A salt well is used to mine salt from subterranean caverns or deposits. Water is used as a solution to dissolve the salt or halite deposits so that they can be extracted by pipe to an evaporation process, which results in a brine or dry product for sale or use. In the United States during the 19th century, salt wells were a significant source of income for operators and the government. Locating underground salt deposits was based on locations of existing salt springs. In mountainous areas, a similar technique called; the Chinese have been using brine wells and a form of salt solution mining as part of their civilization for more than 2000 years. The first recorded salt well in China was dug in the Sichuan province around 2,250 years ago; this was the first time that ancient water well technology was applied for the exploitation of salt, marked the beginning of Sichuan’s salt drilling industry. Shaft wells were sunk as early as 220 BC in the Yunnan provinces. By 1035 AD, Chinese in the Sichuan area were using percussion drilling to recover deep brines, a technique that would not be introduced to the West for another 600 to 800 years.
Medieval and modern European travelers to China between 1400 to 1700 AD reported salt and natural gas production from dense networks of brine wells. Archaeological evidence of Song dynasty salt drilling tools used are kept and displayed in the Zigong Salt Industry Museum. Many of the wells were sunk deeper than 450 m and at least one well was more than 1000 meters deep; the medieval Venetian traveler to China, Marco Polo, reported an annual production in a single province of more than 30,000 tonnes of brine during his time there. According to Salt: A World History, a Qing Dynasty well located in Zigong, "continued down to 3,300 feet making it at the time the deepest drilled well in the world."
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent. Development economists argue that reducing barriers to labor mobility between developing countries and developed countries would be one of the most efficient tools of poverty reduction; the academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate.
Research shows that country of origin matters for speed and depth of immigrant assimilation, but that there is considerable assimilation overall for both first- and second-generation immigrants. Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination against foreign born and minority populations in criminal justice, the economy, health care and politics in the United States and Europe; the term immigration was coined in the 17th century, referring to non-warlike population movements between the emerging nation states. When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants from the perspective of the country which they enter. From the perspective of the country which they leave, they are called outmigrant. Sociology designates immigration as migration; as of 2015, the number of international migrants has reached 244 million worldwide, which reflects a 41% increase since 2000. One third of the world's international migrants are living in just 20 countries.
The largest number of international migrants live in the United States, with 19% of the world's total. Germany and Russia host 12 million migrants each, taking the second and third place in countries with the most migrants worldwide. Saudi Arabia hosts 10 million migrants, followed by the United Arab Emirates. Between 2000 and 2015, Asia added more international migrants than any other major area in the world, gaining 26 million. Europe added the second largest with about 20 million. In most parts of the world, migration occurs between countries that are located within the same major area. In 2015, the number of international migrants below the age of 20 reached 37 million, while 177 million are between the ages of 20 and 64. International migrants living in Africa were the youngest, with a median age of 29, followed by Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, while migrants were older in Northern America and Oceania. Nearly half of all international migrants originate in Asia, Europe was the birthplace of the second largest number of migrants, followed by Latin America.
India has the largest diaspora in the world, followed by Russia. A 2012 survey by Gallup found that given the opportunity, 640 million adults would migrate to another country, with 23% of these would-be immigrant choosing the United States as their desired future residence, while 7% of respondents, representing 45 million people, would choose the United Kingdom; the other top desired destination countries were Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Spain. One theory of immigration distinguishes between pull factors. Push factors refer to the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration, differentials in wage rates are common. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one's native country, he or she may choose to migrate, as long as the costs are not too high. In the 19th century, economic expansion of the US increased immigrant flow, nearly 15% of the population was foreign born, thus making up a significant amount of the labor force.
As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days; when the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. Research shows that for middle-income countries, higher temperatures increase emigration rates to urban areas and to other countries. For low-income countries, higher temperatures reduce emigration. Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations, the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work "overseas", they are referred to as "expatriates", their conditions of employment are equal to or better than those applying in the host country.
Scotch-Irish Americans are American descendants of Ulster Protestants, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 2017 American Community Survey, 5.39 million reported Scottish ancestry, an additional 3 million identified more with Scotch-Irish ancestry, many people who claim "American ancestry" may be of Scotch-Irish ancestry. The term Scotch-Irish is used in the United States, with people in Great Britain or Ireland who are of a similar ancestry identifying as Ulster Scots people. Most of these emigres from Ireland had been recent settlers, or the descendants of settlers, from the Kingdom of England or the Kingdom of Scotland who had gone to the Kingdom of Ireland to seek economic opportunities and freedom from the control of the episcopal Church of England and the Scottish Episcopal Church; these included 200,000 Scottish Presbyterians who settled in Ireland between 1608 and 1697. Many English-born settlers of this period were Presbyterians, although the denomination is today most identified with Scotland.
When King Charles I attempted to force these Presbyterians into the Church of England in the 1630s, many chose to re-emigrate to North America where religious liberty was greater. Attempts to force the Church of England's control over dissident Protestants in Ireland were to lead to further waves of emigration to the trans-Atlantic colonies; the term is first known to have been used to refer to a people living in northeastern Ireland. In a letter of April 14, 1573, in reference to descendants of "gallowglass" mercenaries from Scotland who had settled in Ireland, Elizabeth I of England wrote: "We are given to understand that a nobleman named'Sorley Boy' and others, who be of the Scotch-Irish race..." This term continued in usage for over a century before the earliest known American reference appeared in a Maryland affidavit in 1689/90. Scotch-Irish says Leyburn, "is an Americanism unknown in Scotland and Ireland, used by British historians." It is "The more usual term in North America" says the Oxford English Dictionary, which gives it a score of 3/8 in terms of current usage.
It became common in the United States after 1850. The term is somewhat ambiguous because some of the Scotch-Irish have little or no Scottish ancestry at all: numerous dissenter families had been transplanted to Ulster from northern England, in particular the border counties of Northumberland and Cumberland. Smaller numbers of migrants came from Wales and the southeast of England, others were Protestant religious refugees from Flanders, the German Palatinate, France. What united these different national groups was a base of Calvinist religious beliefs, their separation from the established church; that said, the large ethnic Scottish element in the Plantation of Ulster gave the settlements a Scottish character. Upon arrival in North America, these migrants at first identified as Irish, without the qualifier Scotch, it was not until a century following the surge in Irish immigration after the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s, that the descendants of the earlier arrivals began to call themselves Scotch-Irish to distinguish themselves from the newer, predominantly Catholic and poor immigrants.
At first, the two groups had little interaction in America, as the Scots-Irish had become settled decades earlier in the backcountry of the Appalachian region. The new wave of Catholic Irish settled in port cities such as Boston, New York, Chicago and New Orleans, where large immigrant communities formed and there were an increasing number of jobs. Many of the new Irish migrants went to the interior in the 19th century, attracted to jobs on large-scale infrastructure projects such as canals and railroads; the usage Scots-Irish developed in the late 19th century as a recent version of the term. Two early citations include: 1) "a grave, elderly man of the race known in America as "Scots-Irish". Twentieth-century English author Kingsley Amis endorsed the traditional Scotch-Irish usage implicitly in noting that "nobody talks about butterscottish or hopscots...or Scottish pine", that while Scots or Scottish is how people of Scots origin refer to themselves in Scotland, the traditional English usage Scotch continues to be appropriate in "compounds and set phrases".
The word "Scotch" was the favored adjective for things "of Scotland", including people, until the early 19th century, when it was replaced by the word "Scottish". People in Scotland refer to themselves as Scots, as a noun, or adjectivally/collectively as Scots or Scottish; the use of "Scotch" as an adjective for anything but whiskey has been out of favor in the U. K. for 200 years, but remains in use in the U. S. in place names, names of plants, breeds of dog, a type of tape, etc. and in the term Scotch-Irish. Although referenced by Merriam-Webster dictionaries as having first appeared in 1744, the American term Scotch-Irish is undoubtedly older. An affidavit of William Patent, dated March 15, 1689, in a case against a Mr. Matthew Scarbrough in Somerset County, quotes Mr. Patent as saying he was told by Scarbrough that "... it was no more sin to kill me to kill a dogg, or any Scotch Irish dogg..."Leyburn cites the following as early American uses of the term before 1744. The earlies
Saltsburg is a borough in Indiana County, United States. The population was 873 at the 2010 census; the town was based on the construction of salt wells and the canals and railroad tracks that passed through it. It is in western Pennsylvania. Saltsburg is located at 40°29'9" North, 79°26'52" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.2 square miles. 0.2 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. The total area is 16.67% water. As of the census of 2000, there were 955 people, 406 households, 261 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,628.9 people per square mile. There were 445 housing units at an average density of 2,156.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.16% White, 0.21% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.21% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.36% of the population. There were 406 households, out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families.
33.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.97. In the borough the population was spread out, with 25.4% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $27,448, the median income for a family was $37,614. Males had a median income of $32,778 versus $24,688 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $14,580. About 11.4% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.7% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over. On June 20, 1769, William Gray commended the first survey in the Saltsburg area. Early settlers of the wooded region were Scots-Irish immigrants.
From 1768 until 1795, people found the town of Saltsburg and Indiana County. Those settlers did not take full advantage of the area near the Kiskiminetas River until 1795 because of the threat and attacks of Native Americans; the name “Saltsburg” assumes a relation of the salt grain to this town. It is true. A Mrs. Deemer was the first. Around the years 1795-1798, the woman responsible proved salt was present in the Conemaugh River, about one mile above Saltsburg’s present site, in a town now known as Moween. Mrs. Deemer produced a sample of salt by evaporating the water from the river. In January 1817 the first sale of land was made to the Congregation of Saltsburg. In 1816-1817 Andrew Boggs purchased a large amount of land; the town was named with common consent of her first settlers, based on the newly thriving salt industry. The town’s religion was Presbyterian, the denomination of the first church built in Saltsburg; the first house was built in 1820, now is occupied with the Presbyterian Church.
The town filled with merchants in the late 1820s, the town became a prosperous place to reside. John Carson became the first tailor in 1827. Daniel Davis was the first blacksmith in 1828, George Johnston was the first merchant in 1829; the population of the town continued to grow, in 1838, the town was declared a borough. In 1840 the estimated population was 335; the primary means of transportation in the area were on foot, train or boat. The canal and train were new to the people living in the area, but they adapted well; the canal and railroad were major trade conduits for the region. As the town grew it became a site for the passage of the main line canal from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh. Coal and salt were transported along the canal and the building of boats became important. In 1835 and 1836, Robert Young, Butler Meyers and Jacob Newhouse opened the first canal-boat construction business in the town. Newhouse and his workers crafted some of the finest heavy freight boats the old canal saw. For several years boat building was said to be the chief industry of the town.
In 1855 the railroad bridge was built, with Major S. S. Jameson as the contractor and with the help of the principal mason John Marth. By 1864 the railroad brought an end to the canal era; the growth of the town was minimal. Dr. John McFarland, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College was the town’s first physician. In addition to being a physician, Dr. McFarland was the director of the Indiana County Medical Society and an instructor at the Saltsburg Academy, he served in the state House of Representatives from 1845–46 and became a man of the railroad industry. He was one of the first directors of the Northern Pennsylvania Railroad; the first school was a log house located closer to the railroad bridge. John Whittlesey was the first teacher, John Bucklin was the second; the Saltsburg Academy was established in 1852. It was 52 feet long by 30 feet wide; the town of Saltsburg is located in the southwestern corner of Pennsylvania. It has an estimated population of 923; the borough maintains its own police department and has one police officer.
Supplemental police protection is provided by the Pennsylvania State Police. Saltsburg has its own volunteer fire department. There i
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Petroleum jelly, white petrolatum, soft paraffin, or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties. After petroleum jelly became a medicine chest staple, consumers began to use it for many ailments, as well as cosmetic purposes, including toenail fungus, genital rashes, diaper rash, chest colds, its folkloric medicinal value as a "cure-all" has since been limited by better scientific understanding of appropriate and inappropriate uses. It is recognized by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration as an approved over-the-counter skin protectant and remains used in cosmetic skin care; the raw material for petroleum jelly was discovered in 1859 in Titusville, United States of America, on some of the country's first oil rigs. Workers disliked the paraffin-like material forming on rigs because it caused them to malfunction, but they used it on cuts and burns because they believed that it hastened healing. Robert Chesebrough, a young chemist whose previous work of distilling fuel from the oil of sperm whales had been rendered obsolete by petroleum, went to Titusville to see what new materials had commercial potential.
Chesebrough took the unrefined black "rod wax", as the drillers called it, back to his laboratory to refine it and explore potential uses. Chesebrough discovered that by distilling the lighter, thinner oil products from the rod wax, he could create a light-colored gel. Chesebrough patented the process of making petroleum jelly by U. S. Patent 127,568 in 1872; the process involved vacuum distillation of the crude material followed by filtration of the still residue through bone char. Chesebrough traveled around New York demonstrating the product to encourage sales by burning his skin with acid or an open flame spreading the ointment on his injuries and showing his past injuries healed, he claimed, by his miracle product, he opened his first factory in 1870 in Brooklyn using the name Vaseline. Petroleum jelly is a mixture of hydrocarbons, with a melting point that depends on the exact proportions; the melting point is between 40 C and 70 C. It is flammable, it is colorless or has a pale yellow color and devoid of taste and smell when pure.
It does not oxidize on exposure to the air and is not acted on by chemical reagents. It is insoluble in water, it is soluble in dichloromethane, benzene, diethyl ether, carbon disulfide and oil of turpentine. Depending on the specific application of petroleum jelly, it may be USP, B. P. or Ph. Eur. grade. This pertains to the processing and handling of the petroleum jelly so it is suitable for medicinal and personal-care applications; because they feel similar when applied to human skin, there is a common misconception that petroleum jelly and glycerol are physically similar. Petroleum jelly is insoluble in water. Glycerol is an alcohol, hydrophilic: by continuously absorbing moisture from the air, it produces the feeling of wetness on the skin; this feeling of wetness is similar to the feeling of greasiness produced by petroleum jelly. Most uses of petroleum jelly exploit its coating properties. Vaseline brand First Aid Petroleum Jelly, or carbolated petroleum jelly containing phenol to give the jelly additional antibacterial effect, has been discontinued.
During World War II, a variety of petroleum jelly called red veterinary petrolatum, or Red Vet Pet for short, was included in life raft survival kits. Acting as a sunscreen, it provides protection against ultraviolet rays; the American Academy of Dermatology recommends keeping skin injuries moist with petroleum jelly to reduce scarring. A verified medicinal use is to protect and prevent moisture loss of the skin of a patient in the initial post-operative period following laser skin resurfacing. There is one case report published in 1994 indicating petroleum jelly should not be applied to the inside of the nose due to the risk of lipid pneumonia, but this was only reported in one patient. However, petroleum jelly is used extensively by otolaryngologists—ear and throat surgeons—for nasal moisture and epistaxis treatment, to combat nasal crusting. Large studies have found petroleum jelly applied to the nose for short durations to have no significant side effects, it was consumed for internal use and promoted as "Vaseline confection".
Most petroleum jelly today is used as an ingredient in skin lotions and cosmetics, providing various types of skin care and protection by minimizing friction or reducing moisture loss, or by functioning as a grooming aid, e. g. pomade. By reducing moisture loss, petroleum jelly can prevent chapped hands and lips, soften nail cuticles; this property is exploited to provide heat insulation: petroleum jelly can be used to keep swimmers warm in water when training or during channel crossings or long ocean swims. It can prevent chilling of the face due to evaporation of skin moisture during cold weather outdoor sports. In the first part of the twentieth century, petroleum jelly, either pure or as an ingredient, was popular as a hair pomade; when used in a 50/50 mixture with pure beeswax, it makes an effective moustache wax. Petroleum jelly can be used to reduce the friction between skin and clothing during various sport activities, for example to prevent chafing of the seat region of cyclists, the nipples of long distance runners wearing l