Holbein stitch is a simple, reversible line embroidery stitch most used in Blackwork embroidery and Assisi embroidery. The stitch is named after Hans Holbein the Younger, a 16th-century portrait painter best known for his paintings of Henry VIII and his children all of whom are depicted wearing clothing decorated with blackwork embroidery. Although superficially similar to Back Stitch the Holbein stitch produces a smoother line and a pattern, identical on both sides of the fabric, it can be worked in straight lines, diagonally, or in a stepped fashion to make a zigzag line and is well suited to creating outlines or intricate filling patterns. Holbein stitch is known as double running stitch, line stitch, Spanish stitch, Chiara stitch and two-sided line stitch. Holbein stitch is worked on an even-weave fabric where the threads can be counted to ensure perfect regularity and is worked in two stages. Firstly, a row of evenly spaced running stitches is worked along the line to be covered; the return journey is completed, filling in the spaces between stitches made on the first journey and sharing the same holes: In recent years Holbein stitch has become fashionable again, along with modern blackwork and modern Assisi embroidery.
Formality has given way to a more light-hearted approach, motifs include cute cats and other cartoon-style animals. Classic map samplers and chessboard designs have been updated, the use of colours is much more imaginative and daring. Assisi embroidery Blackwork embroidery Counted-thread embroidery Embroidery stitches Eaton, Jan. Mary Thomas's Dictionary of Embroidery Stitches, Revised by Jan Eaton. London: Hodder&Stoughton, 1989. ISBN 0-340-51075-7
Cutwork or cut work known as punto tagliato in Italian, is a needlework technique in which portions of a textile cotton or linen, are cut away and the resulting "hole" is reinforced and filled with embroidery or needle lace. Cutwork is related to drawn thread work. In drawn thread work only the warp or weft threads are withdrawn, the remaining threads in the resulting hole are bound in various ways. In other types of cutwork, both warp and weft threads may be drawn. Needlework styles that incorporate cutwork include broderie anglaise, Carrickmacross lace, early reticella, Spanish cutwork and jaali, prevalent in India; the cutwork technique originated in Italy at the time of the Renaissance the 14th, 15th, 16th centuries. Additionally in the Elizabethan era, cutwork was incorporated into the design and decoration of some ruffs. In a fashion sense, this type of needlework has migrated to countries around the world, including the United Kingdom and the United States. Cutwork is still prevalent in fashion today, although different, is mistaken for lace.
The eyelet pattern is one of the more identifiable types of cutwork in modern fashion. Hand cutwork is the most traditional form of cutwork. Here, areas of the fabric are cut away and stitch is applied to stop the raw edges from fraying. Laser cutwork allows for more intricate patterns to be created; the laser has the ability to melt and seal the edges of fabric with the heat of the laser. This helps against fabric fraying during the creation process. Additionally, using a laser for cutwork enables the embroiderer or creator to achieve unique designs such as an ‘etched look’ by changing the depth of the laser cut into the fabric. Virginia Churchill Bath, Needlework in America, Viking Press, 1979 ISBN 0-670-50575-7 S. F. A. Caulfield and B. C. Saward, The Dictionary of Needlework, 1885. Virtual Museum of Textile Arts
Needlework is decorative sewing and textile arts handicrafts. Anything that uses a needle for construction can be called needlework. Needlework may include related textile crafts such as crochet, worked with a hook, or tatting, worked with a shuttle. Similar abilities transfer well between different varieties of needlework, such as fine motor skill and knowledge of textile fibers; some of the same tools may be used in several different varieties of needlework. Needle lace Quilting Appliqué Embroidery Crochet Knitting Tatting Lucet Braiding and tassel making Tapestry Needlepoint Bead weaving: loom and off-loom Royal School of Needlework Kasidakari
Drawn thread work
Drawn thread work is a form of counted-thread embroidery based on removing threads from the warp and/or the weft of a piece of even-weave fabric. The remaining threads are bundled together into a variety of patterns; the more elaborate styles of drawn thread work use a variety of other stitches and techniques, but the drawn thread parts are their most distinctive element. It is grouped as whitework embroidery because it was traditionally done in white thread on white fabric and is combined with other whitework techniques; the most basic kind of drawn thread work is hemstitching. Drawn thread work is used to decorate the trimmings of clothes or household linens; the border between hemstitching gone fancy and more elaborate styles of drawn thread work isn't always clear. This easy type of drawn thread work is created by weaving the embroidering thread into the barelaid warp or weft threads to create patterns of light-colored threads and dark openings in the drawn-thread cloth. Needleweaving is most used for decorative borders.
It is nearly always used in combination with other types of embroidery stitches. Together they create a complete design and in ethnic embroidery, distinctive embroidery styles known as "needle-darning." In Ukrainian and some other Slavic languages, merezhka is the general term for "drawn-thread" work. "Merezhka", includes all types of drawn-thread work including those mentioned in the paragraphs above. In recent years, the term "myreschka", a variant of "merezhka", began to be used in some circles for a specific Ukrainian drawn-thread technique, traditionally used in the central lands of Ukraine, esp. in the regions of Poltava and Kyiv, areas along the Dniepro River, some have come to call it "Poltava-style" merezhka. The technique has its own descriptive name in the Ukrainian language, which might be translated into English as "layerings." The technique for doing Poltava-style'layerings'-merezhka involves withdrawing sets of parallel threads of weft while leaving others in place using the antique hem-stitch and this special "layerings" technique to create both the openwork'net' and the design of embroidering threads upon the "withdrawn" part of cloth.
The designs which can be created in this way can be simple and narrow, or as complex and wide as any one-colored embroidery design. "Prutyk" is the bunch, created when you pull together each bunch of three threads together using hem-stitch. In Ukrainian, "prutyk" is another name for'simple hemstitch', or it can mean each tiny'bunch' in the hemstitching. A form of double-drawnwork, where both warp and weft are removed at regular intervals, consists of wrapping the remaining threads into "bundles", using embroidery thread to secure them, thus creating something similar to a net. Embroidery threads are woven in patterns into that net using needle weaving or needle darning; the result is a pattern of the design in white embroidery on the "openwork" background of netted cloth. Hardanger embroidery is a style of drawn thread work, most popular today, it comes from Norway, from the traditional district of Hardanger. The backbone of Hardanger designs consists of satin stitches. In geometrical areas both warp and weft threads are removed and the remaining mesh is secured with simple weaving or warping or with a limited number of simple filling patterns.
The designs tend to be geometric, if they include flowers or such they are stylized due to the nature of the technique. Hardanger never includes Buttonhole stitches, except for securing the edges of a piece of fabric, it is executed using rather coarse fabric and thread. Much like Hardanger, Ukrainian cutwork belongs to the category of'cut-and-drawn' work, unlike merezhka, threads of the ground cloth are cut both vertically and horizontally and thus create larger cut-work openings in the body of the fabric, when compared with drawn-work; the Ukrainian word for cutwork embroidery is vyrizuvannya. There are several styles of Ukrainian cutwork, one of which resembles Hardanger cutwork. Reticella lace is a form of embroidery in which typical techniques of needlelace are used to embellish drawn thread work, it was first used in 16th century Italy. Needlelace evolved from this when the lacemakers realized that they can do the same things without any supporting fabric. High quality reticella is done with thread as thin as sewing silk.
Ruskin lace is in fact a near-modern form of it. Warp and weft threads are removed, the remaining threads are overcast with buttonhole stitches, as in needlelace. Another embroidery style that combines drawn thread work with needlelace techniques is Hedebo from Denmark, which originates from the area around Copenhagen and Roskilde, it uses techniques that are distinct from reticella and traditional Italian neddlelace on the one hand and Hardanger on the other. It does make extensive use of buttonhole stitches, but they are done differently than in Italian embroidery. Thérèse de Dillmont, Encyclopedia of Needlework Tania Diakiw O'Neill, Ukrainian Embroidery Techniques 1984 USA Nancy R. Ruryk, ed, Ukrainian Embroidery Designs and Stitches 1958 Canada Yvette Stanton, "Ukrainian Drawn Thread Embroidery: Merezhka Poltavska" 2007 Australia Thérèse de Dillmont's Encyclopedia of Needlework at Project Gutenberg basic reticella how-to basic hedebo how-to history of ruskin lace information on merezhka embroidery
Cross-stitch is a form of sewing and a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches in a tiled, raster-like pattern are used to form a picture. The stitcher counts the threads on a piece of evenweave fabric in each direction so that the stitches are of uniform size and appearance; this form of cross-stitch is called counted cross-stitch in order to distinguish it from other forms of cross-stitch. Sometimes cross-stitch is done on designs printed on the fabric. Cross-stitch is executed on countable fabric called aida cloth but the threads are not counted. Fabrics used in cross-stitch include linen and mixed-content fabrics called'evenweave' such as jobelan. All cross-stitch fabrics are technically "evenweave" as the term refers to the fact that the fabric is woven to make sure that there are the same number of threads in an inch both left to right and top to bottom. Fabrics are categorized by threads per inch. Counted Cross-stitch projects are worked from a gridded pattern and can be used on any count fabric, the count of the fabric determines the size of the finished stitching if the stitchers counts and stitches over 2 threads.
The finished stitching size is reduced by half if the stitcher counts and stitches on a 28 count cross stich fabric rather than a 14 count cross stitch fabric. Stitchers can change the size of their piece by stitching over multiple threads; these methods are referred to as "2 over 2"—i.e. 2 embroidery threads used to stitch over 2 fabric threads. There are different methods of stitching a pattern, including the cross-country method where one colour is stitched at a time, or the parking method where one block of fabric is stitched at a time and the end of the thread is "parked" at the next point the same colour occurs in the pattern. Cross-stitch is the oldest form of embroidery and can be found all over the world since the middle ages. Many folk museums show examples of clothing decorated with cross-stitch from continental Europe and Eastern and Central Europe; the cross-stitch sampler is called that because it was stitched by a young girl to learn how to stitch and to record alphabet and other patterns to be used in her household sewing.
These samples of her stitching could be referred back to over the years. Motifs and initials were stitched on household items to identify their owner, or to decorate the otherwise-plain cloth; the earliest known cross stitch sampler made in the United States is housed at Pilgrim Hall in Plymouth, Massachusetts. The sampler was created by Loara Standish, daughter of Captain Myles Standish and pioneer of the Leviathan stitch, circa 1653. Traditionally, cross-stitch was used to embellish items like household linens, tablecloths and doilies. Although there are many cross-stitchers who still employ it in this fashion, it is now popular to work the pattern on pieces of fabric and hang them on the wall for decoration. Cross-stitch is often used to make greeting cards, pillowtops, or as inserts for box tops and trivets. Multicoloured, painting-like patterns as we know them today are a modern development, deriving from similar shaded patterns of Berlin wool work of the mid-nineteenth century. Besides designs created expressly for cross-stitch, there are software programs that convert a photograph or a fine art image into a chart suitable for stitching.
One example of this is in the cross-stitched reproduction of the Sistine Chapel charted and stitched by Joanna Lopianowski-Roberts. There are many cross-stitching "guilds" and groups across the United States and Europe which offer classes, collaborate on large projects, stitch for charity, provide other ways for local cross-stitchers to get to know one another. Individually owned local needlework shops have stitching nights at their shops, or host weekend stitching retreats. Today, cotton floss is the most common embroidery thread, it is a thread made of mercerized cotton, composed of six strands that are only loosely twisted together and separable. While there are other manufacturers, the two most-commonly used brands are DMC and Anchor, both of which have been manufacturing embroidery floss since the 1800s. Other materials used are pearl cotton, Danish flower thread and Rayon. Different wool threads, metallic threads or other novelty threads are used, sometimes for the whole work, but for accents and embellishments.
Hand-dyed cross-stitch floss is created just as the name implies—it is dyed by hand. Because of this, there are variations in the amount of color throughout the thread; some variations can be subtle. Some have more than one color per thread, which in the right project, creates amazing results. Cross-stitch is used in traditional Palestinian dressmaking. Other stitches are often used in cross-stitch, among them quarter-, half-, three-quarter-stitches and backstitches. Cross-stitch is used together with other stitches. A cross-stitch can come in a variety of prostational forms, it is sometimes used in crewel embroidery in its more modern derivatives. It is often used in needlepoint. A specialized historical form of embroidery using cross-stitch is Assisi embroidery. There are many stitches which are related to cross-stitch and were used in similar ways in earlier times; the best known are Italian cross-stitch, Celtic Cross
Bargello is a type of needlepoint embroidery consisting of upright flat stitches laid in a mathematical pattern to create motifs. The name originates from a series of chairs found in the Bargello palace in Florence, which have a "flame stitch" pattern. Traditionally, Bargello was stitched in wool on canvas. Embroidery done this way is remarkably durable, it is well suited for use on pillows and carpets, but not for clothing. In most traditional pieces, all stitches are vertical with stitches going over two or more threads. Traditional designs are colourful, use many hues of one colour, which produces intricate shading effects; the patterns are geometric, but can resemble stylised flowers or fruits. Bargello is considered challenging, as it requires precise counting of squares for the mathematical pattern connected with the various motifs to execute designs. A number of alternative names are used by different scholars, including: Florentine Work - After the fact that the Bargello Museum is in Florence.
Hungarian Point - In Italian, Bargello is known as "Hungarian Point", indicating that the Florentines believed the technique originated in Hungary. However, English embroidery vocabulary includes a diamond-shaped stitch called the Hungarian Point, so few English-language books use this term to refer to Bargello. Flame Stitch - A type of Bargello motif in which zig-zag or flames are created; the chairs in the Bargello museum do use flame stitch motifs, but curved motifs are common. These curved Bargello motifs would not be "flame stitch", but would be called Bargello; because of the potential for confusion, most books written in English refer to the technique as "Bargello". As with many traditional crafts, the origins of Bargello are not well documented. Although early examples are from the Bargello Museum in Florence, there does exist documentation that a Hungarian connection is possible. For one thing, the Bargello Museum inventory identifies the chairs in its inventory as "17th century with backs and seats done in punto unghero.".
In the 18th century, Queen Maria Teresa of Hungary stitched Bargello and her work has been preserved in the Hungarian National Museum Petschek cites additional "legends" of Hungarian noblewomen practicing the craft, including a Hungarian princess marrying into the de Medici family, a princess Jadwiga of Hungary who married into the Jagiełło dynasty of Poland. It is unknown if they influenced each other. Both Bargello and Hungarian Point tend to be colorful and use many hues of one color, which produces intricate shading effects; the patterns are geometric, but can resemble stylized flowers or fruits. Bargello refers not to just a stitching technique, but to motifs created by the change of colors in the stitches; this section describes the vertical stitch, how it is combined with color and "stepping" to create different motifs. Most agree; the basic unit is a vertical stitch of four threads, but other heights are possible. Some Bargello pieces use only one height of stitch, but the earliest pieces combine different heights of stitches.
Bargello patterns are formed when vertical stitches are stepped or offset vertically by two threads. The patterns in the steps combined with color changes determines how the overall pattern will emerge. If vertical stitches are stepped down the design forms sharp points or zig-zags; this type of Bargello motif is known as "flame stitch". Flame stitch can be found on the Bargello Museum chairs. If steps are gradual the design will appear to be curved. Traditional curved Bargello motifs include ribbons. There are many identified motifs possible, but some common ones include: Stitches step across the design. Xd Stitches step across the designs and color changes cause diamonds to appear. Stitches are stepped in different colors. Stitches are stepped and color changes cause spheres or medallions to appear. Since the revival of Bargello in the 1960s, the technique has evolved in different directions. Although traditional Bargello is still stitched, modern designers have expanded the repertoire of design possibilities.
Traditional Bargello is executed with just a vertical stitch in one direction, but Dorothy Kaestner created a style of Bargello called four-way Bargello. In this technique, the canvas is first divided diagonally into quarters; the same motif is worked in horizontal stitches in two opposite areas, vertical stitches in the remaining two areas. The resulting design resembles a kaleidoscope effect. Kaestner describes the origin of the technique: My first piece of four-way Bargello was started ten years ago. I placed a mirror on a Bargello design in a way that showed me how it would look if I mitered a corner; this intrigued me so much, I graphed a design mitering all four corners. Some examples include Cathy Decker - Stan Taylor - Stan Taylor - This concept has been expanded to eight-way Bargello, or Bargello stitches in eight directions, by designers including Susan Kerndt: Kaleidoscope Ice Crystals The two links above are broken try the alterna
Crewel embroidery, or crewelwork, is a type of surface embroidery using wool. A wide variety of different embroidery stitches are used to follow a design outline applied to the fabric; the technique is at least a thousand years old. The origin of the word crewel is unknown but is thought to come from an ancient word describing the curl in the staple, the single hair of the wool. Crewel wool has a long staple. Modern crewel wool is a 2-ply or 1-ply yarn available in many different colours; the crewel technique is not a style of free embroidery. Crewelwork had its heyday in Britain in the 17th century, but has come in and out of fashion several times since then. Traditionally, crewel embroidery is done on woven linen twill, though more other fabrics like Matka silk, cotton velvet, rayon velvet, silk organza, net fabric and jute have been used. A firm fabric is required to support the weight of the stitching, it is best to use a crewel needle to execute the stitches as a needle with a wide body, large eye and a sharp point is required.
The outlines of the design to be worked are screen printed onto the fabric or can be transferred to plain fabric using modern transfer pens, containing water-soluble ink or air-soluble ink, using a lightbox and a permanent pen, or iron-on designs applied using transfer sheets. The old-fashioned "pinprick and chalk" or "prick and pounce" methods work well; the prick and pounce method involves transferring the design outlines - printed on paper - by pricking the outline with a needle to produce perforations along the lines. Powdered chalk or pounce material is forced through the holes onto the fabric using a felt pad or stipple brush in order to replicate the design on the material. Designs range from the traditional to more contemporary patterns. Traditional design styles are referred to as Jacobean embroidery featuring stylized floral and animal designs with flowing vines and leaves. Many different embroidery stitches are used in crewelwork to create a colourful effect. Unlike silk or cotton embroidery threads, crewel wool is thicker and creates a raised, dimensional feel to the work.
Some of the techniques and stitches include: Outlining stitches such as stem stitch, chain stitch and split stitch Satin stitches to create flat, filled areas within a design Couched stitches, where one thread is laid on the surface of the fabric and another thread is used to tie it down. Couching is used to create a trellis effect within an area of the design. Seed stitches, applied randomly in an area to give a shaded effect French knots are used in floral and fruit motifs for additional texture Laid and Couched Work Long and Short "soft shading"Crewel embroidery was, in the past, embroidered to create elaborate and expensive bed hangings and curtains. Now it is most used to decorate cushions, curtains and wall hangings. Several other items such as lamp shades and handbags have been added. Unlike canvas work, crewel embroidery requires the use of an embroidery hoop or frame on which the material is stretched taut and secured prior to stitching; this ensures an amount of tension in the stitches, so that designs do not become distorted.
Depending on the size of the finished piece, crewelwork is executed with a small portable hoop up to large free standing frames. Jacobean embroidery Mary Linwood Crewel Crewel work in TRC Needles How Crewel – Feature about the history and development of crewel work, with photographs