Fort Lillo is a former military fort built as part of the Antwerp Defence Line on the right bank of the Schelde, surrounded by the industrial port of Antwerp. Built between 1579-82 on the orders of William the Silent to defend Antwerp, in 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars the fort was attacked by the British while under occupation by the forces of Napoleon. Along with Fort Liefkenshock on the opposite bank of the Scheldt these armed defences proved a formidable obstacle to attacking forces. Of the three towns that comprised the village of Lillo, Fort Lillo is the only one to survive, the other two - Oud Lillo and Lillo-Kruisweg were evacuated in 1958 demolished and razed to allow the expansion of the port of Antwerp. Fort Lillo shared the fate of three other polder villages: Wilmarsdonk and Oorderen. Fort Lillo has been preserved and is today part of the "ethonological polder" historical ground north of Antwerp
Old Town, Staten Island
Old Town is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Staten Island, located on its East Shore. Old Town was established in August 1661 as part of New Netherland, was the first permanent European settlement on Staten Island. Described as "Oude Dorpe", much of its original territory makes up what is present-day South Beach, with parts of Midland Beach and Dongan Hills; the area was settled by a group of Dutch and French Protestants led by Walloon Pierre Billiou. Present-day Old Town is described as the neighborhood bordered by Grasmere to the north, Dongan Hills to the south, South Beach to the east, Concord to the west; the neighborhood is served by the Old Town station of the Staten Island Railway. Old Town is served by the S78 and S79 SBS local buses on Hylan Boulevard and the S74, S84, S76 and S86 local buses on Richmond Road. Express bus service is provided by the SIM1 and SIM5 on Hylan Boulevard and the SIM15 on Richmond Road; the neighborhood is home to the campus of Staten Island's largest circulation daily, the Staten Island Advance, a newspaper that likes to refer to Old Town as either Grasmere or Dongan Hills though its residents refer to it as Old Town.
The Academy of St. Dorothy, a private Roman Catholic elementary school sits on Hylan Boulevard in Old Town. Carmel Richmond Healthcare and Rehabilitation Center, a Roman Catholic nursing home sits on Old Town Road; the home was established by the sisters of the Carmelite Order in the 1970s. A Very Special Place, a school for developmentally disabled children was opened on Quintard Street in the late 1990s. James Oddo, an American politician and member of the New York City Council is a former resident of Old Town. Dickenson, Richard. Holden's Staten Island: The History of Richmond County. Center for Migration Studies, New York. 2002. Pg.17. ISBN 1-57703-028-1
Fort Christina was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. Built in 1638 and named after Queen Christina of Sweden, it was located 1 mi east of the present downtown Wilmington, Delaware, at the confluence of the Brandywine River and the Christina River 2 mi upstream from the mouth of the Christina on the Delaware River. Following plans by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to establish a Swedish colony in North America, the Swedes arrived in Delaware Bay on March 29, 1638, aboard the ships Kalmar Nyckel and Fogel Grip under the command of Peter Minuit, the former director of the New Netherland colony, they landed at a spot along the Christina River at a stone outcropping which formed a natural wharf, known as "The Rocks." Minuit selected the site on the Christina River near the Delaware as being optimal for trade in beaver pelts with the local Lenape. He considered the site defensible, he ordered the construction of an earthwork fort around the Rocks.
At the time, the Dutch had claimed the area south to the Delaware. The Swedes claimed an area for the Realm of Sweden on the south side of the Delaware that encompassed much of the present-day U. S. state of Delaware including parts of present-day southeastern Pennsylvania and southern New Jersey on the north side of the river. The fort's earthworks were strengthened in 1640 by Governor Peter Hollander Ridder to help defend against the possibility of Dutch or Native American attacks; as additional colonists arrived from Sweden in the years following the landing and farms began to be built outside of the confines of the fort. The fort was rebuilt in 1647; the colony of New Sweden remained in constant friction with the Dutch. In 1651, the Dutch under Peter Stuyvesant established Fort Casimir at present-day New Castle, only 7 mi south of Fort Christina, in order to menace the Swedish settlement. In 1654, the Swedes captured Fort Casimir under the orders of Governor Johan Risingh. Risingh, fearing reprisals, strengthened the defenses of Fort Christina by adding a wooden palisade around the earthworks.
In 1655, the Dutch under Stuyvesant laid siege to Fort Christina. The fort's surrender after ten days ended the official Swedish colonial presence in North America, though most of the colonists remained and were allowed to continue their linguistic and religious practices by the Dutch. Stuyvesant renamed Fort Christina as Fort Altena; the land remained as part of New Netherland until it became part of the English possessions when an English fleet invaded the area in 1664. Under English rule, the original Swedish fortifications around the Rocks fell into disrepair and vanished entirely. New fortifications were built by the Americans on the same site during the Revolutionary period, they established Fort Union here during the War of 1812. Men involved in the defense of the fort included Caesar Augustus Rodney and James A. Bayard, Sr.. In 1938, to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Swedish colonization of the area, the state of Delaware created a park which contained the Rocks and the site of the former forts.
The dedication was attended by U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Crown Prince Gustav Adolf, Crown Princess Louise, Prince Bertil; the Prince presented a gift from their homeland: a monument, topped by a replica of the Kalmar Nyckel, designed by Swedish sculptor Carl Milles. During the ceremony, the Prince spoke of the site's significance to both countries: The monument to be unveiled today is a gift from the people of Sweden to the people of the United States; the funds were raised through public subscription, wherein several hundred thousands of our citizens took part. I believe that amongst these subscribers, many had across the Atlantic brothers and sisters and children. In contributing, they must have felt the links, which connect them and all of us with your great country, where so many of the citizens are either of Swedish birth or purely or of Swedish descent. Near this spot, the Fort Christina State Park, was the first permanent settlement in the Delaware Valley; the Swedes, who landed here 300 years ago, were few of poor means.
Yet thus began the relations between our two Nations. Indeed, it is fitting that, together, we should commemorate that event, the inauguration of an unbroken period of international friendship. We shall be reminded of these facts by the monument, cut by our famous sculptor, Carl Milles, in the black granite of Sweden. What memories are summoned forth at a moment like this, it is with pride we recall the memory of those legendary pioneers who braved the Atlantic in their little vessel, the Kalmar Nyckel, who came to found the colony of New Sweden. That little band of gallant men and women have inscribed their names on the pages of history, their deeds have been considered important enough for the President and Congress of the United States to extend an official invitation to Sweden to take part in the commemorative celebration of this historic event. We of Sweden are moved by this mark of your esteem, it meets with our high appreciation and we offer you our most sincere thanks. In our common acclaim of a historic event of 300 years ago, we stand united, as in our admiration of those early settlers from Sweden who were such worthy and resourceful people.
Their love of freedom and their integrity they carried with them as a heritage from the land of their birth. We are happy to feel that in some measure they, as well as their successors during the intervening three centuries, were able to contribute to the development into greatness of your country, the country of their adoption. We are proud to thi
New Dorp, Staten Island
New Dorp is a neighborhood on the East Shore of Staten Island, New York City, United States. New Dorp is bounded by Mill Road on the southeast, Tysens Lane on the southwest and Richmond Roads on the northwest, Bancroft Avenue on the northeast, it is adjacent to Oakwood to the southwest, Todt Hill to the northwest, Dongan Hills and Grant City, Midland Beach and Miller Field to the southeast. New Dorp Beach, bordering to the east, is listed on maps as a separate neighborhood from Mill Road to the shore of Lower New York Bay, but is considered to be a part of New Dorp. One of the earliest European settlements in the New York City area, New Dorp was founded by Dutch settlers from the New Netherland colony, the name is an anglicization of Nieuw Dorp meaning "New Village" in the Dutch Language, it was one of the most important towns on Staten Island, becoming a part of New York City in 1898 as part of the Borough of Richmond. In the 1960s New Dorp ceased to be a distinct town during New York City's suburbanization, where rapid housing development on Staten Island saw the town added to the city conurbation.
Despite this, today New Dorp remains one of the main commercial and transport centers on Staten Island. New Dorp is associated with the Vanderbilt family, who had a notable presence in the area and many of whom are buried in the neighborhood at the Moravian Cemetery, the largest and oldest active cemetery on Staten Island. New Dorp is part of Staten Island Community District 2 and its ZIP Code is 10306. New Dorp is patrolled by the 122nd Precinct of the New York City Police Department. New Dorp was the location of the first county seat of Richmond County. Called Stony Brook, it was located where Amboy Road experiences a sharp bend between the New Dorp and Oakwood train stations. In 1667, at the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch Republic ceded their colony of New Netherland to England as a condition of the Treaty of Breda; the colony had been occupied by the English since 1664, was re-branded as the Province of New York when it was granted as a proprietary colony to James, Duke of York.
The areas of New Netherland settled by the Dutch included the primary settlement of New Amsterdam located at the southern tip of Manhattan Island, numerous additional lands around the city and along the Hudson River. This included Staaten Eylandt anglicized as "Staten Island", a sparsely populated island south-west of New York across Upper New York Bay. In 1670, the local Native Americans Raritans and other subgroups of the Lenape tribe, ceded all claims to Staten Island to the English in a deed to Governor Francis Lovelace. New Dorp was founded in 1671 following the English resurveying the pre-existing Dutch settlement of Oude Dorp and expanded the lots along the South Shore, which were settled by Dutch families; the new lots became known as Nieuwe Dorp, in contrast with Oude Dorp, became anglicized as New Dorp. The new village developed into one of the largest and most important settlements on Staten Island, during the American Revolution it became a center of activity when it was occupied by British forces in preparation to attack the American-occupied New York City.
The Rose and Crown Tavern in New Dorp, owned by the uncle of Cornelius Vanderbilt, temporarily served as the local British military headquarters. In the late 19th century, New Dorp became the home to members of the prominent Vanderbilt family, many of whom are buried in the Moravian Cemetery, the largest and oldest active cemetery on Staten Island. On January 1, 1898, New Dorp was consolidated as part of New York City along with the entirety of Staten Island as the Borough of Richmond; the Vanderbilt farm was used by the U. S. Army as Miller Air Field, in the 1970s became part of Gateway National Recreation Area. New Dorp continued to be one of the primary settlements on Staten Island until the 1960s, when the suburbanization of New York City began to expand into the island; the rural character of Staten Island was replaced with the massive development of suburban housing, causing separate towns such as New Dorp to be absorbed into New York City's conurbation and become one of many contiguous neighborhoods.
New Dorp retained its distinct character as a town, is one of the most thriving commercial centers on the Island which in the 1960s spread along Hylan Boulevard from New Dorp Lane and led to the construction of five shopping centers, anchored by supermarkets and department stores, with the largest being Hylan Plaza which opened in 1966. The 1960 New York mid-air collision, where 134 people were killed and held the highest death toll for a commercial aviation accident until 1968, occurred over New Dorp. For census purposes, the New York City government classifies New Dorp as part of a larger neighborhood tabulation area called New Dorp-Midland Beach. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of New Dorp-Midland Beach was 21,896, a change of 1,654 from the 20,242 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,269.49 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 17.2 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 78.3% White, 1.2% African American, 0.1% Native American, 5.2% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 1% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14% of the population. The entirety of Community District 2, which comprises New Dorp and other Mid-Island neighborhoods, had 134,657 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.2 years. This is the same a
Flatlands is a neighborhood in the southeast part of the borough of Brooklyn in New York City. The area is part of Brooklyn Community Board 18. An independent town, Flatlands became part of the City of Brooklyn in 1896; the current neighborhood borders are defined by Avenue H to the north, Avenue U to the south, Ralph Avenue to the east, Flatbush Avenue to the southwest and Nostrand Avenue to the northwest. Flatlands was known as Nieuw Amersfoort, after the Dutch city of Amersfoort, was established as a farming community in 1636 when Wolfert Gerritse Van Couwenhoven and Andries Hudde purchased 15,000 acres of land centered on what is now the intersection of Kings Highway and Flatbush Avenue. Though the area was purchased from Lenape Native Americans, there is no definitive evidence that the area was inhabited by them, as the notion of land ownership in Lenape culture differed from that of Europeans and they may have been a transient population. Flatlands was given the right to local rule in 1661 by Peter Stuyvesant as one of the five Dutch Towns on Long Island.
The town’s growth and development came late due to the lack of a transit system or set of roads connecting it with other parts of Brooklyn. Flatlands was annexed by the city of Brooklyn in 1896. Crops grown in the area were beans, marsh hay, potato bean and tobacco. Oysters and clams were farmed and harvested from Jamaica Bay, surrounding marshes and basins; the land-controlling families of Nieuw Amersfoort kept black slaves to work their farms until the state declared emancipation of all slaves in 1827, after which black laborers took up farming jobs, many times on the farms they worked on as slaves. Historic homes dated to the 18th century include the Stoothoff-Baxter-Kouwenhaven House and Joost Van Nuyse House. Other historic structures are the Hendrick I. Lott House, a stop on the Underground Railroad, the Flatlands Dutch Reformed Church, founded by Steven Coertse van Voorhees. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Flatlands was 64,762, a decrease of 1,964 from the 66,726 counted in 2000.
Covering an area of 1,249.32 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 51.8 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 18.2% White, 66.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 4.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.9% of the population. The entirety of Community Board 18, which comprises Canarsie and Flatlands, had 165,543 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 82.0 years. This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 25% are between the ages of 0–17, 29% between 25–44, 24% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 9% and 13% respectively. As of 2016, the median household income in Community Board 18 was $76,647. In 2018, an estimated 15% of Canarsie and Flatlands residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City.
One in eleven residents were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 50% in Canarsie and Flatlands, lower than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Canarsie and Flatlands are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying; the main shopping streets in Flatlands are Utica Avenue, Flatbush Avenue, Avenue N, Ralph Avenue. Residents commonly shop at the nearby indoor mall, Kings Plaza, located by the borders of Flatlands and Marine Park, while being across the water to Mill Basin. Flatlands is patrolled by the New York City Police Department's 63rd Precinct; the precinct covers Marine Park, Mill Basin, Bergen Beach. The 63rd Precinct ranked 31st safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. With a non-fatal assault rate of 46 per 100,000 people and Flatlands's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole.
The incarceration rate of 380 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole. The 63rd Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 85.9% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 5 murders, 14 rapes, 88 robberies, 131 felony assaults, 92 burglaries, 495 grand larcenies, 62 grand larcenies auto in 2018; the New York City Fire Department's Engine Co. 309/Ladder Co. 159 is located at 1851 East 48th Street. Preterm births are more common in Canarsie and Flatlands than in other places citywide, though teenage births are less common. In Canarsie and Flatlands, there were 89 preterm births per 1,000 live births, 11.6 teenage births per 1,000 live births. Canarsie and Flatlands has a low population of residents who are uninsured, or who receive healthcare through Medicaid. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 21%, higher than the citywide rate of 12%; the concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Canarsie and Flatlands is 0.0071 milligrams per cubic metre, lower than the citywide and boroughwide averages.
Fifteen percent of Canarsie and Flatlands residents are smokers, higher than the city averag
New Castle, Delaware
New Castle is a city in New Castle County, six miles south of Wilmington, situated on the Delaware River. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 5,285. New Castle was settled by the Dutch West India Company in 1651, under the leadership of Peter Stuyvesant, on the site of a former aboriginal village, "Tomakonck", to assert their claim to the area based on a prior agreement with the aboriginal inhabitants of the area; the Dutch named the settlement Fort Casimir, but this was changed to Fort Trinity following its seizure by the colony of New Sweden on Trinity Sunday, 1654. The Dutch conquered the entire colony of New Sweden the following year and rechristened the fort Nieuw-Amstel; this marked the end of the Swedish colony in Delaware as an official entity, but it remained a semi-autonomous unit within the New Netherland colony and the cultural and religious influence of the Swedish settlers remained strong. As the settlement grew, Dutch authorities laid out a grid of streets and established the town common, which continue to this day.
In 1664, the English seized the entire New Netherland colony in the Second Anglo-Dutch War. They made it the capital of their Delaware Colony; the Dutch regained the town in 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War but it was returned to Great Britain the next year under the Treaty of Westminster. In 1680, New Castle was conveyed to William Penn by the Duke of York by livery of seisin and was Penn's landing place when he first set foot on American soil on October 27, 1682; this transfer to Penn was contested by Lord Baltimore and the boundary dispute was not resolved until the survey conducted by Mason and Dixon, now famed in history as the Mason–Dixon line. The spire on top of the Court House, Delaware's colonial capitol and first state house, was used as the center of the Twelve-Mile Circle forming the northern boundary of Delaware; the Delaware River within this radius to the low water mark on the opposite shore is part of Delaware. Thus the Delaware Memorial Bridge was built as an intrastate span by Delaware, without financial participation by neighboring New Jersey.
Prior to the establishment of Penn's Philadelphia, New Castle was a center of government. After being transferred to Penn, Delaware's Swedish and English residents used to the relaxed culture of the Restoration monarchy grew uncomfortable with the more conservative Quaker influence, so Delaware petitioned for a separate legislature, granted in 1702. Delaware formally broke from Pennsylvania in 1704. New Castle again became the seat of the colonial government, thriving with the various judges and lawyers that fueled the economy. Many smaller houses were replaced in this era. In February 1777, John McKinly was elected the first President of Delaware. During the Revolution, when New Castle was besieged by William Howe, the government elected to move its functions south to Dover in May 1777. McKinley was captured by the held prisoner for several months. New Castle remained the county seat until after the Civil War, when that status was transferred to Wilmington. Three signers of the Declaration of Independence were from New Castle—Thomas McKean, George Read, George Ross.
The 16-mile portage between the Delaware River and Chesapeake Bay saved a 400-mile trip around the Delmarva Peninsula, so this brought passengers and business to New Castle's port. In the years following the Revolution, a turnpike was built to facilitate travel between the two major waterways. New Castle became the eastern terminus of the New Castle and Frenchtown Railroad, the second-oldest rail line in the country, launched in 1828 with horse-drawn rail cars converting to steam power when an engine was purchased from Great Britain in 1832; the line traversed the Delmarva Peninsula, running to the Elk River, from where passengers changed to packet boats for further travel to Baltimore and points south. This helped the New Castle economy to further boom; the decline in New Castle's economy had the long-range fortunate effect of preventing most residents from making any significant structural changes to their homes. So, the many buildings of historic New Castle look much as they did in the colonial and Federal periods.
New Castle has a tradition, dating back to 1927, of tours of historical homes and gardens. These tours, called "A Day in Olde New Castle", are held on the third Saturday of May. Householders dress in colonial costumes and an admittance fee is collected, used toward the maintenance of the town's many historic buildings. In June the town holds its annual Separation Day celebration. On April 28, 1961, an F3 tornado hit the north side. Although no fatalities or injuries occurred, it was the only tornado of this magnitude recorded in Delaware. In the City of New Castle, many small and historical neighborhoods are within the city limits. However, many larger neighborhoods are surrounding the city limits and are labeled as New Castle within the general consensus; the New Castle area ranges from the southern city limits of Wilmington to the north, the Delaware River to the East, Wrangle Hill Road to the South, Bear and Christiana to the West. City of New Castle Shawtown Dobbinsville Washington Park Battery Park 6th & DelawareOutside neighborhoods Chelsea Estates Penn Acres Collins Park Minquadale Wilmington Manor Commons Boulevard Midvale Jefferson Farms Castle H
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. Over time, the term has become a metonym for the financial markets of the United States as a whole, the American financial services industry, or New York–based financial interests. Anchored by Wall Street, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Several other major exchanges have or had headquarters in the Wall Street area, including the New York Mercantile Exchange, the New York Board of Trade, the former American Stock Exchange. There are varying accounts about. A accepted version is that the name of the street was derived from a wall on the northern boundary of the New Amsterdam settlement, built to protect against Native Americans and the British.
A conflicting explanation is that Wall Street was named after Walloons—the Dutch name for a Walloon is Waal. Among the first settlers that embarked on the ship "Nieu Nederlandt" in 1624 were 30 Walloon families. While the Dutch word "wal" can be translated as "rampart", it only appeared as "de Walstraat" on English maps of New Amsterdam; however some English maps show the name as Waal Straat, not as Wal Straat. According to one version of the story: The red people from Manhattan Island crossed to the mainland, where a treaty was made with the Dutch, the place was therefore called the Pipe of Peace, in their language, Hoboken, but soon after that, the Dutch governor, sent his men out there one night and massacred the entire population. Few of them escaped, but they spread the story of what had been done, this did much to antagonize all the remaining tribes against all the white settlers. Shortly after, Nieuw Amsterdam erected a double palisade for defense against its now enraged red neighbors, this remained for some time the northern limit of the Dutch city.
The space between the former walls is now called Wall Street, its spirit is still that of a bulwark against the people. In the 1640s basic picket and plank fences denoted residences in the colony. On behalf of the Dutch West India Company, Peter Stuyvesant, using both African slaves and white colonists, collaborated with the city government in the construction of a more substantial fortification, a strengthened 12-foot wall. In 1685, surveyors laid out Wall Street along the lines of the original stockade; the wall started at Pearl Street, the shoreline at that time, crossing the Indian path Broadway and ending at the other shoreline, where it took a turn south and ran along the shore until it ended at the old fort. In these early days, local merchants and traders would gather at disparate spots to buy and sell shares and bonds, over time divided themselves into two classes—auctioneers and dealers. Wall Street was the marketplace where owners could hire out their slaves by the day or week; the rampart was removed in 1699 and a new City Hall built at Wall and Nassau in 1700.
Slavery was introduced to Manhattan in 1626, but it was not until December 13, 1711, that the New York City Common Council made Wall Street the city's first official slave market for the sale and rental of enslaved Africans and Indians. The slave market operated from 1711 to 1762 at the corner of Pearl Streets, it was a wooden structure with a roof and open sides, although walls may have been added over the years and could hold 50 men. The city directly benefited from the sale of slaves by implementing taxes on every person, bought and sold there. In the late 18th century there was a buttonwood tree at the foot of Wall Street under which traders and speculators would gather to trade securities; the benefit was being in proximity to each other. In 1792, traders formalized their association with the Buttonwood Agreement, the origin of the New York Stock Exchange; the idea of the agreement was to make the market more "structured" and "without the manipulative auctions", with a commission structure.
Persons signing the agreement agreed to charge each other a standard commission rate. In 1789 Wall Street was the scene of the United States' first presidential inauguration when George Washington took the oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on April 30, 1789; this was the location of the passing of the Bill Of Rights. Alexander Hamilton, the first Treasury secretary and "architect of the early United States financial system," is buried in the cemetery of Trinity Church, as is Robert Fulton famed for his steamboats. In the first few decades, both residences and businesses occupied the area, but business predominated. "There are old stories of people's houses being surrounded by the clamor of business and trade and the owners complaining that they can't get anything done," according to a historian named Burrows. The opening of the Erie Canal in the early 19th century meant a huge boom in business for New York City, since it was the only major eastern seaport which had direct access by inland waterways to ports on the Great Lakes.
Wall Street became the "money capital of America". Historian Charles R. Geisst suggested that there has been a "tug-of-war" between business interests on Wall Street and authorities in Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States by then. During the 19th c