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Samson Remote Controlled Weapon Station

The Samson Remote Controlled Weapon Station known as Katlanit is a Remote Weapon System that enables a variety of devices to be operated automatically or by remote control, including 5.56 mm, 7.62 mm, 12.7 mm.50 BMG machine guns, 40 mm automatic grenade launchers, anti-tank missiles and observation pods. There are a total of three variants of the Samson family: Samson Jr. ROWS - for 5.56 mm and 7.62 mm machine guns, weighing 60–75 kg. Mini Samson ROWS - for 12.7 mm and 14.5 mm machine guns, as well as 40 mm grenade launcher, weighing 140–160 kg, similar to that of Mini Typhoon naval ROWS and OWS. Standard Samson - for guns with calibre ranging from 20–40 mm, weighing 1.5 tonnes, similar to that of standard Typhoon naval ROWS and OWS. For example, the Samson Remote Controlled Weapon System for 30 mm autocannon is designed to be mounted on lightly-armoured, high-mobility military vehicles and operated by a gunner or vehicle commander operating under-the-deck, it offers optional SPIKE guided missile, smoke grenade launcher, embedded trainer.

The RCWS 30 is a product of Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. Israel has installed a variant of the Samson RCWS in pillboxes along the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier intended to prevent Hamas terrorists from entering its territory; the Sentry Tech system, dubbed Roeh-Yoreh in IDF service deployed on the Gaza fence, enables camera operators located in a rear-located intelligence base to engage border threats using the 12.7 mm heavy machine gun and the SPIKE guided missile. Dozens of alleged terrorists have been killed with the Sentry Tech system; the first reported death of an individual appears to have taken place during Operation Cast Lead in December 2008. Azerbaijan: Canada: Colombia: LAV III Croatia: 4 stations procured for needs of Croatian Army and tested on M84D and M95 tanks, but Croatian Army opted for Protector RWS, 12.7 mm and 30 mm. Czech Republic: Pandur II Israel: IDF Namer, some IDF Achzarit, some HMMWV United States: 100 units Spain: RG-31 Nyala Turkey: Otokar Cobra Singapore South Korea: Hyundai Wia United Kingdom: Alvis Stormer Lithuania: 88 German Boxer Infantry Fighting Vehicles with Rafael's weapon stations with 30 mm cannons and “Spike LR” antitank missiles

Postreplication repair

Postreplication repair is the repair of damage to the DNA that takes place after replication. Some example genes in humans include: BRCA2 and BRCA1 BLM NBS1DNA damage prevents the normal enzymatic synthesis of DNA by the replication fork. At damaged sites in the genome, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells utilize a number of postreplication repair mechanisms to complete DNA replication. Chemically modified bases can be bypassed by either error-prone or error-free translesion polymerases, or through genetic exchange with the sister chromatid; the replication of DNA with a broken sugar-phosphate backbone is most facilitated by the homologous recombination proteins that confer resistance to ionizing radiation. The activity of PRR enzymes is regulated by the SOS response in bacteria and may be controlled by the postreplication checkpoint response in eukaryotes; the elucidation of PRR mechanisms is an active area of molecular biology research, the terminology is in flux. For instance, PRR has been referred to as "DNA damage tolerance" to emphasize the instances in which postreplication DNA damage is repaired without removing the original chemical modification to the DNA.

While the term PRR has most been used to describe the repair of single-stranded postreplication gaps opposite damaged bases, a more broad usage has been suggested. In this case, the term PRR would encompasses all processes that facilitate the replication of damaged DNA, including those that repair replication-induced double-strand breaks. Melanoma cells are defective in postreplication repair of DNA damages that are in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, a type of damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. A particular repair process that appears to be defective in melanoma cells is homologous recombinational repair. Defective postreplication repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers can lead to mutations that are the primary driver of melanoma


Valladolid International Film Festival is a film festival held annually in Valladolid, Spain since 1956. Nowadays the festival is regarded as one of the most important in the specialty of independent film and auteur film, it has introduced directors and cinematographers who were unknown there. Spanish audiences became acquainted with names such as Ingmar Bergman, Luis Buñuel, François Truffaut, Andrzej Wajda, Federico Fellini, Ermanno Olmi and Yilmaz Güney from the launch pad offered by Valladolid; the works of film-makers of the standing of Roberto Rossellini, Stanley Donen, Max Ophüls, Ken Loach, Kenji Mizoguchi, Yasujirō Ozu and Aardman Animations could be enjoyed and studied in the sections dedicated to their major works, many on view for the first time in Spain. Valladolid, through various loopholes in state censorship, was able to present films that would otherwise have been impossible to see in Spain. An award or an enthusiastic reception from the audience and the critics meant, on numerous occasions, that the official state bodies gave the go-ahead to certain films which Francisco Franco's regime considered out of line with their ideology.

Much the same occurred with distribution on the arts circuit at the end of the 1960s: a film could be placed more if it had done well at Valladolid. After the death of Franco in 1975, Valladolid continued to be the "testing ground" for films, banned. For example, the premiere in Spain of Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange at the 1975 festival is still recalled as a landmark; as one of Europe's oldest festivals, Valladolid has always been characterised by its willingness to take risks and to innovate in its programming. It has been keen to critically examine each new school or movement as it has arisen, whether it be German, Chinese, Canadian or otherwise. With a genuine concern for the art of cinema, for film-making and film-makers rather than the more obvious commercial or glamorous aspects of the industry, the festival has built up an identity of its own - attractive to enthusiasts and the media. Between 1984 and 2004, a festival team headed by Fernando Lara contributed to the growth of the range and scope of the festival so that fiction and documentaries play alongside animations and shorts.

Between April 2005 and April 2008, Argentine film critic and writer Juan Carlos Frugone took over the reins of the festival. In June 2008, journalist Javier Angulo was appointed new director. Official website

William Van Alstyne

William Warner Van Alstyne was an American attorney, law professor, constitutional law scholar. Prior to retiring in 2012, he held the named position of, Lee Professor of Law at William and Mary Law School, he was the Perkins Professor of Law at Duke Law School for more than 30 years. Among many others, he taught at Chicago Law School, Stanford Law School, University of California, Berkeley Law School, University of California, Los Angeles Law School, Michigan Law School. Van Alstyne received his Bachelor of Arts in philosophy magna cum laude from the University of Southern California, he received his Juris Doctor from Stanford Law School. Following his admission to the California Bar and brief service as deputy attorney general of California, he joined the civil rights division of the U. S. department of justice, handling voting rights cases in the South. For many years, he was active in the American Association of University of Professors. Following active duty with the U. S. Air Force, he was appointed to the law faculty of the Ohio State University, advancing to full professor in three years.

Van Alstyne was named to Duke's William R. and Thomas S. Perkins Chair of Law in 1974, he held a certificate from The Hague Academy of International Law and has been honored with LL. D. degrees by Wake Forest University and the College of William and Mary. In 1987, Van Alstyne was selected in a poll by the New York Law Journal of federal judges and academics, as one of three academics among "the ten most qualified" persons in the country for appointment to the supreme court, a distinction repeated in a similar poll by The American Lawyer, in 1991. Past national president of the American Association of University Professors and former member of the national board of directors of the American Civil Liberties Union, he was elected into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994. Van Alstyne's body of work included many books, law journal articles, congressional committee testimony. In 1994, he was elected into the American Academy of Sciences. An article in the January 2000 Journal of Legal Studies found that Van Alstyne was among the top 40 legal scholars in the United States in number of academic citations.

His work had been cited by courts, including the Supreme Court of the United States. In a 2012 study published by the University of Michigan Law Review, by Fred Shapiro and Michelle Pearse, "The Most-Cited Law Review Article of All Time," Van Alstyne's "The Demise of the Right-Privilege Distinction in Constitutional Law," 81 Harv. L. Rev. 1439, was included at number 35. He testified numerous times before congress on numerous constitutional issues, his testimony on the impeachment of President William Jefferson Clinton was quoted with approval by the New York Times opinion page, "This point was underscored by one of the Republican witnesses, Prof. William Van Alstyne of Duke University Law School, it is the prerogative of this Congress, he observed, to express dismay and condemnation by means short of impeachment. Mindful of the likelihood that impeachment would fail, he urged lawmakers to struggle to find a suitable means to express your sense of disappointment; that neatly defines the challenge now confronting the members of Congress.

There is nothing in the Constitution to keep them from rising to that task."He died from heart failure on January 29, 2019, aged 84. Appearances on C-SPAN

Miguel Etchecolatz

Miguel Osvaldo Etchecolatz is a former senior Argentine police officer, who worked in the Buenos Aires Provincial Police during the first years of the military dictatorship of the 1970s. Etchecolatz was involved in the "anti-subversion operation" known as the National Reorganization Process, he was first convicted in 1986 of crimes committed during this period, but passage that year of the Ley de Punto Final, which created amnesty for security officers, meant that he was released without a sentence. In 2003 Congress repealed the law, the government re-opened prosecution of crimes during the Dirty War. In 2004, Etchecolatz was one of the first two officials convicted and sentenced for baby snatching: taking a child from "disappeared" parents, passing it on for adoption by officials of the regime, hiding the child's true identity, he and Jorge Berges were each sentenced to seven years. For his actions in the Provincial Police during El proceso, in 2006 he was tried and sentenced to life imprisonment, on numerous charges of homicide, illegal deprivation of freedom, torture.

The tribunal in passing the sentence said that Etchecolatz's crimes were "crimes against humanity in the context of the genocide that took place in Argentina". This was the first time that the term "genocide" had been used to characterize the crimes committed against political prisoners during the "Dirty War; the term "Dirty War" refers to the widespread state terrorism and atrocities committed under the military dictatorship of Argentina during 1976 to 1983. A military junta was established, led by General Jorge Rafael Videla, after a coup d'état against President Isabel Perón. During the military rule, tens of thousands of political dissidents were killed or "forcibly disappeared". Etchecolatz served as Commissioner General of Police, directly reporting to Police Chief Ramón Camps, he served as Director of Investigations of the Buenos Aires provincial police from March 1976 until late 1977. During his period in office, Buenos Aires Province had the highest number of illegal detentions in the country.

Etchecolatz was second in command during the Night of the Pencils, when several high school students were detained and tortured, some murdered. In 1983, democratic rule was restored in Argentina; the Trial of Juntas began in 1985, numerous top figures were prosecuted, including General Ramón Camps, convicted and sentenced to life. In a 1986 trial, Etchecolatz was convicted and sentenced to 23 years for several counts of illegal detention and forced disappearances, he was spared a prison sentence because that year Congress passed the "Full Stop Law" and the "Law of Due Obedience", which halted prosecution of officers for crimes committed during the Dirty War. After his release, Etchecolatz wrote a book defending his actions, called La otra campaña del Nunca Más; the title referred to Nunca Más, the report produced by the National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons, which had heard testimony about the disappeared and survivors of state terror. Jorge and Marcelo Gristelli, owners of a Catholic publishing house, released the book in 1998 at the Buenos Aires International Book Fair.

In his book, Etchecolatz stated: "I never had, or thought to have, or was haunted by, any sense of blame. For having killed? I was the executor of a law made by man. I was the keeper of divine precepts, and I would do it again." In 2001, the Gristellis were seen shielding Etchecolatz as he left court in Buenos Aires. Etchecolatz faced civil trials, which were outside the purview of the Pardon Laws. In 2004, both he and Jorge Berges were convicted and sentenced to seven years in prison for the abduction of a "disappeared" couple's child, handing it on for illegal adoption, the suppression of the child's true identity, they were the first officials convicted for "baby snatching", but estimates are that 400 children were taken from political prisoners. Seventy-seven have had their identities restored to them, he was imprisoned in Villa Devoto in 2004 and 2005. He was allowed to continue the sentence under house arrest due to his advanced age. Although Etchecolatz's lawyers claimed he had a terminal illness, after police found a firearm in his home in 2006 in violation of the terms of house arrest, he was transferred to the Marcos Paz prison.

In 2003 Congress repealed the 1986 "Pardon Laws", re-opened investigation and prosecution of crimes committed during the Dirty War. Human rights activists said that hundreds of people could be brought to trial. Etchecolatz was the first official of that era to be prosecuted. Beginning in June 2006, he was tried for human rights abuses, in a case that drew international attention. On 19 September 2006, he was found guilty of the detention and torture of Jorge López and Nilda Eloy, the homicides of Ambrosio Francisco De Marco, Patricia Graciela Dell'Orto, Diana Teruggi de Mariani, Elena Arce Sahores, Nora Livia Formiga and Margarita Delgado. In passing sentence, the tribunal said that Etchecolatz's crimes were "crimes against humanity in the context of the genocide that took place in Argentina", it was the first time that the term genocide was used in Argentine trials to characterize the crimes committed against political prisoners, the court explained its reasoning. Together with Police Chief Ramón Camps, Etchecolatz is believed to have operated at least eight clandestine detention centres in La Plata, Quilmes and Mar

RAF Defford

Royal Air Force Defford or more RAF Defford is a former Royal Air Force station located 1.1 miles north west of Defford, England. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Croome Court and its surrounding estate was requisitioned by the Ministry of Works; the main paladin house was leased for a year to the Dutch Government as a possible refuge for Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands to escape the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. However, evidence shows that they only stayed for two weeks at most, emigrated to Canada. Construction of RAF Defford was started at the outbreak of war, completed in 1941. For a few months the airfield was used as a satellite station by the Vickers Wellington bombers of No. 23 Operational Training Unit RAF, based a few miles away at RAF Pershore. In May 1942, the Telecommunications Research Establishment, responsible for radar research and development, located near Swanage, moved to Malvern College. At the same time the Telecommunications Flying Unit named the Radar Research Flying Unit, which operated flight trials on behalf of the TRE, transferred its aircraft to Defford.

So hurried was the move to Defford that many of the personnel had to be accommodated in tents at first. However, at Defford the tempo of work carried out by TFU increased month by month, by 1945 there were 2,500 personnel and 100 aircraft on the station. Civilian scientists, flying from Defford with aircrews drawn from the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy, tested radar systems which were to revolutionise the operational capability of Allied aircraft. Early successes with Airborne Interception systems were demonstrated by John "Cats Eyes" Cunningham and other night fighter pilots. While Air to Surface Vessel radar enabled the German U-boat menace to be countered in 1943, thus was critical to the success of the Battle of the Atlantic. By 1944, H2S radar was enabling accurate navigation and target identification to be achieved by Bomber Command crews, taking part in the strategic bombing offensive. There were many other notable "firsts" demonstrated by TFU. A converted Wellington bomber was the forerunner of the modern AWACS aircraft.

This was used to detect fast moving German E-boats, to control their interception by other aircraft. The world's first automatic approach and landing took place at Defford in 1945, paving the way for today's airliners which are able to safely arrive at their destinations, whatever the weather; the world's first demonstration of an aircraft making a "hands off" automatic blind landing, using equipment the forerunner of modern ILS, was at Defford in January 1945. TFU remained at Defford after the war, was renamed the Radar Research Flying Unit in 1953. However, the airfield at Defford was too small to allow the operation of the large "V" bombers on flight trials, so RRFU moved to nearby RAF Pershore in 1957. Most of the technical and domestic sites at Defford were soon de-requisitioned, but the central part of the now disused airfield still houses the Satellite Communications facility operated by QinetiQ; the various dishes and aerials used can be seen from passing trains between Worcester and Cheltenham and from the M5 motorway near Strensham services.

The airfield site is now owned and used by the West Mercia Constabulary and many of the "golf balls" and other communications equipment have been removed. Some of the station buildings remain in other uses. A few are contained within the National Trust property of Croome, including part of the station’s medical facilities which now house the RAF Defford museum; the worst accident in the history of the unit happened on when Handley Page Halifax V9977 crashed on 7 June 1942 with the loss all eleven crew and scientists on board including Alan Blumlein. It had been testing the new H2S radar system that used the cavity magnetron valve developed by TRE. In 2002 sixty years an RAF Defford Memorial was unveiled by Sir Bernard Lovell on the village green of Defford, it commemorates those. It reads: "Dedicated to the memory of those Royal Air Force Air Crew, Scientists and Civilian Personnel who lost their lives in the furtherance of Radar Research while flying with The Telecommunications Flying Unit the Radar Research Flying Unit from RAF Defford 1941-1957 REQUIESCANT IN PACE" Telecommunications Research Establishment List of former Royal Air Force stations MERLIN Village Inn RAF Defford at the National Trust