Assut de l'Or Bridge
The Assut de lOr Bridge is a dazzling white single-pylon cable-stayed bridge, designed by Valencian architect and civil engineer Santiago Calatrava, and completed in December 2008. The name lAssut de lOr means the Dam of the Gold, the bridge is called the Serreria Bridge by its designer, Santiago Calatrava. In the Serreria bridge, the pylon is curved backward and back-stayed to concrete counterweights in the roadway. The aesthetic effect of the Serreria bridge arises in part from the pylon and the 29 parallel cables supporting the bridge deck, accented at night by spot lighting of the cables. Samuel Beckett Bridge in Dublin, Ireland, in which the forward curved pylon is back stayed. The Erasmusbrug in the Netherlands, another single pylon cable-stayed bridge in which the pylon is back stayed, l´Assut de l´Or Bridge, Spain, Luis Viñuela y José Martínez Salcedo
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. Dublin is in the province of Leinster on Irelands east coast, the city has an urban area population of 1,345,402. The population of the Greater Dublin Area, as of 2016, was 1,904,806 people, founded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin became Irelands principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century and was briefly the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800, following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, renamed Ireland. Dublin is administered by a City Council, the city is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of Alpha-, which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts, economy, the name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, dubh /d̪uβ/, alt.
/d̪uw/, alt /d̪u, / meaning black and lind /lʲiɲ pool and this tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, and Irish rhymes from Dublin County show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn /d̪ˠi, other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Historically, scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b and those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot, spelling the name as Dublin. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Irish-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning town of the ford, is the common name for the city in modern Irish.
Áth Cliath is a name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street, there are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, which is Anglicised as Hurlford. Although the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times and he called the settlement Eblana polis. It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements where the modern city stands. The subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay, the Dubhlinn was a small lake used to moor ships, the Poddle connected the lake with the Liffey. This lake was covered during the early 18th century as the city grew, the Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin Castle
Father Mathew Bridge
Father Mathew Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Dublin and joining Merchants Quay to Church Street and the north quays. It is approximately on the site of the original, and for years only, Bridge of Dublin. The site of the bridge is understood to be close to the ancient Ford of the Hurdles, at the turn of the first millennium, the first recorded Dublin Liffey bridge was built at this point. Possibly known as the Bridge of Dubhghall, this wooden structure was maintained. These rebuilds included a Norman bridge in the early 13th century and this collapsed however in the late 14th century and in 1428, the Dominicans of Ostmantown Friary built the first masonry bridge in Dublin on the same spot. Known as Dublin Bridge, Old Bridge, or simply The Bridge, this four arch structure had towers at either end, and shops, housing, an inn and a chapel were built on its supports. In 1312 Geoffrey de Morton, Lord Mayor of Dublin 1302-3 was reprimanded for building a house without permission on the bridge.
On the other hand it was he who began the towers, completed by his son-in-law John de Grauntsete, for much of its 390-year life span, The Bridge carried all pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic across the river, and its tolls and chapel were still in use. At the beginning of the 19th century, Dublin Bridge was replaced by a three-span, designed by George Knowles, the bridge was opened in 1818 as Whitworth Bridge, for Charles, Earl of Whitworth, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. As with many other Dublin bridges, the bridge was renamed following independence by the Free State as Dublin Bridge in the 1920s
Krimpen aan den IJssel
Krimpen aan den IJssel is a town and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. The municipality had a population of 28,870 in 2014, Krimpen is first mentioned in a document from 1277. Like other hamlets, many different spellings of its name have occurred over time, the municipality is on the south shore of the river Hollandse IJssel. For many centuries, the buildings in Krimpen were farm houses built along the river dike. They formed more or less autonomous communities along the dike, before the 20th century, the two principal industrial employers were the brick factory Mijnlieff and the shipyard Van der Giessen de Noord. In the beginning of the 20th century development began inland from the dikes. During the North Sea flood of 1953, the barrier in the river IJssel proved to be inadequate. So in 1954 construction started on a new storm surge barrier, in 1958 it was completed together with the Algera Bridge which connects Krimpen with Capelle aan den IJssel. In the mid 1960s, Krimpen became a town for people working in Rotterdam.
Today most of the municipality has built up, except for the Krimpenerwaard where the town council aims to retain the rural character. Waterbus route 1, Rotterdam Willemskade - Krimpen aan den IJssel Stormpolder - Ridderkerk De Schans - Alblasserdam Kade - Dordrecht Merwekade, dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Krimpen aan den IJssel, June 2015 Kiskőrös, Hungary Official website
His best-known works include the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Turning Torso tower in Malmö, the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge in Dallas and the Museum of Tomorrow in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. His architectural firm has offices in New York City, Calatrava was born on July 28,1951, in Benimàmet, an old municipality now part of Valencia, Spain. His mothers family were of Jewish heritage, but had converted during the Spanish Inquisition of the fifteenth century. His Calatrava surname was an old one from medieval times. He had his primary and secondary schooling in Valencia, beginning in 1957, in 1964, as the regime of General Francisco Franco ended and Spain became more open to rest of Europe, he went to France as an exchange student. In 1968, after completing school, he went to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, but he arrived in the midst of student uprisings and turmoil in Paris. He received his diploma as an architect and did higher studies in urbanism, at the University he completed independent projects with fellow students, publishing two books on the vernacular architecture of Valencia and Ibiza.
In 1975 he enrolled in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, in 1981 he was awarded a doctorate in the department of architecture, after completing his thesis on The Pliability of three-dimensional structures. Speaking of this period, Calatrava told biographer Philip Jodidio, The desire to start all over at zero was very strong in me. I was determined to put to one side all that I had learned in architecture school, I was fascinated by the concept of gravity and convinced that it was necessary to begin work with simple forms. As soon as Calatrava completed his doctorate in 1981, he opened his own office in Zurich, the train station has several of the features that became signatures of his work, straight lines and right angles are rare. In 1984–87, he built his first bridge, the Bac de Roda Bridge in Barcelona, the bridge, designed for cyclists and pedestrians, connects two parts of the city by crossing a wasteland of railway tracks. It is 128 meters long, with arches which lean at an angle of thirty degrees.
The upper portion of the bridge, composed of arches and cables, is light and airy, like a network of lace, anchored to the massive concrete supports. His next bridge, the Puente del Alamillo, in Seville, was more spectacular. Built as part of the 1992 Expo 92, it is 200 meters long, crossing the Meandro San Jeronimo River and its main feature is a single pylon 142 meters high, leaning to 58 degrees, the same angle as the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt. The weight of the concrete of the pylon is sufficient to hold up the bridge with just thirteen pairs of cables, and his first building in the United States, the new structure of the Milwaukee Art Museum. The concrete pylon leans backwards, and seems to grasp the vertical broadcast antennas and its form suggests an athlete about to throw a javelin
The Hapenny Bridge, known for a time as the Penny Hapenny Bridge, and officially the Liffey Bridge, is a pedestrian bridge built in May 1816 over the River Liffey in Dublin, Ireland. Made of cast iron, the bridge was cast at Coalbrookdale in Shropshire, originally called the Wellington Bridge, the name of the bridge changed to Liffey Bridge. The Liffey Bridge remains the official name to this day. Before the Hapenny Bridge was built there were seven ferries, operated by a William Walsh, the ferries were in a bad condition and Walsh was informed that he had to either fix them or build a bridge. Walsh chose the option and was granted the right to extract a hapenny toll from anyone crossing it for 100 years. Initially the toll charge was based not on the cost of construction, but to match the charges levied by the ferries it replaced. A further condition of construction was that, if the citizens of Dublin found the bridge and toll to be objectionable within its ﬁrst year of operation, the toll was increased for a time to a penny-hapenny, but was eventually dropped in 1919.
While the toll was in operation, there were turnstiles at either end of the bridge, the design and erection was supervised by John Windsor, one of the companys foremen and a pattern-maker. In 2001 the number of pedestrians using the bridge on a daily basis was 27,000 and, given these traffic levels, the bridge was closed for repair and renovations during 2001 and was reopened in December 2001, sporting its original white colour. The structure was rebuilt to retain many of its old components, controversially, the repair work was carried out by Harland and Wolff. In 2012, citing a maintenance and damage risk, Dublin City Council removed a number of locks from the Hapenny Bridge and nearby Millennium Bridge. In 2013 the council removed over 300 kg of locks from the bridge, Hapenny Bridge entry on Dublin City Councils Bridges of Dublin web site
The Loopline Bridge is a railway bridge spanning the River Liffey and several streets in Dublin, Ireland. It joins rail services south of Dublin to Connolly Station. Designed by John Chaloner Smith, the bridge was built in 1891 and it consists of wrought iron lattice girders on a double row of piers with five spans. The viaduct is approximately six metres above street level and supports two railway tracks, during original planning and construction the project was subject to much opposition and controversy, because the structure blocks the view down river to The Custom House. However, the bridge was deemed necessary as a link between north and south Dublin, and to facilitate the movement of transatlantic mail coming from Kingstown and Queenstown. 100 years later, the visage of the remains the subject of some debate. Already arguably less attractive than some of Dublins other bridges, the façades of the Loopline have been used by Iarnród Éireann for billboard advertising. As of 2006, the company has scaled back the use for this purpose to reduce impact on the city skyline, following input from An Bord Pleanála.
A prominent feature in the city landscape since 1891, the Loopline Bridge appears in one of the most famous works associated with Dublin
Monterrey, is the capital and largest city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León, in Mexico. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation, Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the base of many significant international corporations. It is one of the wealthiest cities in Mexico with a GDP PPP of 130.7 billion dollars in 2012, Monterreys GDP PPP per capita is of approximately 32,000 dollars. It is considered a Beta World City and competitive, rich in history and culture, Monterrey is considered one of the most developed cities in the entire country and often regarded as the most americanized in Mexico. A. Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery and Heineken, which features Norteño capital and Grupo ALFA, Monterrey is located in northeast Mexico, at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental. The uninterrupted settlement of Monterrey starts in 1596, with its founding by Diego de Montemayor, in the years after the Mexican War of Independence, Monterrey became an important business center.
With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey, the city experienced a great industrial growth, prior to the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation state, and the population instead consisted of some indigenous semi-nomad groups. Carved stone and cave painting in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey, Huachichiles and Borrados. In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey is located was known as the Extremadura Valley, in 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey. The New Kingdom of León extended westwards from the port of Tampico to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, Monterrey was the point of emigration from Europe, people from Portugal, France, Russia went to Monterrey seeing it as a good place to live in. Most of the Monterrey people descent from a creole Spanish heritage, during the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, and its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens.
The city was a place that facilitated trade between San Antonio and from Saltillo to the center of the country, tampicos port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories trade with the capital, Mexico City. San Antonio was the key trade point with the foreign colonies. In 1824, the New Kingdom of León became the State of Nuevo León, in 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican-American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after successfully repelling U. S. forces during the first few advances on the city, the battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center. Many of the generals in the Mexican War against France were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo, Juan Zuazua, during the last decade of the 19th century, the city of Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry.
In 1986, several games of the 1986 FIFA World Cup were hosted. In 1988, Hurricane Gilbert caused great damage to the city, the conference resulted in the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus, which has become one relevant reference point for international development and cooperation
Puente de la Mujer
Puente de la Mujer, is a rotating footbridge for Dock 3 of the Puerto Madero commercial district of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is of the cantilever spar cable-stayed bridge type and is a swing bridge and it has a single mast with cables suspending a portion of the bridge which rotates 90 degrees in order to allow water traffic to pass. When it swings to allow watercraft passage, the far end comes to a point on a stabilizing pylon. Started in 1998, it was inaugurated on December 20,2001, the architect has described the design as a synthesis of the image of a couple dancing the tango. This central section is supported by a needle with a concrete core. The needle, inclined at a 39° angle, anchors suspension cables which support the central span, a computer system at the eastern end of the bridge operates the turning mechanism when required. A number of streets in the Puerto Madero district have womens names, the work was conceived by businessman Alberto L. González, who donated money for its construction.
Costing about $6 million, the bridge was manufactured by the Urssa steel fabrication conglomerate in the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz in the Basque Country of northern Spain, according to business executive Bob Schmetterer, the bridge was not part of the original Puerto Madero project. A landmark footbridge, Heymann suggested, while certainly more costly than an advertising campaign would have been, would be more practical. The developer agreed with the assessment, and he built the structure
James Joyce Bridge
James Joyce Bridge is a road bridge spanning the River Liffey in Dublin, joining the south quays to Blackhall Place on the north side. Designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, it is a structural steel design,40 m long. The bridge was built by Irishenco Construction, using pre-fabricated steel sections from Harland, the bridge is named for the famous Dublin author James Joyce, and was opened on 16 June 2003. Joyces short story The Dead is set in Number 15 Ushers Island, the house facing the bridge on the south side