the general public at times came into contact with samizdat, most of the public lacked access to the few expensive samizdat texts in circulation, expressed discontent with the censored reading material made available by the state. The purpose and methods of samizdat may contrast with the purpose of the concept of copyright. Self-published and self-distributed literature has a long history in Russia. Samizdat is unique to other countries with similar systems. Faced with the police state's powers of censorship, society turned to underground literature for self-analysis and self-expression; the first full-length book to be distributed as samizdat was Boris Pasternak's 1957 novel Doctor Zhivago. Although the literary magazine Novy Mir had published ten poems from the book in 1954, a year the full text was judged unsuitable for publication and entered samizdat circulation. Certain works, though published by the State-controlled media, were impossible to find in bookshops and libraries, found their way into samizdat: for example Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich was distributed via samizdat

Maria Lucia Rosenberg

Maria Lucia Heiberg Rosenberg is a Danish singer and musical-performer. She became famous when she won a record contract with the label EMI in the TV 2-program Popstars in 2003, her debut single. The album That's, she has been singing since age 8. Her father is Per Rosenberg, an elementary school teacher, her mother is a film editor. She sang some time in the band "Rosenberg"; the family home where she grew up is located in Risskov. Maria Lucia created a career as a musical singer with leading parts in Skønheden og udyret on the Det Ny Teater, Aladdin in Fredericia Teater and West Side Story on Gasværket. On 8 May 2011 she was awarded Reumertprisen as singer of the year for her role in Wicked on Det Ny Teater, the first musical performer to receive this prize, she danced with Morten Kjeldgaard. In 2013 she dubbed Elsa for the Disney film Frozen, performing the Danish version of the song "Let it go", which won an Oscar on 2 March 2014. Rosenberg was chosen for the part because she played the role of Elphaba in Wicked, which in the Broadway-version was played by Idina Menzel, who voices Elsa in original version.

Between 2011 and 2014 Danmarks Radio held a series of concerts in different locations in Denmark where famous Disney songs were performed by DR UnderholdningsOrkestret, DR VokalEnsemblet and artists such as Stig Rossen, Annette Heick, Henrik Launbjerg, Jesper Asholt, Thomas Meilstrup and Pelle Emil Hebsgaard. Since 2017, her partner is producer Albin Ljungqvist. On February 9, 2020, Maria Lucia was called to join Idina Menzel and eight more of Elsa's international dubbers to perform the song “Into the Unknown” during the 92nd Academy Awards; every international performer sang one line of the song in a different language: Maria Lucia in Danish, Willemijn Verkaik in German, Takako Matsu in Japanese, Carmen Sarahí in Latin American Spanish, Lisa Stokke in Norwegian, Kasia Łaska in Polish, Anna Buturlina in Russian, Gisela in European Spanish and Gam Wichayanee in Thai. Reumertprisen. Theatre Cup. Maria Lucia Rosenberg discography at Discogs


Calophyllum is a genus of tropical flowering plants in the family Calophyllaceae. They are distributed in Asia, with some species in Africa, the Americas and the Pacific Islands. Members of the genus Calophyllum native to Malesia and Wallacea are of particular importance to traditional shipbuilding of the larger Austronesian outrigger ships and were carried with them in the Austronesian expansion as they migrated to Oceania and Madagascar, they were comparable in importance to how oaks were in European timber industries. The most notable species is the mastwood which grows in the sandy and rocky beaches of the island environments that the Austronesians colonized. Calophyllum are shrubs, they produce white, or yellow latex. The oppositely arranged leaves have leathery blades borne on petioles; the leaves are distinctive, with narrow parallel veins alternating with resin canals. The inflorescence is a cyme or a thyrse of flowers that grows from the leaf axils or at the ends of branches. In the flower the sepals and petals are arranged in whorls.

There are many stamens. The fruit is a drupe with thin layers of flesh over a large seed. Many species are used for their wood; some are hardwood trees. They tend to grow rapidly; the outer sapwood is yellowish, yellow-brown, or orange, sometimes with a pink tinge, the inner heartwood is light reddish to red-brown. The wood ribboned, or zig-zag grain; the wood has been used to build boats and furniture, made into plywood. Calophyllum wood may be sold under the name bitangor, the species may be used interchangeably. Plants of the genus are known for their chemistry, with a variety of secondary metabolites isolated, such as coumarins, xanthones and triterpenes. Compounds from the genus have been reported to have cytotoxic, anti-HIV, cytoprotective, antinociceptive and antimicrobial properties; some plants are used in folk medicine to treat conditions such as peptic ulcers, infections and inflammation. C. Inophyllum is the source of a greenish, nutty-scented oil of commercial value, it has been used as massage oil, topical medicine, lamp oil, waterproofing, is still used in cosmetics.

Tacamahac is the resin of the tree. This species is cultivated for its wood and planted in coastal landscaping as a windbreak and for erosion control. A stylized Calophyllum is featured on the national coat of arms of Nauru. There are 187 species in the genus. Species include: Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia

Battle of the Winwaed

The Battle of the Winwaed was fought on 15 November 655 between King Penda of Mercia and Oswiu of Bernicia, ending in the Mercians' defeat and Penda's death. If Bede is to be believed, the battle marked the effective demise of Anglo-Saxon paganism; the roots of the battle lay in Penda's success in dominating England through a number of military victories, most over the dominant Northumbrians. In alliance with Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd he had defeated and killed Edwin of Northumbria at Hatfield Chase in 633, subsequently he defeated and killed Oswald of Northumbria at the Battle of Maserfield in 642. Maserfield marked the overthrow of Northumbrian supremacy, in the years that followed the Mercians campaigned into Bernicia, besieging Bamburgh at one point. Since the nineteenth century, winwœd or winwæd was interpreted as an Old English name, from the elements winnan or win and wæd. In 2004, Andrew Breeze reinterpreted the name with a Celtic etymology, corresponding to Modern Welsh gwenwedd.

Meanwhile, the campus Gai or maes Gai of the Welsh sources means'Caius's field'). Although the battle is said to be the most important between the early northern and southern divisions of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain, few details are available; the two armies met near a river named the "Winwæd". Since, after the battle, Oswiu concludes his campaign in the district of Loidis, the Winwæd is thought to have been near Leeds and/or a tributary of the Humber. Andrew Breeze argued for the River Went, a tributary of the River Don, situated to the north of modern-day Doncaster. Other identifications include the river now known as Cock Beck in the ancient kingdom of Elmet, before joining the River Wharfe. Wilder speculations include Winwick. After his account of the battle and the monstic endowments made by Oswiu in thanks to God for his victory, Bede says that King Oswiu brought the campaign to a close in the district of Loidis on 15 November in the thirteenth year of his reign, to the great benefit of both peoples.

This has traditionally been seen as evidence that the Battle of the Winwæd itself took place on 15 November 655, but Philip Dunshea has argued that Bede's phrasing makes it possible that the battle could have happened some time—even years—before Oswiu'brought the campaign to a close', that its location could have been far from Leeds. Penda, after gathering allies from East Anglia and Wales, marched with a force led by "thirty warlords". Oswiu, Oswald's brother but had succeeded him only in Bernicia, the northern part of Northumbria, was besieged by Penda's forces at a place called Urbs Iudeu in the north of his kingdom. Iedeu appears as a historic name for Jedburgh located in the north of the kingdom. Oswiu was desperate enough to offer a great deal of treasure to Penda in exchange for peace. Although the sources are unclear, it is that some sort of agreement was reached at Iudeu: although Bede says that Oswiu's offers of treasure were rejected by Penda, Bede says, was determined to destroy Oswiu's people "from the highest to the lowest", he does mention that Oswiu's young son Ecgfrith was being held hostage by the Mercians as part of a deal.

The Historia Brittonum contradicts Bede regarding the treasure, saying that Penda distributed it among his British allies, which would mean that he accepted it. The recorded events may be interpreted to mean that Penda and his army began marching home, but for some reason the two armies met and fought at a place called the River Winwaed. Breeze argues that Penda and his army would have been in a difficult strategic location along the Went during their withdrawal, giving Oswiu a good opportunity to attack, it is certain that the small Northumbrian forces were outnumbered by the Mercians and their allies. According to Bede, before the battle Oswiu prayed to God and promised to make his daughter a nun and grant twelve estates for the construction of monasteries if he was victorious. Penda's army was weakened by desertions. According to the Historia Brittonum, Penda's ally Cadafael ap Cynfeddw of Gwynedd abandoned him, along with his army, Bede says that Aethelwald of Deira withdrew from the battle to await the outcome from a place of safety.

Penda was soundly defeated, both he and his ally, the East Anglian King Aethelhere, were killed, with thirty allied leaders of warbands. The battle was fought by the river in the midst of heavy rains, Bede says that "many more were drowned in the flight than destroyed by the sword". Bede mentions. Writing in the 12th century, Henry of Huntingdon expanded his version of Bede's text to include supernatural intervention and remarked that Penda, in dying violently on the battlefield, was suffering the same fate he had inflicted on others during his aggressive reign; the battle had a substantial effect on the relative positions of Mercia. Mercia's position of dominance, established after t

German submarine U-340

German submarine U-340 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 1 October 1941 at the Nordseewerke yard at Emden, launched on 20 August 1942, commissioned on 16 October 1942 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Joachim Klaus. U-340 served with the 8th U-boat Flotilla, for training and with the 6th U-boat Flotilla for operational service from 1 May to 2 November 1943. German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-340 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged.

She had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-340 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, two twin 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between sixty. U-340 sailed from Kiel on 29 April 1943, out into the Atlantic to the waters south-east of Cape Farewell, before returning to Bordeaux on 31 May, after 33 days at sea with no successes. U-340's next patrol took her from Bordeaux on 6 July 1943, south to the coast of West Africa. On 25 August she rescued five Luftwaffe airmen off the coast of Spain, was attacked by an aircraft shortly afterwards, suffering some damage, she returned to Saint-Nazaire on 2 September. U-340's third and final patrol began on 17 October 1943, sailing from Saint-Nazaire south to the Strait of Gibraltar. There she was sunk on 2 November 1943, near Tangier at position 35°33′N 6°37′W, by depth charges from the sloop HMS Fleetwood, the destroyers HMS Active and Witherington and a Liberator bomber of No. 179 Squadron RAF.

One of U-340's crew was killed and 48 survived the attack. Mediterranean U-boat Campaign Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-340". German U-boats of WWII - Retrieved 26 December 2014. Hofmann, Markus. "U 340". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - Retrieved 26 December 2014 was an online textbook price comparison service. It was based in San Diego, California, it specialized in college textbooks but includes high school textbooks as well; the company's books by course search engine lets students input their class schedules, see all the required textbooks for those schedules, find the cheapest online sources of those books. The search engine includes a textbook exchange feature through which students can buy and sell books from other students; the website includes a textbook buyback platform through which students can sell their textbooks back to online vendors. SwoopThat has been featured in the New York Times, on the website of the Today Show, on the website of Computerworld magazine, the weblog SwoopThat was founded by students from Harvey Mudd College, it existed as a product search engine with an emphasis on local products and stores. It shifted to a focus on textbooks based on a books by course model, it has since added textbook data from over 2,300 colleges in the United States.

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