Samoa the Independent State of Samoa and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a country consisting of two main islands, Savai'i and Upolu, four smaller islands. The capital city is Apia; the Lapita people settled the Samoan Islands around 3,500 years ago. They developed Samoan cultural identity. Samoa is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions; the sovereign state is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Western Samoa was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1976; the entire island group, which includes American Samoa, was called "Navigator Islands" by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills. The country was governed by New Zealand until its independence in 1962. In July 2017, Va'aletoa Sualauvi II became the head of state, succeeding Tui Ātua Tupua Tamasese Efi; the Prime Minister Tuila'epa came back to power after a landslide victory in March 2016, beginning a fifth term for the premier. New Zealand scientists have dated remains in Samoa to about 2900 years ago.

These were found at a Lapita site at Mulifanua and the findings were published in 1974. The origins of the Samoans are studied in modern research about Polynesia in various scientific disciplines such as genetics and anthropology. Scientific research is ongoing. Intimate sociocultural and genetic ties were maintained between Samoa and Tonga, the archaeological record supports oral tradition and native genealogies that indicate inter-island voyaging and intermarriage between pre-colonial Samoans and Tongans. Notable figures in Samoan history included Queen Salamasina. Nafanua was a famous woman warrior, deified in ancient Samoan religion. Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century. Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman, was the first known European to sight the Samoan islands in 1722; this visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768. Contact was limited before the 1830s, when English missionaries and traders began arriving. Visits by American trading and whaling vessels were important in the early economic development of Samoa.

The Salem brig Roscoe, in October 1821, was the first American trading vessel known to have called, the Maro of Nantucket, in 1824, was the first recorded United States whaler at Samoa. The whalers came for fresh drinking water and provisions, they recruited local men to serve as crewmen on their ships; the last recorded whaler visitor was the Governor Morton in 1870. Christian missionary work in Samoa began in 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived in Sapapali'i from the Cook Islands and Tahiti. According to Barbara A. West, "The Samoans were known to engage in ‘headhunting', a ritual of war in which a warrior took the head of his slain opponent to give to his leader, thus proving his bravery." However, Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa from 1889 until his death in 1894, wrote in A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, "… the Samoans are gentle people." The Germans, in particular, began to show great commercial interest in the Samoan Islands on the island of Upolu, where German firms monopolised copra and cocoa bean processing.

The United States laid its own claim, based on commercial shipping interests in Pearl River in Hawaii and Pago Pago Bay in Eastern Samoa, forced alliances, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila and Manu'a which became American Samoa. Britain sent troops to protect British business enterprise, harbour rights, consulate office; this was followed by an eight-year civil war, during which each of the three powers supplied arms, training and in some cases combat troops to the warring Samoan parties. The Samoan crisis came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three colonial contenders sent warships into Apia harbour, a larger-scale war seemed imminent. A massive storm on 15 March 1889 destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict; the Second Samoan Civil War reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States were locked in dispute over who should control the Samoa Islands. The Siege of Apia occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince Tanu were besieged by a larger force of Samoan rebels loyal to Mata'afa Iosefo.

Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four American warships. After several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were defeated. American and British warships shelled Apia on 15 March 1899, including the USS Philadelphia. Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States resolved to end the hostilities and divided the island chain at the Tripartite Convention of 1899, signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900; the eastern island-group was known as American Samoa. The western islands, by far the greater landmass, became German Samoa; the United Kingdom had vacated all claims in Samoa and in return received termination of German rights in Tonga, all of the Solomon Islands south of Bougainville, territorial alignments in West Africa. The German Empire governed the western part of

Log amplifier

A log amplifier is an amplifier for which the output voltage Vout is K times the natural log of the input voltage Vin. This can be expressed as, V out = K ln ⁡ where Vref is the normalization constant in volts and K is the scale factor; the logarithm amplifier gives an output voltage, proportional to the logarithm of applied input voltage. To design a logarithm amplifier circuit, high performance op-amps like LM1458, LM771, LM714 are used and a compensated logarithm amplifier may include more than one. In some situations in RF domain, monolithic logarithmic amplifiers are used to reduce number of components and space used, as well improve bandwidth and noise performance. Logarithmic amplifiers are used in many ways, such as: To perform mathematical operations like multiplication and exponentiation. Multiplication is sometimes called mixing; this is similar to operation of a slide rule, is used in analog computers, audio synthesis methods, some measurement instruments. To calculate the dB value of a given quantity.

As a True RMS converter. Extending dynamic range of other circuits, like automatic gain control of transmit power in RF circuits, or analog-to-digital converters; the reverse saturation current for the diode doubles for every ten degree Celsius rise in temperature. The emitter saturation current varies from one transistor to another and with temperature. Hence, it is difficult to set the reference voltage for the circuit; the relationship between the input voltage V in and the output voltage V out is given by: V out = − V T ln ⁡ where I S and V T are the saturation current and the thermal voltage of the diode respectively. A necessary condition for successful operation of a log amplifier is that the input voltage, Vin, is always positive; this may be ensured by using a rectifier and filter to condition the input signal before applying it to the log amp input. As Vin is positive, Vout is obliged to be negative and is large enough to forward bias the emitter-base junction of the BJT keeping it in the active mode of operation.

Now, V BE = − V out I C = I SO ≈ I SO e V BE V T ⇒ V BE = V T ln ⁡ where I SO is the saturation current of the emitter-base diode and V T is the thermal voltage. Due to the virtual ground at the op amp differential input, I C = V in R 1, V out = − V T ln ⁡ The output voltage is expressed as the natural log of the input voltage. Both the saturation current I SO and the thermal voltage V T are temperature dependent, temperature compensating circuits may be required. Diode Operational amplifier applications § Logarithmic output Integrated DC logarithmic amplifiers from Maxim's AN 36211 Analog electronics with Op Amps by A. J. Peyton, V. Walsh

Jaane Hoga Kya

Jaane Hoga Kya is a 2006 Bollywood Sci-fi Thriller directed by Glen Barretto & Ankush Mohla. The film stars Aftab Bipasha Basu as the lead protagonists. Rahul Dev, Paresh Rawal, Tinnu Anand and Preeti Jhangiani all play supporting roles; the film which began production in 2003 was released on 1 September 2006 in India and went unnoticed. It features Aftab in a double role, as a scientist. Basic plot of clone was borrowed from 1989 Doordarshan Serial Indradhanush. Director Glen & Ankush are close to lead actor Aftab Shivdasani. Therefore, when he decided to produce a movie, they directed movie for him, Aao Wish Karein Siddharth Sardesai, a young scientist from Indian Medical Research center who wants to create another human being, not in a mother's womb but in a science lab. If he is successful it could be a boon for humanity else it could be a doom for mankind. Siddharth has been unsuccessful, but today he is confident of succeeding. He needs permission from his Guru Dr. Krishnan. There are few people.

Amongst them is Inspector Rathod. So Siddharth is shattered when Dr. Krishnan informs him that the permission to go ahead is not granted. Siddharth is shattered and his love, Aditi comforts him, she suggests him that she would speak to her father Mr. Chopra, a big industrialist and could finance him for his project to help him go ahead with his dream of creating a human clone. After much thought and hesitation Siddharth agrees to take Aditi's help, he starts with his experiment. He first clones a mouse. Time is running out as Inspector Rathod closes on to Siddharth's heels and Siddharth has to take a plunge and he begins to clone himself, he succeeds but his clone goes missing and all hell breaks loose when Siddharth is put behind bars for assaulting a girl at a Night Club. Siddharth realizes that it is his clone, doing all this, but he is helpless, as no one believes him that he has cloned himself, not Dr. Krishnan; the clone has other ideas. He starts playing games, he flirts with Dr. Krishnan's daughter Suchitra and impregnates her.

For Siddharth's project report, the clone kills the blame comes on Siddharth. Inspector Rathod gets furious and promises Siddharth that he will not let him go out alive from jail. Siddharth is in a major dilemma to prove his innocence of the crime, but was Siddharth justified to go ahead and press the button to create the first human clone. Siddharth has to fight his own battle all-alone with his own creation, the law is not on his side. Aftab Shivdasani as Siddharth Sardesai/Clone Bipasha Basu as Aditi Chopra Rahul Dev as Officer Rathore Paresh Rawal as Dr. Krishnan Preeti Jhangiani as Suchitra Krishnan Tinu Anand as Mr. Chopra Zarina Wahab as Mrs. Krishnan Producer - Alok Shrivastava Technical Director - Tariq Mohammad Director - Glen Barretto & Ankush Mohla Music - Sajid-Wajid Art Director - Nitin Chandrakant Desai Editor - Steven Bernard Action - Allen Amin Choreographer - Remo, Saroj Khan, Shabina Khan Singers - Sukhwinder Singh, Shreya Ghoshal, Sunidhi Chauhan, Udit Narayan, Anuradha Paudwal, Mahalakshmi Iyer, Shaswati Jaane Hoga Kya@ IndiaFM Jaane Hoga Kya on IMDb