College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based
ESPN.com is the official website of ESPN. It is owned by a division of ESPN Inc.. Since launching in April 1995 as ESPNet. SportsZone.com, the website has developed numerous sections including: Page 2, SportsNation, ESPN3, ESPN Motion, My ESPN, ESPN Sports Travel, ESPN Video Games, ESPN Insider, ESPN.com's Fanboard, ESPN Fantasy Sports, ESPNU.com, ESPN Search. ESPN.com has partnerships with MLB.com, NBA.com, NFL.com, WNBA.com, MLSsoccer.com NHL.com, Baseball America, Golf Digest, Scouts Inc. Jayski.com, USGA.org, Sherdog.com, Masters.org. It has sections devoted to certain sports and leagues including: the National Hockey League, National Football League, Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, NASCAR, Indy Racing League, NCAA, Soccer, Women's sports, eSports; each section contains pages devoted to: scores, schedules, players, news wires and columnists pages. Some notable ESPN.com columnists are John Buccigross, Chris Mortensen, John Clayton, Adam Schefter, Andy Katz, Bill Simmons, Jayson Stark, Buster Olney, Gene Wojciechowski, Scoop Jackson, Pat Forde, Jim Caple, Michael Smith.
The website was part of the MSN portal from 2001 to 2004. ESPN launched a Spanish language website in ESPN Deportes.com. The content of some ESPN.com articles is argued to have been plagiarized. ESPN started local chapters of its website in response to the decline of local sports coverage available as newspapers continue to go out of business across the country; each page covers local professional and college teams, hiring locally known writers, in some cases making use of the city's ESPN Radio affiliate. In markets where the ABC Owned Television Stations owns a station, their sports coverage is incorporated with the corresponding ESPN local site; some local sites have expanded into high school sports coverage. ESPNBoston.com - with affiliate WEEI ESPNChicago.com - with WMVP and WLS-TV ESPNCleveland.com - with affiliate WKNR ESPNDallas.com - with KESN ESPNLosAngeles.com - with KSPN and KABC-TV ESPNNewYork.com - with WEPN-FM and WABC-TV
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf
A running back is an American and Canadian football position, a member of the offensive backfield. The primary roles of a running back are to receive handoffs from the quarterback for a rushing play, to catch passes from out of the backfield, to block. There are one or two running backs on the field for a given play, depending on the offensive formation. A running back may be a wingback or a fullback. A running back will sometimes be called a "feature back"; the halfback or tailback position is responsible for carrying the ball on the majority of running plays, may be used as a receiver on short passing plays. In the modern game, an effective halfback must have a blend of both quickness and agility as a runner, as well as sure hands and good vision up-field as a receiver. Quarterbacks depend on halfbacks as a safety valve receiver when primary targets downfield are covered or when they are under pressure. Halfbacks line up as additional wide receivers; when not serving either of these functions, the primary responsibility of a halfback is to aid the offensive linemen in blocking, either to protect the quarterback or another player carrying the football.
If a team uses a Wildcat formation the halfback is the one who receives the snap directly instead of the quarterback. As a trick play, running backs are used to pass the ball on a halfback option play or halfback pass; the difference between halfback and tailback is the position of the player in the team's offensive formation. In historical formations, the halfback lined up halfway between the line of scrimmage and the fullback; because the halfback is the team's main ball carrier, modern offensive formations have positioned the halfback behind the fullback, to take advantage of the fullback's blocking abilities. As a result, some systems or playbooks will call for a tailback as opposed to a halfback. In Canadian football, the term tailback is used interchangeably with running back, while the use of the term halfback is exclusively reserved for the defensive halfback, which refers to the defensive back halfway between the linebackers and the cornerbacks. In most modern college and professional football schemes, fullbacks carry the ball infrequently, instead using their stronger physiques as primary "lead blockers."
On most running plays, the fullback leads the halfback, attempting to block potential tacklers before they reach the ball carrier. When fullbacks are called upon to carry the ball, the situation calls for gaining a short amount of yardage, as the fullback can use his bulkiness to avoid being tackled early. Fullbacks are sometimes receivers for passing plays, although most plays call for the fullback to block any defensive players that make it past the offensive line, a skill referred to as "blitz pickup". Fullbacks are technically running backs, but today the term "running back" is used in referring to the halfback or tailback. Although modern fullbacks are used as ball carriers, in previous offensive schemes fullbacks would be the designated ball carriers. In high school football, where player sizes vary fullbacks are still used as ball carriers. In high school and college offenses, the triple option scheme uses the fullback as a primary ball carrier; the fullback plays a unique role by establishing an inside running threat on every play.
College teams such as Georgia Tech and Air Force have employed the triple option scheme. While in years past the fullback lined up on the field for every offensive play, teams opt to replace the fullback with an additional wide receiver or a tight end in modern football. Fullbacks in the National Football League today carry or catch the ball since they are used exclusively as blockers. Fullbacks are still used as rushers on plays when a short gain is needed for a first-down or touchdown or to surprise the defense since they are not expecting a full back to run or catch the ball. Pro Football Hall of Fame members Jim Brown, Marion Motley, Franco Harris, John Riggins, Larry Csonka were fullbacks. There is a diversity in those. At one extreme are smaller, shiftier players; these quick and elusive running backs are called "scat backs" because their low center of gravity and maneuverability allow them to dodge tacklers. Running backs known for their elusiveness include Red Grange, Hugh McElhenny, Gale Sayers, Barry Sanders.
At the other extreme are "power backs:" bigger, stronger players who can break through tackles using brute strength and raw power. They are slower runners compared to other backs, run straight ahead rather than dodging to the outside edges of the playing field. Hall of Famers Earl Campbell, Bronko Nagurski, John Riggins, Larry Csonka, as well as NFL all-time leading rusher Emmitt Smith, were considered power running backs. Over the years, NFL running backs have been used as receivers out of the backfield. On passing plays, a running back will run a "safe route," such as a hook or a flat route, that gives a quarterback a target when all other receivers are covered or when the quarterback feels pressured. Hall of Famer Lenny Moore was a halfback who played as a pass receiver; some teams have a specialist "third down back,", skilled at catching passes or better at pass blocking and "picking up the blitz," and thus is
Ronnie G. Brown Jr. is a former American football running back. After graduating from Cartersville High School in Georgia, Brown attended Auburn University to play college football for the Auburn Tigers, he and Cadillac Williams shared carries at running back, while he had 1,008 yards and 13 touchdowns in 2002, 446 yards and five touchdowns in 2003, 913 yards and eight touchdowns in 2004. Brown finished seventh in school history with 2,707 rushing yards and fifth with 28 rushing touchdowns, he twice earned second-team All-Southeastern Conference honors in 2002 and 2004. Brown was drafted second overall by the Miami Dolphins in the 2005 NFL Draft. Brown started at running back for the Dolphins for the first four weeks of the season while Ricky Williams served a suspension, shared carries with him when he returned in week five. Brown became the feature back in 2006 due to Williams' full year suspension. Brown sat out three games due to a broken hand suffered on Thanksgiving Day in a game against the Detroit Lions, returning in week 16.
He played in the first seven games of the 2007 season before suffering a knee injury which knocked him out for the remainder of the season. Williams started over Brown in the first two games of the 2008 season, but shared carries with him after week two. Brown had 916 yards and ten touchdowns in 2008, which led to his first Pro Bowl selection following the season, he was placed on injured reserve for the second straight season after suffering a foot injury in week nine of the 2009 season. Brown rushed for five touchdowns in 2010, as he started in all 16 games, he played for the Philadelphia Eagles in 2011 following a six-year career with the Dolphins. Brown attended Cartersville High School in Georgia, where he was a three-year starter and rushed for 4,936 yards, 12 touchdowns. Brown moved on to Auburn University, where he majored in communications and played for coach Tommy Tuberville's Auburn Tigers football team from 2000 to 2004, he teamed up with speed running back Carnell Williams to create a premier running threat of speed and power.
He redshirted after playing in the first two games of the 2000 season as he only gained 10 yards on six carries. In 2001, he played in 10 games and ranked third on the team with 330 yards on 84 carries and two touchdowns while catching seven passes for 109 yards. Brown enjoyed his best season in 2002 when he gained a career-high 1,008 yards on 175 carries with 13 touchdowns while subbing for the injured Williams, he had nine receptions for 166 yards and a touchdown. However, in 2003, with Williams healthy and starting, Brown's statistics dropped as he carried the ball only 95 times for 446 yards, recorded five touchdowns, had eight receptions for 80 yards. In 2004, Brown started seven games. Together with Jason Campbell, coach Tommy Tuberville called them the best backfield in the past 30 years as they led the team to a 13-0 record, he totaled 913 yards on 153 scored eight times. He displayed his receiving capabilities as he ranked second on the team with 34 catches for 313 yards and a touchdown.
Although he started only 21 of 47 games for Auburn he finished his career ranked seventh in school history with 2,707 yards rushing on 513 carries while ranking fifth with 28 rushing touchdowns. Brown had 58 receptions for 668 yards and two touchdowns. 2000: 6 carries for 10 yards and no touchdowns. 2001: 84 carries for 330 yards and 2 touchdowns. 7 catches for 109 yards. 2002: 175 carries for 1008 yards and 13 touchdowns. 9 catches for 166 yards and 1 touchdown. 2003: 95 carries for 446 yards and 5 touchdowns. 8 catches for 80 yards. 2004: 153 carries for 913 yards and 8 touchdowns. 34 catches for 313 yards and 1 touchdown. Brown entered the 2005 NFL Draft and was drafted with the 2nd overall pick of the 1st round by the Miami Dolphins. Fellow Auburn University HB Carnell Williams was in the draft and was selected with the fifth pick in the first round by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Brown held out of training camp due to a contract dispute and as a result was not successful running the ball in the first two weeks of the season as he rushed for only 93 yards on 34 carries and no touchdowns.
However, he got on track in Week 3 as he rushed for 132 yards on 23 carries and his first career touchdown. He followed, but during Week 5, he had to again share rushing duties with another premier running back, this time Ricky Williams, returning from a four-game suspension. Brown ended up having only about forty more rushes than Williams during the 2005 season, was well on pace for a 1,000 yard campaign if it wasn't for them sharing the football. Brown ended up with 207 rushes for 907 yards and 4 touchdowns while having 32 receptions for 232 yards and a touchdown. With Ricky Williams suspended for the entire season, Brown entered 2006 as the feature back for the Miami Dolphins; the offensive line and offense in general struggled for the Dolphins, making it difficult for Brown to produce at a high level. He had a breakout game on October 15 loss to the New York Jets, rushing for 127 yards and a touchdown on 22 carries. Three weeks he rushed for a career-high 157 yards against a stingy Chicago Bears defense, helping the Dolphins to an upset victory of the undefeated Bears.
On a Thanksgiving Day game against the Detroit Lions, Brown suffered a broken left hand from a hit by a defender's helmet. While he missed the next three contests, Brown returned for the final two games of the season and posted back-to-back 100-yard rushing performances against the Indianapolis Colts and New York Jets. In 13 game