Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is in the South Platte River Valley on the edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The Denver downtown district is immediately east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River, Denver is nicknamed the Mile-High City because its official elevation is exactly one mile above sea level, making it the highest major city in the United States. The 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the reference for the Mountain Time Zone. Denver is ranked as a Beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. With a 2015 estimated population of 682,545, Denver ranks as the 19th-most populous U. S. city, and with a 2. 8% increase in 2015, the city is the fastest-growing major city in the United States. The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2015 population of 2,814,330 and ranked as the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area.
The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2015 population of 3,418,876, which ranks as the 16th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the USA by U. S. News & World Report and this was the first historical settlement in what was to become the city of Denver. The site faded quickly, and by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria, Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him. The location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne, the site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver.
Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were often traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria, in May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pikes Peak Express in order to secure the regions first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for passengers, mail and gold, in 1863, Western Union furthered Denvers dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus. The Colorado Territory was created on February 28,1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1,1861, Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the territorial capital, with its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver
Nanticoke is a city in Luzerne County, United States. It is located within the Wyoming Valley, the population was 10,465 as of the 2010 census. It occupies 3.5 square miles of land, in the late 19th century, Nanticoke was carved out of Hanover Township and Newport Township. The name Nanticoke was derived from Nantego, the Native American tidewater people who moved here when their Maryland lands were spoiled for hunting by the settlement in 1608. Nanticoke was incorporated as a village in 1830, Nanticoke was chartered by the Pennsylvania Legislature as a borough on January 31,1874, Nanticoke experienced its greatest increase in population between 1917 and 1925 and qualified to become a Third Class City. The citizens voted in the fall of 1924 to form a city government, the new city government consisted of a Mayor and four Councilmen who took office in January 1926, which was the official date of becoming a Third Class City. The first mayor of Nanticoke City was Dan Sakowski, samuel H. Kress opened his first store, which grew into the national S. H.
Kress & Co. chain, in Nanticoke. The Concrete City, built by the Delaware and Western Railroads coal division in 1911 to house its workers, is located near the Hanover section of Nanticoke. Abandoned since 1924, it was designated a site in 1998. The original road used to run to the structures has been bulldozed. There is an entrance route that does not appear on maps. Nanticoke faced a projected $700,000 deficit that year, with revenues flat, at its height in the 1930s the city of Nanticoke was home to over 27,000 people. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,955 people,4,850 households, the population density was 3,124.0 people per square mile. There were 5,487 housing units at a density of 1,564.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98. 84% White,0. 27% African American,0. 10% Native American,0. 26% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 16% from other races, and 0. 37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 45% of the population,35. 7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 20. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.21 and the family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was out, with 19. 7% under the age of 18,7. 5% from 18 to 24,25. 8% from 25 to 44,23. 7% from 45 to 64
Columbia, South Carolina
Columbia is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of South Carolina, with a population of 133,803 as of 2015. The city serves as the county seat of Richland County, the name Columbia is a poetic term used for the United States, originating from the name of Christopher Columbus. The city is located approximately 13 miles northwest of the center of South Carolina. It lies at the confluence of the Saluda River and the Broad River, in 1860, the city was the location of the South Carolina Secession Convention, which marked the departure of the first state from the Union in the events leading up to the Civil War. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Columbia were a people called the Congaree, in May 1540, a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto traversed what is now Columbia while moving northward. The expedition produced the earliest written records of the area. From the creation of Columbia by the South Carolina General Assembly in 1786, the Congarees, a frontier fort on the west bank of the Congaree River, was the head of navigation in the Santee River system. A ferry was established by the government in 1754 to connect the fort with the growing settlements on the higher ground on the east bank.
Like many other significant early settlements in colonial America, Columbia is on the line from the Piedmont region. The fall line is the spot where a river becomes unnavigable when sailing upstream, State Senator John Lewis Gervais of the town of Ninety Six introduced a bill that was approved by the legislature on March 22,1786, to create a new state capital. There was considerable argument over the name for the new city, according to published accounts, Senator Gervais said he hoped that in this town we should find refuge under the wings of COLUMBIA, for that was the name which he wished it to be called. One legislator insisted on the name Washington, but Columbia won by a vote of 11–7 in the state senate, the site was chosen as the new state capital in 1786, due to its central location in the state. The State Legislature first met there in 1790, after remaining under the direct government of the legislature for the first two decades of its existence, Columbia was incorporated as a village in 1805 and as a city in 1854.
Columbia received a stimulus to development when it was connected in a direct water route to Charleston by the Santee Canal. This canal connected the Santee and Cooper rivers in a 22-mile-long section and it was first chartered in 1786 and completed in 1800, making it one of the earliest canals in the United States. With increased railroad traffic, it ceased operation around 1850, the commissioners designed a town of 400 blocks in a 2-mile square along the river. The blocks were divided into lots of 0.5 acres and sold to speculators, buyers had to build a house at least 30 feet long and 18 feet wide within three years or face an annual 5% penalty. The perimeter streets and two streets were 150 feet wide
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City is the largest city in Missouri and the sixth largest city in the Midwest. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had an population of 475,378 in 2015. It is the city of the Kansas City metropolitan area. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west, on June 1,1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated, shortly after came the establishment of the Kansas Territory. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to them soon thereafter. Most of the city lies within Jackson County, but portions spill into Clay, along with Independence, it serves as one of the two county seats for Jackson County. Major suburbs include the Missouri cities of Independence and Lees Summit and the Kansas cities of Overland Park and Kansas City. The city is composed of neighborhoods, including the River Market District in the north, the 18th and Vine District in the east. Kansas City is known for its cuisine, its craft breweries, Kansas City, Missouri was officially incorporated as a town on June 1,1850, and as a city on March 28,1853.
The territory straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers was considered a place to build settlements. The Antioch Christian Church, Dr. James Compton House, the first documented European visitor to Kansas City was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, who was the first European to explore the lower Missouri River. Criticized for his response to the Native American attack on Fort Détroit, Bourgmont lived with a Native American wife in a village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, where he illegally traded furs. In the documents, he describes the junction of the Grande Riv des Cansez and Missouri River, French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the areas first reasonably accurate map. The Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the French continued their fur trade under Spanish license. After the 1804 Louisiana Purchase and Clark visited the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, in 1831, a group of Mormons from New York settled in what would become the city.
They built the first school within Kansas Citys current boundaries, but were forced out by mob violence in 1833, in 1833 John McCoy established West Port along the Santa Fe Trail,3 miles away from the river. In 1834 McCoy established Westport Landing on a bend in the Missouri to serve as a point for West Port. Soon after, the Kansas Town Company, a group of investors, began to settle the area, in 1850, the landing area was incorporated as the Town of Kansas
A department store or magazine is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as departments. In modern major cities, the department store made a appearance in the middle of the 19th century, and permanently reshaped shopping habits. Similar developments were under way in London, in Paris and in New York, customers check out near the front of the store or, alternatively, at sales counters within each department. Some are part of a chain of many stores, while others may be independent retailers. In the 1970s, they came under pressure from discounters. Since 2010, they have come under even heavier pressure from online stores such as Amazon, big-box stores and discount stores are modern equivalent of historical department stores. Before shopping malls, department stores were standalone, the origins of the department store lay in the growth of the conspicuous consumer society at the turn of the 19th century. As the Industrial Revolution accelerated economy expansion, the affluent middle-class grew in size, urbanized social group, sharing a culture of consumption and changing fashion, was the catalyst for the retail revolution.
One of the first department stores may have been Bennetts in Derby and it still stands to this day, trading in the same building. However, the first reliably dated department store to be established, was Harding, Howell & Co and it is fitted up with great taste, and is divided by glazed partitions into four departments, for the various branches of the extensive business, which is there carried on. Immediately at the entrance is the first department, which is appropriated to the sale of furs. The second contains articles of haberdashery of every description, muslins, gloves, &etc. The fourth is set apart for millinery and dresses, so there is no article of female attire or decoration. This venture is described as having all of the characteristics of the department store. This pioneering shop was closed down in 1820 when the partnership was dissolved. Department stores began large scale establishment in the 1840s and 50s, in France, the UK, all the major British cities had flourishing department stores by the mid-or late nineteenth century.
Increasingly, women became the major shoppers and middle-class households, Kendals in Manchester lays claim to being one of the first department stores and is still known to many of its customers as Kendals, despite its 2005 name change to House of Fraser. The Manchester institution dates back to 1836 but had been trading as Watts Bazaar since 1796, at its zenith the store had buildings on both sides of Deansgate linked by a subterranean passage Kendals Arcade and an art nouveau tiled food hall
National Building Museum
The National Building Museum, historically known as the Pension Building, in Washington, D. C. United States, is a museum of architecture, engineering, construction and it was created by an act of Congress in 1980, and is a private non-profit institution, it is adjacent to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial and the Judiciary Square Metro station. The museum hosts temporary exhibits in galleries around the spacious Great Hall. The National Building Museum is housed in the former Pension Bureau building, the U. S. Army quartermaster general. The vast interior, measuring 316 ×116 feet, has used to hold inauguration balls. The number of staff needed to implement and administer the new benefits system ballooned to over 1,500, Meigs was chosen to design and construct the new building. He departed from the established Greco-Roman models that had been the basis of government buildings in Washington, D. C. until then, Meigs based his design on Italian Renaissance precedents, notably Romes Palazzo Farnese and the Palazzo della Cancelleria.
Included in his design was a frieze sculpted by Caspar Buberl, because of the 28 sections modification and mixture, it is only in careful examination that the frieze is seen to be the same figures repeated several times. Meigss correspondence with Buberl reveals that Meigs insisted that a black teamster, who must be a negro and this figure was ultimately to assume a central position, over the buildings west entrance. Made of brick and tile, the stairs were designed for the limitations of disabled and aging veterans, in addition, each step slanted slightly from back to front to allow easy drainage, a flight could be washed easily by pouring water from the top. When Philip Sheridan was asked to comment on the building, his reply echoed the negative sentiment of much of the Washington establishment of the day. A similar quote is attributed to William Tecumseh Sherman, perhaps casting doubt on the truth of the Sheridan tale. The completed building, sometimes called Meigs Old Red Barn, required more than 15,000,000 bricks, the building was used for federal government offices until the 1960s when it had fallen into a state of disrepair and was considered for demolition.
After pressure from conservationists, the government commissioned a report by architect Chloethiel Woodard Smith of possible uses for the building. Her 1967 report suggested a museum dedicated to the building arts, the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969. In 1980, Congress created the National Building Museum as a private, the building itself was formally renamed the National Building Museum in 1997. Every year, the annual Christmas in Washington program is filmed at the museum, with the President and First Lady. C. by National Geographic Travelers blog, Intelligent Travel, in July 2009. In 2010, The Huffington Post included the National Building Museum in a story, the Museum Shop sells books about the built environment and an array of housewares, educational toys and items for an office, all with an emphasis on design
North Carolina Museum of Art
The North Carolina Museum of Art is an art museum in Raleigh, North Carolina which opened in 1956 as the first major museum collection in the country to be formed by State legislation and funding. Since the initial 1947 appropriation that established its collection, the Museum has continued to be a model of enlightened public policy with free admission to the permanent collection. The Museum features more than 40 galleries as well as more than a major works of art in the nation’s largest museum park with 164-acres. One of the art museums in the American South, the NCMA recently completed a major expansion winning international acclaim for innovative approaches to energy-efficient design. In 1924, the North Carolina State Art Society formed to generate interest in creating an art museum for the state, in 1928 the society acquired funds and 75 paintings were first displayed in a series of temporary art exhibition spaces in the Agriculture Building in Raleigh in 1929. In 1939, NCMA was moved to the former Supreme Court building, in 1947 the state legislature appropriated $1 million to purchase a collection of artworks for the people of North Carolina.
The money was used to purchase 139 European and American works, the Samuel H. Kress Foundation matched the appropriation with a gift of 71 works, primarily from the Italian Renaissance. The 1947 state earmarking of funds for an art collection was the first in the United States, on April 6,1956, the museum opened in the renovated State Highway Division Building on Morgan Street in downtown Raleigh, the state capital. W. R. Valentiner became the museums first director, in 1961, the legislature separated the museum from the Art Society, making it a state agency jointly governed by the state and a board of trustees. Ten years later, NCMA became an entity under what is now the North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources, in 1967, the present-day Blue Ridge Road site was chosen as the location for a new building, as the museum had outgrown the Morgan Street location. Designed by Edward Durrell Stone and Associates of New York and Holloway-Reeves Architects of North Carolina, Stone used spatial experimentation with pure geometric form for the museum by using a square as a basic unit and designing the entire site by manipulating the square form.
This was Stones last major design prior to his death, after he died in 1978, the exterior was changed from white marble to red brick. In April 2010 the museum opened the new 127, 000-square-foot West Building, designed by New York-based architects Thomas Phifer and Partners as part of an expansion initiative. Highlights include a gift of 30 Auguste Rodin sculptures and work by artists Roxy Paine, Ursula von Rydingsvard, El Anatsui, Jaume Plensa, Jackie Ferrara, Ellsworth Kelly, and David Park. The project transformed the museum’s East Building into a center for exhibitions and public programs, public events. The exterior walls of the West Building are covered with anodized aluminum panels that are canted two degrees back from vertical with seams covered by highly polished steel bands, the roof of the West Building includes parabolic-shaped 6.5 ft by 37 ft coffers, which admit natural light. Other strengths include African, ancient American, pre-Columbian, and Oceanic art, the museum’s African collection originated in the 1970s with historical material from the 19th and 20th centuries, including important items from the Benin Kingdom.
The ancient American collection features art from three areas of the Western Hemisphere, Central America, and the Andes
Hollywood is an ethnically diverse, densely populated neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. It is notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its studios, and its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry. Hollywood was a community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, in 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished, the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the Father of Hollywood, along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed, the Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, I holly-wood, meaning hauling wood. H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood, Holly would represent England and wood would represent his Scottish heritage.
Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States, Whitley arranged to buy the 500-acre E. C. Hurd ranch and disclosed to him his plans for the land. They agreed on a price and Hurd agreed to sell at a date, before Whitley got off the ground with Hollywood, plans for the new town had spread to General Harrison Gray Otis, Hurds wife, eastern adjacent ranch co-owner Daeida Wilcox, and others. Daeida Wilcox may have learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and she recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. In August 1887, Wilcox filed with the Los Angeles County Recorders office a deed and parcel map of property he had sold named Hollywood, Wilcox wanted to be the first to record it on a deed. The early real-estate boom busted that year, yet Hollywood began its slow growth. By 1900, the region had a post office, hotel, Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent, the old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood. The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard, having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitleys company developed and sold one of the residential areas
A quarry is a place from which dimension stone, construction aggregate, sand, gravel, or slate has been excavated from the ground. A quarry is the thing as an open-pit mine from which minerals are extracted. The only non-trivial difference between the two is that open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are commonly referred to as quarries, the word quarry can include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone. The surfaces are polished and finished with varying degrees of sheen or luster, polished slabs are often cut into tiles or countertops and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is considered a luxury and tends to be a highly durable surface. Quarries in level areas with shallow groundwater or which are located close to surface water often have engineering problems with drainage, generally the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required.
For example, the Coquina quarry is excavated to more than 60 feet below sea level, to reduce surface leakage, a moat lined with clay was constructed around the entire quarry. Ground water entering the pit is pumped up into the moat, as a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows generally increase and it becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal, this can become the limiting factor in quarry depth. Some water-filled quarries are worked from beneath the water, by dredging, many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise and appearance. One of the effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is Butchart Gardens in Victoria, BC. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries, to control and restrain the pollution of public roads, wheel washing systems are becoming more common. Many quarries naturally fill with water after abandonment and become lakes, water-filled quarries can be very deep with water, often 50 feet or more, that is often surprisingly cold.
Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmers muscles to weaken, it can cause shock. Though quarry water is very clear, submerged quarry stones. Several people drown in quarries each year, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites
S. H. Kress & Co.
S. H. Kress & Co. was the trading name of a chain of five and dime retail department stores in the United States, established by Samuel Henry Kress, which operated from 1896 to 1981. In the first half of the 20th century, there were Kress stores with ornamented architecture on Main Street in hundreds of cities, Kress opened his first stationery and notions store in Nanticoke, Pennsylvania in 1887. The chain of S. H. Kress & Co, 5-10-25 Cent Stores was established in 1896. In the 1920s and 1930s, Kress sold a house label of phonograph records under the Romeo trademark, in Nashville, Kress repeatedly refused to serve the protesters but eventually agreed to integrate the downtown store in exchange for ending a consumer boycott. The Greensboro, North Carolina Kress was included in the first civil rights demonstrations in the South, in Adickes v. S. H. Kress Co. the U. S. Supreme Court threw out trespass convictions resulting from a sit-in at a Kress lunch counter in Mississippi. The Kress store in Baton Rouge was the site of that citys first civil rights sit-in and that event helped save it from demolition 45 years later.
In 1964 Genesco, Inc. acquired Kress, the company abandoned its center-city stores and moved to shopping malls. Genesco began liquidating Kress and closing down the Kress stores in 1980, the remaining Kress stores were sold to McCrory Stores on January 1,1981. Most continued to operate under the Kress name until McCrory Stores went out of business in 2001, tiendas Kress, the subsidiary chain in Puerto Rico, survived the parent company and is still in business there. The Kress Foundation, an organization promoting art, was established by Kress in 1929. The Kress chain was known for the architecture of its buildings, envisioned his stores as works of public art that would contribute to the cityscape. Sibberts buildings streamlined the Kress image with a sleek buff modernity, the use of terracotta ornament. Curved glass display windows led the shopper through heavy bronze doors into an interior of rich marbles, fine woods, well-positioned hanging lamps created a bright atmosphere for an endless array of inexpensive items.
Everything – from the constantly restocked merchandise to the gracious retiring rooms, like the great movie houses of the day, the dime store – and ‘Kress’s’ in particular – was a popular destination during hard economic times. Sibberts Mayan Revival Kress store on Fifth Avenue in New York City was built in 1935, awarded a gold medal for architectural quality, the store represented the zenith of the Kress empire in luxury and retailing capacity. The National Building Museum in Washington, D. C. Kress buildings around the country have been adapted for reuse, Baton Rouge, LA, The Kress building was scheduled to be demolished but was spared in 2005, and has been renovated for residential use. Biloxi, MS, The downtown Kress store was converted in 2014 into a music venue. Meridian, MS, The downtown Kress building is undergoing renovation and is slated to open in early 2016 as the new home of the Mississippi State University Meridian campus Kinesiology program