Samoans or Samoan people are the indigenous Polynesian people of the Samoan Islands, an archipelago in Polynesia, who speak the Samoan language. The group's home islands are politically and geographically divided between the Independent State of Samoa and American Samoa, an unincorporated territory of the United States of America. Though divided by government, the culture and language remain the same; the Samoan people and culture form a vital link and stepping stone in the formation and spread of Polynesian culture and religion throughout Eastern Polynesia. Polynesian trade, religion and colonialism are important markers within Polynesian culture that are certainly rooted in the Samoan culture. Samoa's colonial history, with the kingdom of Tonga and French Polynesia form the basis of modern Polynesian culture. Among the many parts of Samonan society, three are described below: The matai, the aiga, the untitled aumaga and their manaia. Matai, otherwise known as the head of the family and extended family, is a important figure in the Samoan culture.

There are many aspects that go into understanding the term Matai, such as how one is elected and what their role is. The role of a matai is a large and important one, he is expected to provide leadership in all aspects of family life. He encourages warm family relations, offers advice, directs religious participation, oversees disputes; as well as watching over the family land and representing the family in village affairs. Overall, a matai must have different demeanor than everyone else other males in the family. Matai's are in charge of economic situations. For example, a matai must manage the amount of food his family brings in and must store some away for when times are hard; the matai’s job as a leader is one, important in Samoan culture and helps the overall structure stay in place. The election of a Matai is a lengthy process that can last up to several weeks and is a competitive race. In this race different branches from each family put forth a male candidate, accompanied by reasons why he would be a good candidate.

These reasons range from the candidate’s wisdom to wealth, including praised values such as negotiating, ritual knowledge and economics. However, if the son of a matai meets these requirements, he is given a major edge in the race. Another advantage the son of a matai or any man in the matai’s household is given is being able to observe and help the matai starting from a young age. Most men considered for the Matai position are at least 40 years old, meaning many young candidates don’t stand a chance. One strategy that can be used by any males aspiring to become a matai is to choose to live in a household that has no other males, or to move to his wife’s household if there are no males in her family's household either; the election of a matai is under the guidance of another matai, related to the family, allowing for a fair election. Once a new matai is chosen, a feast is thrown for the family, followed by a bigger feast for the whole village at a date. At the larger feast, the matai is expected to give a traditional inaugural speech, displaying his abilities to speak publicly, his wisdom and retelling of Samoan myths.

Throughout this speech he is watched by village council, as well as all the other matai’s in the village. Once the matai has proved himself to the other matai’s by giving the traditional address, he is called on to serve the community as a whole; the newly elected matai is expected to host a village-wide feast where he is tasked with providing food for the meal, as well as getting the other matais gifts. Once this task is completed the newly elected matai is considered the matai of his household and will hold the position for the rest of his life, should he lead correctly. In certain cases where a matai is deemed cruel or ineffective, the title is stripped and a new matai is elected. However, a more occurrence is the current matai becoming elderly or ill and requesting that a new matai be elected in order for there to be a more stable and effective leadership in place; the main leader of each individual household is named the aiga of the family. One person, predominately a male figure, is elected to become the aiga of his extended family.

Elections take place after the former Aiga has died or is no longer to fulfill his duties, either for ethical reasonings or old age. Elections are a strenuous process for members of the extended family. For one portion of the family is going up against the other portion, leading to tensions within the whole family; each Aiga is the owner of their extended family's land. On that piece of land, families grow crops, cook and do other household chores. On that piece of land is where the matai resides. Due to the large amount of households within a single village, there are a large amount of aiga. So much so that some are able to trace back their aiga timeline over a dozen different aiga; the reasoning for the large amount of aigas is that the title could be claimed through blood ties and adoption. While chiefs, talking chiefs and matais all have a title, there are men in the village that are untitled; these men are placed in a group called the aumaga. These men are the labor core of the community; the aumaga are tasked with building houses, repairing roads and harvesting gardens and cutting and selling coconut meat.

The aumaga have ceremonial responsibilities, such as helping the chief in ritual cooking and serving the food at ceremonies. They serve as informal keepers of the peace, interacting with each other as a large group of friends, they play cards, cr

Yukihiro Matsumoto

Yukihiro Matsumoto is a Japanese computer scientist and software programmer best known as the chief designer of the Ruby programming language and its reference implementation, Matz's Ruby Interpreter. His demeanor has brought about a motto in the Ruby community: "Matz is nice and so we are nice," abbreviated as MINASWAN; as of 2011, Matsumoto is the Chief Architect of Ruby at Heroku, an online cloud platform-as-a-service in San Francisco. He is a fellow of Rakuten Institute of Technology, a research and development organisation in Rakuten Inc, he was appointed to the role of technical advisor for VASILY, Inc. starting in June 2014. Born in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, he was raised in Tottori Prefecture from the age of four. According to an interview conducted by Japan Inc. he was a self-taught programmer until the end of high school. He graduated with an information science degree from University of Tsukuba, where he was a member of Ikuo Nakata's research lab on programming languages and compilers.

He works for Matsumoto is known as one of the open source evangelists in Japan, he has released several open source products, including cmail, the Emacs-based mail user agent, written in Emacs Lisp. Ruby is his first piece of software. Matsumoto released the first version of the Ruby programming language on 21 December 1995, he still leads the development of the language's reference implementation, MRI. In April 2012, Matsumoto open-sourced his work on a new implementation of Ruby called mruby, it is a minimal implementation based on his virtual machine, called ritevm, is designed to allow software developers to embed Ruby in other programs while keeping memory footprint small and performance optimised. In December 2014, Matsumoto open-sourced his work on a new scripting language called streem, a concurrent language based on a programming model similar to shell, with influences from Ruby and other functional programming languages. Matsumoto has been listed as an investor for Treasure Data.

オブジェクト指向スクリプト言語 Ruby ISBN 4-756-13254-5 Ruby in a Nutshell ISBN 0-596-00214-9 The Ruby Programming Language ISBN 0-596-51617-7 Matsumoto received the 2011 Award for the Advancement of Free Software from the Free Software Foundation at the 2012 LibrePlanet conference at the University of Massachusetts Boston in Boston. Matsumoto has four children, he is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, did standard service as a missionary and is now a counselor in the bishopric in his church ward. Ruby Ruby on Rails Matz's web diary Ruby Design Principles talk from IT Conversations The Ruby Programming Language – An introduction to the language by its own author Treating Code as an Essay – Matz's writeup for the book Beautiful Code, edited by Andy Oram, Greg Wilson, O'Reilly, 2007. ISBN 0-596-51004-7 ISBN 9780596510046

John Beresford, 4th Marquess of Waterford

Reverend John de la Poer Beresford, 4th Marquess of Waterford was an Irish peer and Church of Ireland minister. Beresford was 2nd Marquess of Waterford and his wife, Susanna, he was educated at Cambridge. He entered the ministry and was the incumbent of Mullaghbrack, County Armagh and a Prebendary of St Patrick's Cathedral, serving under his uncle, Lord John. On 20 February 1843, he married Christiana Leslie, daughter of Charles Powell Leslie II, they had five sons: John Henry de la Poer, Earl of Tyrone 5th Marquess of Waterford Lord Charles William de la Poer created Baron Beresford, naval commander Lord William Leslie de la Poer, soldier Lord Marcus Talbot de la Poer, equerry Lord Delaval James de la Poer, soldierBeresford inherited the marquessate from his childless brother in 1859. On his own death in 1866, the title passed to his eldest son, John