German Samoa was a German protectorate from 1900 to 1914, consisting of the islands of Upolu, Savaii and Manono, now wholly within the independent state Samoa, formerly Western Samoa. It was the only German colony in the Pacific, aside from the Kiautschou concession in China, in 1855 J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn expanded its trading business into the Pacific following negotiations by August Unshelm, Godeffroy’s agent in Valparaiso. He sailed out to the Samoan Islands, which were known as the Navigator Islands. The trading operations of J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn extending to islands in the Central Pacific, in 1865 a trading captain acting on behalf of J. C. Godeffroy & Sohn obtained a 25-year lease to the eastern islet of Niuoku of Nukulaelae Atoll. Godeffroy und Sohn was in 1879 taken over by Handels-und Plantagen-Gesellschaft der Südsee-Inseln zu Hamburg. Competition in the operations in the Central Pacific came from Ruge, Hedemann & Co, established in 1875. Tensions caused in part by the interests of the German traders and plantation owners and British business enterprises.
The war was fought roughly between 1886 and 1894, primarily between Samoans though the German military intervened on several occasions, the United States and the United Kingdom opposed the German activity which led to a confrontation in Apia Harbor in 1887. In 1899 after the Second Samoan Civil War the Samoan Islands were divided by the three involved powers, during the colonial years new companies were formed to greatly expand agricultural activities which in turn increased tax revenues for public works that further stimulated economic growth, “. Over all, the period of German rule was the most progressive, that the country has experienced. ”Godeffroy, as the trading and plantation company on Samoa, maintained communications among its various subdivisions and branches. Major plantation enterprises on Samoa, J. C. Wilhelm Solf became the first governor, in its political relations with the Samoan people, Solf’s government showed similar qualities of intelligence and care as in the economic arena.
He skillfully grafted Samoan institutions into the new system of government by the acceptance of native customs. Solf himself learned many of the customs and rituals important to the Samoan people, when a dissident Samoan matai exceeded the limits of his considerable tolerance, Solf stepped in assertively, pronouncing that “. There was only one government in Samoa, ” and it was him, “German rule brought peace and order for the first time. Authority, in the person of the governor, became paternal and absolute. Berlin was far away, there was no cable or radio. ”Energetic efforts by colonial administrators established the first public system, a hospital was built and staffed and enlarged as needed. Of all colonial possessions of the European powers in the Pacific, German Samoa was by far the best-roaded, the imperial grants from the Berlin treasury which had marked the first eight years of German rule were no longer needed after 1908. Samoa had become a self-supporting colony, Wilhelm Solf left Samoa in 1910 to be appointed Colonial Secretary at Berlin, he was succeeded as governor by Erich Schultz, the former chief justice in the protectorate
Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians and they share many similar traits including the language family and beliefs. Historically, they were experienced sailors who used stars to navigate at night, the term Polynesia was first used in 1756 by French writer Charles de Brosses, and originally applied to all the islands of the Pacific. In 1831, Jules Dumont dUrville proposed a restriction on its use during a lecture to the Geographical Society of Paris, these islands have been referred to as the South Sea Islands. Polynesia is characterized by an amount of land spread over a very large portion of the mid. Most Polynesian islands and archipelagos, including the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, are composed of volcanic islands built by hotspots, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, and Ouvéa, the Polynesian outlier near New Caledonia, are the unsubmerged portions of the largely sunken continent of Zealandia.
At first, the Pacific plate was subducted under the Australian plate, the Alpine Fault that traverses the South Island is currently a transform fault while the convergent plate boundary from the North Island northwards is called the Kermadec-Tonga Subduction Zone. The volcanism associated with subduction zone is the origin of the Kermadec. Out of approximately 300,000 or 310,000 square kilometres of land, over 270,000 km2 are within New Zealand, the Zealandia continent has approximately 3,600,000 km2 of continental shelf. The oldest rocks in the region are found in New Zealand and are believed to be about 510 million years old, the oldest Polynesian rocks outside of Zealandia are to be found in the Hawaiian Emperor Seamount Chain, and are 80 million years old. Polynesia is generally defined as the islands within the Polynesian Triangle, the Polynesian Triangle is drawn by connecting the points of Hawaii, New Zealand and Easter Island. The other main island groups located within the Polynesian Triangle are Samoa, there are small Polynesian settlements in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Caroline Islands, and in Vanuatu.
An island group with strong Polynesian cultural traits outside of this triangle is Rotuma. The people of Rotuma have many common Polynesian traits but speak a non-Polynesian language, some of the Lau Islands to the southeast of Fiji have strong historic and cultural links with Tonga. However, in essence, Polynesia is a term referring to one of the three parts of Oceania. Some islands of Polynesian origin are outside the triangle that geographically defines the region. The Phoenix Islands and Line Islands, most of which are part of Kiribati, are geographically Polynesian islands, tracing Polynesian languages places their prehistoric origins in the Malay Archipelago, and ultimately, in Taiwan. Between about 3000 and 1000 BC speakers of Austronesian languages began spreading from Taiwan into Island Southeast Asia, there are three theories regarding the spread of humans across the Pacific to Polynesia
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
League of Nations
The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international organisation whose mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and disarmament, at its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a shift from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, keep to its economic sanctions, the Great Powers were often reluctant to do so. Sanctions could hurt League members, so they were reluctant to comply with them, after a number of notable successes and some early failures in the 1920s, the League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Axis powers in the 1930s. Germany withdrew from the League, as did Japan, Spain, the onset of the Second World War showed that the League had failed its primary purpose, which was to prevent any future world war.
The League lasted for 26 years, the United Nations replaced it after the end of the Second World War on 20 April 1946 and inherited a number of agencies and organisations founded by the League. As historians William H. Harbaugh and Ronald E. Powaski point out, the organisation was international in scope, with a third of the members of parliaments serving as members of the IPU by 1914. Its aims were to encourage governments to solve disputes by peaceful means. Annual conferences were held to help refine the process of international arbitration. Its structure consisted of a council headed by a president, which would be reflected in the structure of the League, at the start of the 20th century, two power blocs emerged from alliances between the European Great Powers. It was these alliances that, at the start of the First World War in 1914 and this was the first major war in Europe between industrialised countries, and the first time in Western Europe that the results of industrialisation had been dedicated to war.
By the time the fighting ended in November 1918, the war had had an impact, affecting the social and economic systems of Europe. Anti-war sentiment rose across the world, the First World War was described as the war to end all wars, the causes identified included arms races, militaristic nationalism, secret diplomacy, and the freedom of sovereign states to enter into war for their own benefit. Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson, a British political scientist, coined the term League of Nations in 1914, together with Lord Bryce, he played a leading role in the founding of the group of internationalist pacifists known as the Bryce Group, the League of Nations Union. The group became more influential among the public and as a pressure group within the governing Liberal Party. In Dickinsons 1915 pamphlet After the War he wrote of his League of Peace as being essentially an organisation for arbitration and conciliation
American Samoa is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa. American Samoa consists of five islands and two coral atolls. The largest and most populous island is Tutuila, with the Manuʻa Islands, Rose Atoll, All islands except for Swains Island are part of the Samoan Islands, located west of the Cook Islands, north of Tonga, and some 300 miles south of Tokelau. To the west are the islands of the Wallis and Futuna group, the 2010 census showed a total population of 55,519 people. The total land area is 199 square kilometers, slightly more than Washington, American Samoa is the southernmost territory of the U. S. and one of two U. S. territories south of the Equator, along with the uninhabited Jarvis Island. Tuna products are the exports, and the main trading partner is the United States. American Samoa is noted for having the highest rate of enlistment of any U. S. state or territory. Most American Samoans are bilingual and can speak English and Samoan fluently, Samoan is the same language spoken in neighboring independent Samoa.
Contact with Europeans began in the early 18th century, dutchman Jacob Roggeveen was the first known European to sight the Samoan Islands in 1722. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768, contact was limited before the 1830s, when English missionaries and traders began arriving. The site of battle is called Massacre Bay. Mission work in the Samoas had begun in late 1830 when John Williams of the London Missionary Society arrived from the Cook Islands, by that time, the Samoans had gained a reputation for being savage and warlike, as violent altercations had occurred between natives and European visitors. In March 1889, an Imperial German naval force entered a village on Samoa, three American warships entered the Apia harbor and prepared to engage the three German warships found there. Before any shots were fired, a typhoon wrecked both the American and German ships, a compulsory armistice was called because of the lack of any warships.
Forerunners to the Tripartite Convention of 1899 were the Washington Conference of 1887, the Treaty of Berlin of 1889, the following year, the USA formally occupied its portion, a smaller group of eastern islands, one of which contains the noted harbor of Pago Pago. The Navy secured a Deed of Cession of Tutuila in 1900, the territory became known as the US Naval Station Tutuila. On July 17,1911, the US Naval Station Tutuila, in 1918 during the final stages of World War I, the flu pandemic had taken its toll, spreading rapidly from country to country. The result of Poyers quick actions earned him the Navy Cross from the US Navy, with this distinction, American Samoans regarded Poyer as their hero for what he had done to prevent the deadly disease
Louis Antoine de Bougainville
Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville was a French admiral and explorer. A contemporary of the British explorer James Cook, he took part in the Seven Years War in North America, Bougainville Island of Papua New Guinea was named for him. Bougainville was born in Paris, the son of a notary, in early life, he studied law, but soon abandoned the profession. In 1753 he entered the army in the corps of musketeers, at the age of twenty-five he published a treatise on integral calculus, as a supplement to De lHôpitals treatise, Des infiniment petits. In 1755 he was sent to London as secretary to the French embassy, in 1756 Bougainville was stationed in Canada as captain of dragoons and aide-de-camp to the Marquis de Montcalm. He took a part in the capture of Fort Oswego in 1756. He was wounded in 1758 at the defence of Fort Carillon. He sailed back to France the following winter, under orders from the marquis to obtain additional military resources for the colony, during this crossing, he continued to learn about the ways of the sea, skills that would serve him well.
Having distinguished himself in the war against Britain, Bougainville was rewarded with the Cross of St Louis, when he returned to Canada the following year, he had gained few supplies. The metropolitan officials had decided that, When the house is on fire, during the pivotal year of 1759, Bougainville participated in the defence of fortified Quebec City, the capital of New France. He did not have sufficient time, however, to rally his troops and attack the British rear when they ascended the Plains of Abraham. He attempted to stop the British advance from his entrenchments at Île-aux-Noix and he was among the officers who accompanied Lévis to Saint Helens Island off Montreal for the last French stand in North America before the general capitulation of 1761. Of the war, Bougainville wrote in his journal, It is a kind of war. The very air we breathe is contagious of insensibility and hardness and he spent the remaining years of the Seven Years War as a diplomat, helping to negotiate the Treaty of Paris.
Under this France ceded most of New France east of the Mississippi River to the British Empire, after the peace, the French decided to colonise the Isles Malouines. These islands were at that time almost unknown, at his own expense, Bougainville undertook the task of resettling Acadians who had been deported to France by the British because of their refusal to sign loyalty oaths. On 15 September 1763, Bougainville set out from France with the frigate LAigle and this expedition included the naturalist and writer Antoine-Joseph Pernety, the priest and chronicler accompanying the expedition, together with the engineer and geographer Lhuillier de la Serre. The expedition arrived in late January 1764 in French Bay and they landed at Port Louis named after King Louis XV
Oceania, known as Oceanica, is a region centred on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The term is used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia. The term was coined as Océanie circa 1812 by geographer Conrad Malte-Brun, the word Océanie is a French word derived from the Latin word oceanus, and this from the Greek word ὠκεανός, ocean. Natives and inhabitants of this region are called Oceanians or Oceanicans, as an ecozone, Oceania includes all of Micronesia and all of Polynesia except New Zealand. New Zealand, along with New Guinea and nearby islands, part of the Philippine islands, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, in geopolitical terms, New Zealand, the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia are almost always considered part of Oceania. Australia and Papua New Guinea are usually considered part of Oceania along with the Maluku Islands, puncak Jaya in Papua is often considered the highest peak in Oceania. Oceania was originally conceived as the lands of the Pacific Ocean and it comprised four regions, Micronesia and Melanesia.
The area extends to Sumatra in the west, the Bonin Islands in the northwest, the Hawaiian Islands in the northeast, Rapa Nui and Sala y Gómez Island in the east, and Macquarie Island in the south. Not included are the Pacific islands of Taiwan, the Ryukyu Islands and the Japanese archipelago, all on the margins of Asia, and the Aleutian Islands of North America. The islands at the extremes of Oceania are Bonin, a politically integral part of Japan, Hawaii, a state of the United States. There is a geographic definition that excludes land on the Sunda Plate. Biogeographically, Oceania is used as a synonym for either the Australasian ecozone or the Pacific ecozone, Oceania is one of eight terrestrial ecozones, which constitute the major ecological regions of the planet. The Oceania ecozone includes all of Micronesia and all of Polynesia except New Zealand, New Zealand, New Guinea, Melanesia apart from Fiji, and Australia constitute the separate Australasian ecozone. The Malay Archipelago is part of the Indomalaya ecozone, related to these concepts are Near Oceania, that part of western Island Melanesia which has been inhabited for tens of millennia, and Remote Oceania which is more recently settled.
The term is used to denote a continent comprising Australia. New Zealand forms the corner of the Polynesian Triangle. Its indigenous Māori constitute one of the cultures of Polynesia. It is also, considered part of Australasia, the history of Oceania in the medieval period was synonymous with the history of the indigenous peoples of Australasia, Melanesia, Polynesia
Upolu is an island in Samoa, formed by a massive basaltic shield volcano which rises from the seafloor of the western Pacific Ocean. The island is 75 kilometres long,1,125 square kilometres in area, Upolu is situated to the southeast of the big island, Savaii. The capital Apia is in the middle of the north coast with Faleolo International Airport at the end of the island. The island has not had any historically recorded eruptions, although three lava flows date back only a few hundred to a few thousand years, in the Samoan branch of Polynesian mythology, Upolu was the first woman on the island of the same name. In 1841, the island was the site of the Bombardment of Upolu, in the late-19th century, the Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson owned a 400-acre estate at Vailima village and died there in 1894. He is buried at the top of Mount Vaea above his former home, an extremely small species of spider lives on Upolu. According to the Guinness Book of World Records 2005, the spider is the size of a period on a printed page, the island of Upolu was affected by a tsunami at 06,48,11 local time on 29 September 2009.
Twenty villages on Upolus south side were destroyed, including Lepa. In Lepa, only the church and the welcome sign remained standing following the disaster. Upolu was the location for the 1953 South Seas film Return to Paradise. This makes it the most used location in the shows history, in 2016, the island was used in the third season of Australian Survivor. 1889 Apia cyclone Archaeology of Samoa Samoa Tourism Authority Samoa Tourism Authority
Apolima is the smallest of the four inhabited islands of Samoa and situated in the Apolima Strait, between the countrys two largest islands Upolu to the east and Savaii to the west. The island has one settlement, Apolima Tai with a population of 75. The small settlement is situated in the flat plateau on the northern side. Apolima is a rim of a volcanic crater with a maximum height of 165 m. It is a less than one square kilometer in size. The tiny island lies 2.4 kilometres northwest off the westernmost edge of Upolus fringing barrier reef and 7 km southwest of Savaii island. The islands appearance is of a bowl with surrounding steep cliffs. There are two neighbouring islands in the strait, Manono Island, which has a population and the smaller uninhabited islet of Nuulopa. Apolima island is part of the district of Aiga-i-le-Tai. Historical images of Apolima by Thomas Andrew Samoa Islands
Ofu and Olosega are parts of a volcanic doublet in the Manu‘a Group of the Samoan Islands—part of American Samoa. The twin islands, formed from volcanoes, have a combined length of 6 km. They are geographic volcanic remnants separated by the narrow 137-meter-wide Asaga strait, before 1970, one had to wade between the two islands at low tide, now a single-lane road bridge over the strait connects villages on Ofu island with those on Olosega. The highest peak on Ofu is Mount Tumutumu and the highest elevation on Olosega is Mount Piumafua, the most recent volcanic eruption took place in 1866,3 km south east of Olosega. This included samples of red-slipped plainware ceramics that appeared to be in the tradition of the Lapita culture. The work, carried out by a team that included Pacific archaeology specialist Patrick Vinton Kirch, focused on a site called Toaga, the results showed continuous human habitation of about 3,000 years. Ofu is the part of the volcanic outcrop of Ofu-Olosega Island. The main village of Ofu is located on the western shore, Ofu has a small airport and a boat harbor that serve the population on Ofu and Olosega.
Before regular airline service was discontinued in 2009, the flight from Pago Pago took about half an hour, most of the southern shore and associated coral reef are part of the National Park of American Samoa. In 2005 the U. S. National Park Service was negotiating with village councils on Olosega to expand the park around that island, the island forms the Ofu County subdivision of the Manua District. It has an area of 7.215 km², and had an official population of 289 persons as of the 2000 census. Situated on the south coast of the island is Toaga lagoon which has a diversity of corals. The marine site has been part of long research and study on coral reefs. The island is home to the Samoa Flying-fox, a species of bat threatened by habitat loss. Olosega Island is a remnant of the Sili shield volcano, the caldera of which may lie submerged off the north shore, the volcanic eruption of 1866 was actually 3 km east of Olosega, on a submarine ridge that extends east southeast to nearby Ta‘ū. The island forms the Olosega County subdivision of the Manua District and it has a land area of 5.163 km², and had an official population of 216 persons as of the 2000 census.
There are three villages on Olosega, Lalomoana and Faiava Gallery Ofu-Olosega Archaeology in Samoa Office of the Governor, Office of the Governor, American Samoa Government
Tokelau is an island country in the southern Pacific Ocean that consists of three tropical coral atolls with a combined land area of 10 km2 and a population of approximately 1,400. Its capital rotates yearly between the three atolls, Tokelau lies north of the Samoan Islands, Swains Island being the nearest, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, and northwest of the Cook Islands. Until 1976, the name was Tokelau Islands. Tokelau is a leader in energy, being the first 100% solar powered nation in the world. Tokelau is a free and democratic nation with elections every three years, all run as independents, there are no political parties in Tokelau. The most spoken language in Tokelau is Tokelauan, at 93. 5%, a dependent territory of New Zealand, it is sometimes referred to by its older colonial name, the Union Islands. In 2007, the United Nations General Assembly designated Tokelau a non-self-governing territory, Tokelau is officially referred to as a nation by both the New Zealand government and the Tokelauan government.
The basis of Tokelaus legislative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948, in 1992, the head of government was established, who is elected every 3 years. The national anthem is God Save the Queen, Tokelau continues to decrease in population. The largest settlement in Tokelau is Fale, Tokelau has the smallest economy in the world and has a life expectancy of 69, comparable with other Oceanian island nations. The name Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning north wind, the islands were named the Union Islands and Union Group by European explorers at an unknown time. Tokelau Islands was adopted as the name in 1946, and was contracted to Tokelau on 9 December 1976, Tokelau includes three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between longitudes 171° and 173° W and between latitudes 8° and 10° S, about midway between Hawaii and New Zealand. They lie about 500 kilometres north of Samoa, the atolls are Atafu, both in a group of islands once called the Duke of Clarence Group, and Fakaofo, once Bowditch Island.
Their combined land area is 10.8 km2, the atolls each have a number of coral islands, where the villages are situated. The highest point of Tokelau is just 5 metres above sea level, there are no ports or harbours for large vessels, all three atolls have a jetty to and from which supplies and passengers are shipped. Tokelau lies in the Pacific tropical cyclone belt, Swains Island was claimed by the United States pursuant to the Guano Islands Act, as were the other three islands of Tokelau, which claims were ceded to Tokelau by treaty in 1979. This established a defined boundary between American Samoa and Tokelau. Tokelauans have proved reluctant to push their national identity in the political realm
United Nations trust territories
United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates, and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946. All of the trust territories were administered through the United Nations Trusteeship Council, the one territory not turned over was South-West Africa, which South Africa insisted remained under the League of Nations Mandate. It eventually gained independence in 1990 as Namibia, the main objection was that the trust territory guidelines required that the lands be prepared for independence and majority rule. The concept is distinct from a temporarily and directly governed by the United Nations. All these territories previously were League of Nations mandates, the Trust Territory of the Cameroons under French administration, Achieved independence as the Republic of Cameroon in 1960. The Trust Territory of the Cameroons under British administration, Somewhat smaller than the French Cameroons, following a plebiscite, Northern Cameroons became part of Nigeria in May 1961 and Southern Cameroons joined the Republic of Cameroon in October 1961.
In 1975, the two entities were legally unified and granted independence as Papua New Guinea, the western half of the island, formerly Dutch and now part of Indonesia, was never part of either territory. The Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi, Separately gained independence in 1962 as Rwanda, the Trust Territory of Tanganyika, Granted independence in 1961. Federated with the former British protectorate Zanzibar in 1964 to form Tanzania, the Trust Territory of Togoland under French administration, Became independent as Togo in 1960. The Trust Territory of Western Samoa, Granted independence in 1962 and these territories were former League of Nations mandates. The Trust Territory of Nauru, Granted independence in 1968, with the exception of the Northern Mariana Islands, which is an American commonwealth, these are all associated states of the United States. The Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration, Italy was appointed U. N. trustee of the former Italian Somaliland in 1950, in 1960, the Trust Territory merged with the former British Somaliland protectorate to form the Somali Republic.
Korea, In wartime talks, Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed that Korea be placed under an American – Soviet trust administration. The plan was eclipsed after Roosevelts death on 12 April 1945, although it was expressed in the December Moscow Conference, Mandatory Palestine, United States government under Harry Truman proposed a UN trusteeship status for the Mandatory Palestine in 1948