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Samos

Samos is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the 1.6-kilometre -wide Mycale Strait. It is a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, the only municipality of the regional unit. In ancient times Samos was an rich and powerful city-state known for its vineyards and wine production, it is home to Pythagoreion and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering. Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, the philosopher Epicurus, the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun. Samian wine was well known in antiquity, is still produced on the island; the island was governed by the semi-autonomous Principality of Samos under Ottoman suzerainty from 1835 until it joined Greece in 1912.

Strabo derived the name from the Phoenician word sama meaning "high". The area of the island is 477.395 km2, it is 43 km long and 13 km wide. It is separated from Anatolia by the 1-mile-wide Mycale Strait. While mountainous, Samos has several large and fertile plains. A great portion of the island is covered with vineyards; the most important plains except the capital, Vathy, in the northeast, are that of Karlovasi, in the northwest, Pythagoreio, in the southeast, Marathokampos in the southwest. The island's population is 33,814, the 9th most populous of the Greek islands; the Samian climate is Mediterranean, with mild rainy winters, warm rainless summers. Samos' relief is dominated by two large mountains and Kerkis; the Ampelos massif is the larger of the two and occupies the center of the island, rising to 1,095 metres. Mt. Kerkis, though smaller in area is the taller of the two and its summit is the island's highest point, at 1,434 metres; the mountains are a continuation of the Mycale range on the Anatolian mainland.

According to Strabo, the name Samos is from Phoenician meaning "rise by the shore". Samos is home to many surprising species including the golden jackal, stone marten, wild boar and monk seal. Samos is one of the sunniest places in Europe with 3300 hours of sunshine annually or 74% of the day time, its climate is wet in winter and dry in summer. In classical antiquity the island was a center of Ionian culture and luxury, renowned for its Samian wines and its red pottery, its most famous building was the Ionic order archaic Temple of goddess Hera—the Heraion. Concerning the earliest history of Samos, literary tradition is singularly defective. At the time of the great migrations it received an Ionian population which traced its origin to Epidaurus in Argolis: Samos became one of the twelve members of the Ionian League. By the 7th century BC it had become one of the leading commercial centers of Greece; this early prosperity of the Samians seems due to the island's position near trade-routes, which facilitated the importation of textiles from inner Asia Minor, but the Samians developed an extensive oversea commerce.

They helped to open up trade with the population that lived around the Black Sea as well as with Egypt, Cyrene and Chalcis. This caused them to become bitter rivals with Miletus. Samos was able to become so prominent despite the growing power of the Persian empire because of the alliance they had with the Egyptians and their powerful fleet; the Samians are credited with having been the first Greeks to reach the Straits of Gibraltar. The feud between Miletus and Samos broke out into open strife during the Lelantine War, with which we may connect a Samian innovation in Greek naval warfare, the use of the trireme; the result of this conflict was to confirm the supremacy of the Milesians in eastern waters for the time being. About 535 BC, when the existing oligarchy was overturned by the tyrant Polycrates, Samos reached the height of its prosperity, its navy not only ruled supreme in Aegean waters. The city was beautified with public works, its school of sculptors, metal-workers and engineers achieved high repute.

In the 6th century BC Samos was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates. During his reign, two working groups under the lead of the engineer Eupalinos dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos with fresh water, as this was of the utmost defensive importance. Eupalinos' tunnel is notable because it is the second earliest tunnel in history to be dug from both ends in a methodical manner. With a length of over 1 km, Eupalinos' subterranean aqueduct is today regarded as one of the masterpieces of ancient engineering; the aqueduct is now part of the Pythagoreion. After Polycrates' death Samos suffered a severe blow when the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered and depopulated the island, it had regained much of its power when in 499 BC it joined the general revolt of the Ionian city-states against Persia.

Life Sciences Switzerland

Life Sciences Switzerland is the Swiss federation of scientific societies for life sciences. It was known as the Union of the Swiss Societies for Experimental Biology. Life Sciences Switzerland is a member of the Swiss Academy of Natural Sciences, its members are: LS2 Section Molecular and Cellular Biology LS2 Physiology section LS2 Section Proteomics Swiss Society of Anatomy and Embryology Swiss Society of Experimental Pharmacology Swiss Chemical Society Swiss Society of Microbiology Swiss Society for Neuroscience Swiss Laboratory Animal Science Association Swiss Plant Science Web Swiss Society of Pathology Swiss Society of Plant Physiology Società Ticinese delle Scienze Biomediche e Chimiche Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences Science and technology in Switzerland Pharmaceutical industry in Switzerland Federation of European Biochemical Societies International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Official website

Mooney Mooney Bridge

Mooney Mooney Creek Bridge, popularly known as the Mooney Mooney Bridge and'The NSW Big Dipper Bridge', is a twin cantilever bridge that spans Mooney Mooney Creek in Brisbane Water National Park on the Central Coast of New South Wales as part of the Pacific Motorway. It is maintained by NSW Roads and Maritime Services; the Pacific Motorway is the main road link between the Central Coast and the Hunter Region. The only other road that links all three regions is the Pacific Highway which from Cowan to Kariong follows a scenic winding route. Mooney Mooney Bridge was designed by Bruce Judd of the Department of Main Roads and built by Enpro Constructions by the free cantilever method of post tensioned concrete, it consists of each bridge with a main span & two approach spans. The span at the western end of the bridge is 135 m long, the main span is 220 m long and the eastern span is 131 m long; the design has been said to demonstrate how good engineering design and good aesthetics are synonymous, has been used as a standard in the design of bridges throughout New South Wales.

They employ a two rail parapet. The bridges were designed with the natural surroundings in mind and form a simple uncluttered shape so not to detract from the natural bushland of the national park; the three span haunched girders on the bridge were critical to this as were the multiple piers that provide character and strength. The bridge is the second crossing of the creek in the area, with the original two lane truss bridge that still services Pacific Highway traffic not far downstream of the modern bridge; the Mooney Mooney Bridge has been the site of several accidents, resulting in the Pacific Motorway being closed to traffic and causing delays. Some of these accidents have prompted debate on whether a new road should be built to supplement the existing freeway. On 23 October 2004 a semi-trailer's brakes failed coming down the Freeway and caused a pile-up involving 35 vehicles that had slowed down as a result of a car accident on the other side of the bridge; this accident resulted in the death of a woman.

On 12 February 2007 another accident occurred when a truck was travelling down the freeway and lost control approaching the bridge, smashing through a guard rail and plunging 30 metres down an embankment at the side of the bridge. The Mooney Mooney Bridge, because of its height, has been susceptible in the past to people committing suicide; as a result, a fence was erected along the side of the bridge to prevent people jumping off. This fence was erected in 2003 and cost A$1,000,000. Brooklyn Bridge Roads and Traffic AuthorityCoordinates: 33°25′59″S 151°15′14″E