Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins, his $7 million bequest —of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U. S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.
C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood; the medical school, the nursing school, the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the School of Education, the Carey Business School, various other facilities. Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. Johns Hopkins University is cited as among the world's top universities; the university is ranked 10th among undergraduate programs at National Universities in U. S. News & World Report latest rankings, 10th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2019 rankings, as well as 12th globally in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Over the course of more than 140 years, 37 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States; the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the university's benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins."
Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh." The original board opted for an novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the Humboldtian model of higher education, the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it became dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States, its success shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and James B. Angell of Michigan, they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the university's first president. Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California prior to this appointment.
In preparation for the university's founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and other German universities. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research, he dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are those who are free and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester. Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate support of faculty research; the new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations; the Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of acad
Fairfax County Public Library
The Fairfax County Public Library is a public library system headquartered in Suite 324 of The Fairfax County Government Center in unincorporated Fairfax County, United States. Hennen's American Public Library Ratings has ranked the system among the top 10 libraries in the United States five times in the past 10 years. According to the library's timeline, the Fairfax County Library was established in 1939; as of May 2015, there are 23 library branches—8 regional branches, 14 community branches, one which assists people with disabilities. The library oversees the county's Archives and Records Management Branch; the library's service area spans both the county and Fairfax City and several local jurisdictions through reciprocity agreements serving nearly half a million registered users. The library system is the largest in Virginia in terms of population served. In the library's 2010 fiscal year, nearly 14 million items were borrowed from its collection of nearly three million books, CDs, DVDs, other items.
Nearly 5.7 million visits were made to the branches, website visits reached 5 million. The library offers a wide variety of services both via the Web site; the library has public computers for access to the Internet, catalog computers, downloadable eaudiobooks, subscription databases. The library and their Friends groups sponsor various programs, such as children's story times and local author readings and book signings, local musical concerts, technology classes and one-on-one sessions, special events for the county's diverse population; the number of full-time equivalent employees dropped to 379 in FY2014 from 430 at the end of FY2013 in the wake of the library's continuing budget cuts. Volunteers donated over 124,000 hours in 2014; the Director of the Fairfax County Public Library is Jessica A. Hudson who, in mid-2016, succeeded previous Director Sam Clay III, who had served in that position for more than thirty years. Burke Centre Library Richard Byrd Library Centreville Regional Library Chantilly Regional Library City of Fairfax Regional Library — includes the Virginia Room Great Falls Library Patrick Henry Library Herndon-Fortnightly Library Thomas Jefferson Library Kings Park Library Kingstowne Library Lorton Library Dolley Madison Library John Marshall Library George Mason Regional Library Oakton Library Pohick Regional Library Reston Regional Library Sherwood Regional Library Tysons-Pimmit Regional Library Martha Washington Library Woodrow Wilson Library Library cards are available to non-residents without charge who work, go to school in, or owns property in Fairfax County, or who live, own property or go to school in the City of Fairfax, or the Towns of Herndon or Vienna.
A card is available free for a person who lives, works or owns property in a jurisdiction that provides reciprocal privileges. Thus, cards are available for free for residents, property owners and employees working in the District of Columbia. All others who do not qualify may obtain a card for $27 a year. Alexandria Public Library Arlington Public Library District of Columbia Public Library Montgomery County Public Libraries Prince George's County Memorial Library System
The Temptations is an American vocal group who released a series of successful singles and albums with Motown Records during the 1960s and 1970s. The group’s work with producer Norman Whitfield, beginning with the Top 10 hit single "Cloud Nine" in October 1968, pioneered psychedelic soul, was significant in the evolution of R&B and soul music; the band members are known for their choreography, distinct harmonies, dress style. Having sold tens of millions of albums, the Temptations is among the most successful groups in popular music. Featuring five male vocalists and dancers, the group formed in 1960 in Detroit, Michigan under the name The Elgins; the founding members came from two rival Detroit vocal groups: Otis Williams, Elbridge "Al" Bryant, Melvin Franklin of Otis Williams & the Distants, Eddie Kendricks and Paul Williams of the Primes. In 1964, Bryant was replaced by David Ruffin, the lead vocalist on a number of the group's biggest hits, including "My Girl", "Ain't Too Proud to Beg", "I Wish It Would Rain".
Ruffin was replaced in 1968 by Dennis Edwards, with whom the group continued to record hit records such as "Cloud Nine" and "Ball of Confusion". The group's lineup has changed since the departures of Kendricks and Paul Williams from the act in 1971. Members of the group have included singers such as Richard Street, Damon Harris, Ron Tyson, Ali-Ollie Woodson, with whom the group scored a late-period hit in 1984 with "Treat Her Like a Lady". Over the course of their career, the Temptations released four Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles and fourteen R&B number-one singles, its music has earned three Grammy Awards. The Temptations was the first Motown recording act to win a Grammy Award - for "Cloud Nine" in 1969 - and in 2013 received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Six of the Temptations were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989. Three classic Temptations songs, "My Girl", "Just My Imagination", "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone", are among The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll.
The Temptations was ranked at number 68 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 100 Greatest Artists of all time. As of 2018, the Temptations continues to perform with founder Otis Williams in the lineup. Eddie Kendricks and Paul Williams started singing together in church as children. By their teenage years, they formed a doo-wop quartet in 1955 with Kell Osborne and Wiley Waller, naming themselves the Cavaliers. After Waller left the group in 1957, the remaining trio left Birmingham to break into the music business; the group settled in Detroit where they changed their name to the Primes under the direction of Milton Jenkins. The Primes soon became well known around the Detroit area for their meticulous performances. Jenkins created a sister group, The Primettes known as the Supremes. Kendricks was seen as a "matinee idol" in the Detroit area while Williams was well received for his baritone vocals. Texas teenager Otis Williams moved to Detroit as a youngster to be with his mother. By 1958, Williams was the leader of a vocal group named the Siberians.
The group included James "Pee-Wee" Crawford, Vernard Plain and Arthur Walton. The group recorded a song, "Pecos Kid" for a label run by radio deejay Senator Bristol Bryant. Shortly after its release, the group changed its name to The El Domingoes. Following this, Montgomery native Melvin Franklin replaced Arthur Walton as bass vocalist and Detroit-born Richard Street replaced Vernard Plain as lead singer. Signing with Johnnie Mae Matthews' Northern Records, the group had their name changed again to The Distants; the group recorded two Northern singles including "Come On" and "Alright". Between these releases, Albert "Mooch" Harrell replaced Pee-Wee Crawford. "Come On" became a local hit and the Warwick Records label picked the record up for national distribution. Following the release of "Alright", Matthews appointed Williams the group leader, the group's name was changed to Otis Williams & The Distants. During this period, both the Primes and Distants were influenced by other vocal groups including the Miracles.
Other inspirations included the Cadillacs, Frankie Lymon & the Teenagers, the Drifters, the Isley Brothers. Though "Come On" was a local hit in the Detroit area, the Distants never saw much record sales and "Alright" was not as successful. After receiving an offer from Berry Gordy to sign with Motown Records, the Distants got out of their contract with Northern Records. However, Mooch Harrell and Richard Street shortly departed from the group and the remaining members lost use of the Distants name. Richard Street formed another Distants group who recorded for the Thelma label in the early 1960s. Members of the Distants were acquainted with the Primes as both groups participated in the same talent shows and performed at the same public venues. Friendly rivals, the Primes were considered to be the more polished and vocally stronger group of the two; the Primes disbanded in 1960 after Kell Osborne moved to California. Eddie Kendricks and Paul Williams returned to Alabama following the band's dissolution.
While visiting relatives in Detroit, Kendricks called Otis Williams, who needed two more members for an audition for Gordy's label and offered Kendricks a lead singer place in his new group. Kendricks agreed on the condition. Otis Williams agreed and Kendricks and Paul Williams moved back to Detroit to join th
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City. It was founded in 1923 and run by Henry Luce. A European edition is published in London and covers the Middle East, and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong; the South Pacific edition, which covers Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, is based in Sydney. In December 2008, Time discontinued publishing a Canadian advertiser edition. Time has the world's largest circulation for a weekly news magazine; the print edition has a readership of 26 million. In mid-2012, its circulation was over three million, which had lowered to two million by late 2017. Richard Stengel was the managing editor from May 2006 to October 2013, when he joined the U. S. State Department. Nancy Gibbs was the managing editor from September 2013 until September 2017, she was succeeded by Edward Felsenthal, Time's digital editor. Time magazine was created in 1923 by Briton Hadden and Henry Luce, making it the first weekly news magazine in the United States.
The two had worked together as chairman and managing editor of the Yale Daily News. They first called the proposed magazine Facts, they wanted to emphasize brevity. They changed the name to Time and used the slogan "Take Time–It's Brief". Hadden was liked to tease Luce, he saw Time as important, but fun, which accounted for its heavy coverage of celebrities, the entertainment industry, pop culture—criticized as too light for serious news. It set out to tell the news through people, for many decades, the magazine's cover depicted a single person. More Time has incorporated "People of the Year" issues which grew in popularity over the years. Notable mentions of them were Steve Jobs, etc.. The first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923, featuring Joseph G. Cannon, the retired Speaker of the House of Representatives, on its cover. 1, including all of the articles and advertisements contained in the original, was included with copies of the February 28, 1938 issue as a commemoration of the magazine's 15th anniversary.
The cover price was 15¢ On Hadden's death in 1929, Luce became the dominant man at Time and a major figure in the history of 20th-century media. According to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1972–2004 by Robert Elson, "Roy Edward Larsen was to play a role second only to Luce's in the development of Time Inc". In his book, The March of Time, 1935–1951, Raymond Fielding noted that Larsen was "originally circulation manager and general manager of Time publisher of Life, for many years president of Time Inc. and in the long history of the corporation the most influential and important figure after Luce". Around the time they were raising $100,000 from wealthy Yale alumni such as Henry P. Davison, partner of J. P. Morgan & Co. publicity man Martin Egan and J. P. Morgan & Co. banker Dwight Morrow, Henry Luce, Briton Hadden hired Larsen in 1922 – although Larsen was a Harvard graduate and Luce and Hadden were Yale graduates. After Hadden died in 1929, Larsen purchased 550 shares of Time Inc. using money he obtained from selling RKO stock which he had inherited from his father, the head of the Benjamin Franklin Keith theatre chain in New England.
However, after Briton Hadden's death, the largest Time, Inc. stockholder was Henry Luce, who ruled the media conglomerate in an autocratic fashion, "at his right hand was Larsen", Time's second-largest stockholder, according to Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise 1923–1941. In 1929, Roy Larsen was named a Time Inc. director and vice president. J. P. Morgan retained a certain control through two directorates and a share of stocks, both over Time and Fortune. Other shareholders were the New York Trust Company; the Time Inc. stock owned by Luce at the time of his death was worth about $109 million, it had been yielding him a yearly dividend of more than $2.4 million, according to Curtis Prendergast's The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise 1957–1983. The Larsen family's Time stock was worth around $80 million during the 1960s, Roy Larsen was both a Time Inc. director and the chairman of its executive committee serving as Time's vice chairman of the board until the middle of 1979.
According to the September 10, 1979, issue of The New York Times, "Mr. Larsen was the only employee in the company's history given an exemption from its policy of mandatory retirement at age 65." After Time magazine began publishing its weekly issues in March 1923, Roy Larsen was able to increase its circulation by using U. S. radio and movie theaters around the world. It promoted both Time magazine and U. S. political and corporate interests. According to The March of Time, as early as 1924, Larsen had brought Time into the infant radio business with the broadcast of a 15-minute sustaining quiz show entitled Pop Question which survived until 1925". In 1928, Larsen "undertook the weekly broadcast of a 10-minute programme series of brief news summaries, drawn from current issues of Time magazine, broadcast over 33 stations throughout the United States". Larsen next arranged for a 30-minute radio program, The March of Time, to be broadcast over CBS, beginning on March 6, 1931; each week, the program presented a dramatisation of the week's news for its listeners, thus Time magazine itself was brought "to the attention of millions unaware
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company, was formed on November 30, 1999 by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ExxonMobil's primary brands are Exxon, Mobil and ExxonMobil Chemical; the world's second largest company by revenue, ExxonMobil from 1996 to 2017 varied from the first to sixth largest publicly traded company by market capitalization. The company was ranked ninth globally in the Forbes Global 2000 list in 2016. ExxonMobil was the tenth most profitable company in the Fortune 500 in 2017; as of 2018, the company ranked second in the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. ExxonMobil is one of the largest of the world's Big Oil companies; as of 2007, it had daily production of 3.921 million BOE. In 2008, this was 3% of world production, less than several of the largest state-owned petroleum companies.
When ranked by oil and gas reserves, it is 14th in the world—with less than 1% of the total. ExxonMobil's reserves were 20 billion BOE at the end of 2016 and the 2007 rates of production were expected to last more than 14 years. With 37 oil refineries in 21 countries constituting a combined daily refining capacity of 6.3 million barrels, ExxonMobil is the largest refiner in the world, a title, associated with Standard Oil since its incorporation in 1870. ExxonMobil has been criticized for its slow response to cleanup efforts after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska considered to be one of the world's worst oil spills in terms of damage to the environment. ExxonMobil has a history of lobbying for climate change denial and against the scientific consensus that global warming is caused by the burning of fossil fuels; the company has been the target of accusations of improperly dealing with human rights issues, influence on American foreign policy, its impact on the future of nations. ExxonMobil was formed in 1999 by the merger of two major oil companies and Mobil.
Both Exxon and Mobil were descendants of Standard Oil, established by John D. Rockefeller and partners in 1870 as the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. In 1882, it together with its affiliated companies was incorporated as the Standard Oil Trust with Standard Oil Company of New Jersey and Standard Oil Company of New York as its largest companies; the Anglo-American Oil Company was established in the United Kingdom in 1888. In 1890, Standard Oil, together with local ship merchants in Bremen established Deutsch-Amerikanische Petroleum Gesellschaft. In 1891, a sale branch for the Netherlands and Belgium, American Petroleum Company, was established in Rotterdam. At the same year, a sale branch for Italy, Società Italo Americana pel Petrolio, was established in Venice; the Standard Oil Trust was dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1892. In 1893, the Chinese and the whole Asian kerosene market was assigned to Standard Oil Company of New York in order to improve trade with the Asian counterparts.
In 1898, Standard Oil of New Jersey acquired controlling stake in Imperial Oil of Canada. In 1899, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became the holding company for the Standard Oil Interests; the anti-monopoly proceedings against the Standard Oil were launched in 1898. The reputation of Standard Oil in the public eye suffered badly after publication of Ida M. Tarbell's classic exposé The History of the Standard Oil Co. in 1904, leading to a growing outcry for the government to take action against the company. By 1911, with public outcry at a climax, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that Standard Oil must be dissolved and split into 34 companies. Two of these companies were Jersey Standard, which became Exxon, Socony, which became Mobil. Over the next few decades, Jersey Standard and Socony grew significantly. John Duston Archbold was the first president of Jersey Standard. Archbold was followed by Walter C. Teagle in 1917, who made it the largest oil company in the world. In 1919, Jersey Standard acquired a 50 % share in Humble Refining Co. a Texas oil producer.
In 1920, it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. In the following years it acquired or established Tropical Oil Company of Colombia, Standard Oil Company of Venezuela, Creole Petroleum Company of Venezuela. Henry Clay Folger was head of Socony until 1923; the growing automotive market inspired the product trademark Mobiloil, registered by Socony in 1920. After dissolution of Standard Oil, Socony had refining and marketing assets but no production activities. For this reason, Socony purchased a 45% interest in Magnolia Petroleum Co. a major refiner and pipeline transporter, in 1918. In 1925, Magnolia became wholly owned by Socony. In 1926, Socony purchased General Petroleum Corporation of California. In 1928, Socony joined the Turkish Petroleum Company. In 1931, Socony merged with Vacuum Oil Company, an industry pioneer dating back to 1866, to form Socony-Vacuum. In the Asia-Pacific region, Jersey Standard has established through its Dutch subsidiary an exploration and production company Nederlandsche Koloniale Petroleum Maatschappij in 1912.
In 1922, it found oil in Indonesia and in 1927, it built a refinery in Sumatra. It had oil production and refineries but no marketing network. Socony-V