Bernard Barton was known as the Quaker poet. His main works included The Convicts Appeal, in which he protested against the death penalty, Bernard Barton was born at Carlisle on 31 January 1784, the son of Quaker parents, John Barton and his wife, Mary, née Done. His mother died, and while the boy was still an infant, his father, a manufacturer, married Elizabeth Horne, moved to London, after John Barton died, his widow and stepchildren moved to Tottenham. Bartons sister was the educational writer Maria Hack and his half-brother John Barton and he was educated at a Quaker school in Ipswich. Barton was apprenticed at the age of 14 to a shopkeeper in Halstead, whose daughter, Lucy Jesup and his wife died at the end of their first year of marriage, while giving birth to their daughter Lucy. After a year as a tutor in Liverpool, Barton spent the rest of his life at Woodbridge, Suffolk and he died on 19 February 1849. Peel, through whom he obtained a pension of £100 a year, Other volumes of his were entitled Napoleon and Other Poems, Poetic Vigils and A New Years Eve and Other Poems.
Richard Ryan dedicated Poems on Sacred Subjects to which are added several miscellaneous to him, with the exception of some hymns, his works are now almost forgotten, but he was described as a most amiable and estimable man — simple and sympathetic. His best-known hymns are Lamp of our feet, whereby we trace, Walk in the light, so shalt thou know, Fear not, Zions sons and daughters, see we not beyond the portal. and Those who live in love shall know. Lucy published a selection of her fathers poems and letters, to which Edward Fitzgerald, translator of the Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám and her future husband, prefaced a biographical introduction. A. H. Bullen, Bernard, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, a Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London, J. M. Dent & Sons, Bernard Barton at Find-A-Grave Archival material at Leeds University Library
Thomas Carlyle was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist and teacher. Considered one of the most important social commentators of his time, a respected historian, his 1837 book The French Revolution, A History was the inspiration for Charles Dickens 1859 novel A Tale of Two Cities, and remains popular today. Carlyles 1836 Sartor Resartus is a philosophical novel. A great polemicist, Carlyle coined the term the dismal science for economics and he wrote articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, and his Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question remains controversial. Once a Christian, Carlyle lost his faith while attending the University of Edinburgh, in mathematics, he is known for the Carlyle circle, a method used in quadratic equations and for developing ruler-and-compass constructions of regular polygons. Carlyle was born in Ecclefechan in Dumfriesshire and his parents determinedly afforded him an education at Annan Academy, where he was bullied and tormented so much that he left after three years.
His father was a member of the Burgher secession church, in early life, his familys strong Calvinist beliefs powerfully influenced the young man. After attending the University of Edinburgh, Carlyle became a teacher, first in Annan and in Kirkcaldy. His prose style, famously cranky and occasionally savage, helped cement an air of irascibility, Carlyles thinking became heavily influenced by German idealism, in particular the work of Johann Gottlieb Fichte. He established himself as an expert on German literature in a series of essays for Frasers Magazine and he wrote a Life of Schiller. In 1826, Thomas Carlyle married fellow intellectual Jane Baillie Welsh, in 1827, he applied for the Chair of Moral Philosophy at St Andrews University but was not appointed. A residence provided by Janes estate was a house on Craigenputtock and he often wrote about his life at Craigenputtock – in particular, It is certain that for living and thinking in I have never since found in the world a place so favourable.
Here Carlyle wrote some of his most distinguished essays, and began a friendship with the American essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson. In 1831, the Carlyles moved to London, settling initially in lodgings at 4 Ampton Street, in 1834, they moved to 5 Cheyne Row, which has since been preserved as a museum to Carlyles memory. He became known as the Sage of Chelsea, and a member of a circle which included the essayists Leigh Hunt. Here Carlyle wrote The French Revolution, A History, a study concentrating both on the oppression of the poor of France and on the horrors of the mob unleashed. By 1821, Carlyle abandoned the clergy as a career and focused on making a life as a writer and his first fiction was Cruthers and Jonson, one of several abortive attempts at writing a novel. Following his work on a translation of Goethes Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship, he came to distrust the form of the realistic novel and so worked on developing a new form of fiction
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was an American poet and educator whose works include Paul Reveres Ride, The Song of Hiawatha, and Evangeline. He was the first American to translate Dante Alighieris Divine Comedy, Longfellow was born in Portland, which was a part of Massachusetts. After spending time in Europe he became a professor at Bowdoin and, and his first major poetry collections were Voices of the Night and Ballads and Other Poems. Longfellow retired from teaching in 1854, to focus on his writing, living the remainder of his life in Cambridge and his first wife Mary Potter died in 1835, after a miscarriage. His second wife Frances Appleton died in 1861, after sustaining burns when her dress caught fire, after her death, Longfellow had difficulty writing poetry for a time and focused on translating works from foreign languages. Longfellow wrote many lyric poems known for their musicality and often presenting stories of mythology and he became the most popular American poet of his day and had success overseas.
He has been criticized, for imitating European styles and his father was a lawyer, and his maternal grandfather, Peleg Wadsworth, was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a Member of Congress. He was named after his mothers brother Henry Wadsworth, a Navy lieutenant who had died three years earlier at the Battle of Tripoli, Longfellow was the second of eight children, his siblings were Stephen, Anne, Mary and Samuel. Longfellow was of entirely English ancestry, all of which had been in New England since the early 1600s, Longfellow attended a dame school at the age of three and by age six was enrolled at the private Portland Academy. In his years there he earned a reputation as being very studious and his mother encouraged his enthusiasm for reading and learning, introducing him to Robinson Crusoe and Don Quixote. He published his first poem, a patriotic and historical four-stanza poem called The Battle of Lovells Pond and he stayed at the Portland Academy until the age of fourteen.
He spent much of his summers as a child at his grandfather Pelegs farm in the western Maine town of Hiram, in the fall of 1822, the 15-year-old Longfellow enrolled at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, along with his brother Stephen. His grandfather was a founder of the college and his father was a trustee, there Longfellow met Nathaniel Hawthorne, who would become his lifelong friend. He boarded with a clergyman for a time before rooming in 1823 on the floor of what is now known as Winthrop Hall. He joined the Peucinian Society, a group of students with Federalist leanings, in his senior year, Longfellow wrote to his father about his aspirations, I will not disguise it in the least. The fact is, I most eagerly aspire after future eminence in literature, my whole soul burns most ardently after it, and every earthly thought centres in it. I am almost confident in believing, that if I can ever rise in the world it must be by the exercise of my talents in the field of literature. He pursued his goals by submitting poetry and prose to various newspapers and magazines
George Grote was an English political radical and classical historian. He is now best known for his work, the voluminous History of Greece. He was born at Clay Hill near Beckenham in Kent and his grandfather, originally a Bremen merchant, was one of the founders of the banking-house of Grote, Prescott & Company in Threadneedle Street, London. In spite of Grotes school successes, his father refused to him to university. He spent all his time in the study of classics, history and political economy and in learning German, French. Driven by his mothers Puritanism and his fathers contempt for academic learning, he sought other friends, one of whom was Charles Hay Cameron, who strengthened him in his love of philosophy. Through another friend, George W Norman, he met his wife, Harriet Lewin, after various difficulties the marriage took place on 5 March 1820, and was a happy one. His wifes nephew was the actor William Terriss, the father of Ellaline Terriss and his brother was the moral philosopher John Grote.
Meanwhile, Grote had finally decided his philosophic and political attitude, in 1817 he came under the influence of David Ricardo, and through him of James Mill and Jeremy Bentham. He settled in 1820 in an attached to the bank in Threadneedle Street. The book was published in the name of Richard Carlile, in gaol at Dorchester, mrs Grote claimed to have first suggested the History of Greece in 1823, but the book was already in preparation in 1822. In April 1826 Grote published in the Westminster Review a criticism of William Mitfords History of Greece, from 1826 to 1830 he was hard at work with John Stuart Mill and Henry Brougham in the organization of University College London. He was a member of the council organized the faculties. In 1830, owing to a difference with Mill as to an appointment to one of the philosophical chairs and he rejoined the council in 1849 and was appointed Treasurer in 1860, President in 1868. In his will Grote left ₤6000 as an endowment for the Chair of Philosophy of Mind and he went abroad in 1830, and spent some months in Paris with the Liberal leaders.
Recalled by his fathers death, he became manager of the bank, after serving in three parliaments, he resigned in 1841, by which time his party had dwindled away. In 1846 the first two volumes of the History appeared, and the remaining ten between 1847 and the spring of 1856, in 1845, with William Molesworth and Raikes Currie, he gave money to Auguste Comte, in financial difficulties. The formation of the Sonderbund led him to visit Switzerland and study for himself a condition of things in some sense analogous to that of the ancient Greek states
William Edward Forster
William Edward Forster PC, FRS was an English industrialist and Liberal Party statesman. His staunch advocacy of force against the Land League earned him the nickname Buckshot Forster. He declined to enter a brewery and became involved in manufacture in Burley-in-Wharfedale. In 1850 he married Jane Martha, eldest daughter of Dr Thomas Arnold and she was not a Quaker and Forster was formally read out of meeting for marrying her, but the Friends who were commissioned to announce the sentence shook hands and stayed to luncheon. Forster thereafter ranked himself as a member of the Church of England, the Forsters had no natural children, but when Mrs Forsters brother, W. D. Arnold, died in 1859, leaving four orphans, the Forsters adopted them as their own. One of the children was H. O. Arnold-Forster, a Liberal Unionist member of parliament, another was Florence Arnold-Forster, who wrote a journal about family life and politics in the 1880s. In 1846–47, he accompanied his father to Ireland as distributor of the Friends relief fund for the famine in Connemara, and he began to take an active part in public affairs by speaking and lecturing.
In 1859, Forster stood as Liberal candidate for Leeds, and he was highly esteemed in the West Riding, and in 1861 was returned unopposed for Bradford. He was returned again in 1865 and in 1868 and he took a prominent part in parliament in the debates on the American Civil War, and in 1865 was made Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies in Lord John Russells ministry. It was that he first became a prominent advocate of imperial federation, in 1866, his attitude on parliamentary reform attracted attention. Directly after the Reform Bill had passed and Edward Cardwell brought in Education Bills in 1867 and 1868, in 1868, when the Liberal party returned to office, Forster was appointed Vice-president of the Council, with the duty of preparing a government measure for national education. The Elementary Education Bill was introduced on 17 February 1870 and school boards were set up with elected representatives the same year where possible, the religious difficulty at once came to the front. The Dissenters were not satisfied with Forsters conscience clause as contained in the bill, and they regarded him and they resented the 25th clause, permitting school boards to pay the fees of needy children at denominational schools out of the rates, as an insidious attack on their interests.
The government made its rejection a question of confidence, and the amendment was withdrawn, the bill of 1870, imperfect as it was, established at last some approach to a system of national education in England. Forsters next important work was in passing the Ballot Act 1872, in 1874, he was again returned for Bradford. In 1875, when Gladstone retired, Forster was strongly supported for the leadership of the Liberal party, in the same year he was elected to the Royal Society, and made Lord Rector of Aberdeen University. In 1876, when the Eastern question was looming, he visited Serbia and Turkey, on Gladstones return to office in 1880, he was made Chief Secretary for Ireland. He carried the Compensation for Disturbance Bill through the Commons, only to see it out in the Lords
Royal Academy of Arts
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through an act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation, fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain was based on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works. From 1746 the Foundling Hospital, through the efforts of William Hogarth, the success of this venture led to the formation of the Society of Artists of Great Britain and the Free Society of Artists. Both these groups were primarily exhibiting societies, their success was marred by internal factions among the artists. The combined vision of education and exhibition to establish a school of art set the Royal Academy apart from the other exhibiting societies. It provided the foundation upon which the Royal Academy came to dominate the art scene of the 18th and 19th centuries, supplanting the earlier art societies.
Sir William Chambers, a prominent architect, used his connections with George III to gain royal patronage and financial support of the Academy, the painter Joshua Reynolds was made its first president. Francis Milner Newton was elected the first secretary, a post he held for two decades until his resignation in 1788, the instrument of foundation, signed by George III on 10 December 1768, named 34 founder members and allowed for a total membership of 40. William Hoare and Johann Zoffany were added to this list by the King and are known as nominated members, among the founder members were two women, a father and daughter, and two sets of brothers. The Royal Academy was initially housed in cramped quarters in Pall Mall, although in 1771 it was given temporary accommodation for its library and schools in Old Somerset House, a royal palace. In 1780 it was installed in purpose-built apartments in the first completed wing of New Somerset House, located in the Strand and designed by Chambers, the Academy moved in 1837 to Trafalgar Square, where it occupied the east wing of the recently completed National Gallery.
These premises soon proved too small to house both institutions, in 1868,100 years after the Academys foundation, it moved to Burlington House, where it remains. Burlington House is owned by the British Government, and used rent-free by the Royal Academy, the first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, opened on 25 April 1769 and ran until 27 May 1769. 136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 the Academy expanded its programme to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters. The range and frequency of these exhibitions have grown enormously since that time. Britains first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, led by Reynolds, the first president, a program included lectures by Dr. William Hunter, John Flaxman, James Barry, Sir John Soane, and J. M. W. Turner
James Anthony Froude
James Anthony Froude FRSE was an English historian, novelist and editor of Frasers Magazine. Froude turned to writing history, becoming one of the best known historians of his time for his History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada. Inspired by Thomas Carlyle, Froudes historical writings were often fiercely polemical, Froude continued to be controversial up until his death for his Life of Carlyle, which he published along with personal writings of Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle. These publications illuminated Carlyles often selfish personality, and led to persistent gossip and he was the son of Robert Hurrell Froude, archdeacon of Totnes, and his wife Margaret Spedding. James Anthony was born at Dartington, Devon on 23 April 1818 and he was the youngest of eight children, including engineer and naval architect William Froude and Anglo-Catholic polemicist Richard Hurrell Froude, who was fifteen years his elder. He studied at Westminster School from age 11 until 15, where he was bullied and tormented.
Despite his unhappiness and his failure in education, Froude cherished the classics and read widely in history. Beginning in 1836, he was educated at Oriel College, here Froude began to thrive personally and intellectually, motivated to succeed by a brief engagement in 1839. He obtained a second degree in 1840 and travelled to Delgany. He returned to Oxford in 1842, won the Chancellors English essay prize for an essay on political economy, Froudes brother Richard Hurrell had been one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement, a group which advocated a Catholic rather than a Protestant interpretation of the Anglican Church. Froude grew up hearing the conversation and ideas of his brother with friends John Henry Newman and John Keble, during his time at Oxford and Ireland, Froude became increasingly dissatisfied with the Movement. Froudes experience living with an Evangelical clergyman in Ireland conflicted with the Movements characterisation of Protestantism and he increasingly turned to the unorthodox religious views of writers such as Spinoza, David Friedrich Strauss, Emerson and especially Thomas Carlyle.
Froude retained a favourable impression of Newman, defending him in the controversy over Tract 90, Froude agreed to contribute to Newmans Lives of the English Saints, choosing Saint Neot as his subject. However, he found himself unable to credit the accounts of Neot or any saint, ultimately considering them mythical rather than historical. Nevertheless, Froude was ordained deacon in 1845, initially intending to reform the church from within. However, he found his situation untenable, although he never lost his faith in God or Christianity. The Nemesis of Faith in particular raised a storm of controversy, being burned at Exeter College by William Sewell. Froude took refuge from the popular outcry by residing with his friend Charles Kingsley at Ilfracombe and his plight won him the sympathy of kindred spirits, such as George Eliot, Elizabeth Gaskell, and Mrs. Humphrey Ward
Baron Ashburton, of Ashburton in the County of Devon, is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of Great Britain and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since 1835, the title has held by members of the Baring family. The first creation came in the Peerage of Great Britain 1782 in favour of the barrister and Whig politician and this creation became extinct in 1823 on the death of his son, the second Baron. The title was revived in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1835 for the financier and he was the first cousin of the last holder of the 1782 creation. Lord Ashburton was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Baron and he held office in the second Tory administration of Sir Robert Peel. His younger brother, the third Baron, represented Thetford in the House of Commons, the town of Ashburton, New Zealand is named after him. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the fourth Baron and he sat as Member of Parliament for Thetford. His son, Francis Baring, succeeded as the fifth Baron in 1889, the fifth Baron was married twice, his second wife, Frances Donnelley, having been one of Broadways celebrated Florodora sextet in New York.
His only son, Alexander Baring, the sixth Baron, was a member of the Hampshire County Council, as of 2009 the title is held by the latters son, the seventh Baron. As a descendant of Sir Francis Baring, 1st Baronet, he is in remainder to this title, both the 6th and the 7th Barons were appointed Knights of the Garter. The Hon. Guy Baring, younger son of the fourth Baron, was a soldier and his son Giles Baring was a successful cricketer. The family seat is The Grange, near Northington, Arms, Bendy sinister of eight or and vert, overall a lion rampant sable. Crest, On a wreath, an antelopes head couped proper, supporters, Two antelopes proper, attired and charged on the breast with an acorn slipped proper, and gorged with collars, bendy of eight, or and vert. Motto, Studiis et rebus honestis Arms, Azure, on a fess or a cross pattée fitchée of the first in chief a bears head couped proper muzzled and gorged of the second, crest, A five rays star Erminois between two wings Argent. The heir apparents heir apparent is his son Frederick Charles Francis Baring, Baron Northbrook Baron Revelstoke Earl of Cromer Baron Howick of Glendale Kidd, Williamson, David.
New York, St Martins Press,1990, Leigh Rayments Peerage Pages Baring
Sir Henry Cole was a British civil servant and inventor who facilitated many innovations in commerce and education in 19th century in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Cole is credited with devising the concept of sending greetings cards at Christmas time, Henry Cole was born in Bath the son of Captain Henry Robert Cole, of the 1st Dragoon Guards, and his wife Lætitia Dormer. He was sent in 1817 to Christs Hospital, and upon leaving school in 1823 became clerk to Francis Palgrave, Cole was employed in transcribing records, but found time to study water-colour painting under David Cox, and exhibited sketches at the Royal Academy. He lived with his father in a house belonging to the novelist Thomas Love Peacock, Cole drew for him, helped him in writing critiques of musical performances, and was introduced by him to John Stuart Mill, Charles Buller, and George Grote. The friends used to meet at Grotes house in Threadneedle Street for discussions twice a week, a new Record Commission was issued in 1831, and in 1833 Cole was appointed a sub-commissioner.
The secretary, Charles Purton Cooper, quarrelled with the commission, and with Cole, who applied to Charles Buller for protection. A committee of the House of Commons was appointed upon Bullers motion in 1836, which reported against the system. Cole wrote many articles in support of Buller and he was appointed by Lord Langdale, who, as Master of the Rolls, administered the affairs of the commission, to take charge of the records of the exchequer of pleas. The record office was constituted in 1838 under the Public Record Office Act 1838 and he ranged a large mass of records in the Carlton House Riding School, where he was placed for the purpose 2 November 1841. His reports upon the unsuitability of this contributed to bring about the erection of the building in Fetter Lane. Coles duties at the office did not absorb his whole energy. In 1838, with the leave of his superiors, he became secretary to a committee for promoting postal reform and he edited their organ, the Post Circular, suggested by himself, of which the first number appeared 14 March 1838.
He got up petitions and meetings with such energy that Cobden offered to him in 1839 the secretaryship of the Anti-Cornlaw League, parliament granted power to carry out the new postal scheme in August 1839, and the treasury offered premiums for the best proposals as to stamps. Cole gained one of the premiums, he attended the treasury to discuss details, from 1837 to 1840, he worked as an assistant to Rowland Hill and played a key role in the introduction of the Penny Post. He is sometimes credited with the design of the worlds first postage stamp, in 1843, Cole introduced the worlds first commercial Christmas card, commissioning artist John Callcott Horsley to make the artwork. Through his membership of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, the backing of Prince Albert was secured, and in 1847 a royal charter was granted to the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce. Under the patronage of Prince Albert, Cole organised a successful Exhibition of Art Manufactures in 1847, Cole visited the 1849 11th Quinquennial Paris Exhibition and noticed the lack of an exhibition open to international participants.
As one of the Commissioners, Cole was instrumental in the decision that the £186,000 surplus from the Great Exhibition would be used for improving science and art education in the United Kingdom
Charles Babbage KH FRS was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher and mechanical engineer, Babbage is best remembered for originating the concept of a programmable computer. His varied work in other fields has led him to be described as pre-eminent among the many polymaths of his century, parts of Babbages uncompleted mechanisms are on display in the Science Museum in London. In 1991, a perfectly functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbages original plans, built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbages machine would have worked. Babbages birthplace is disputed, but according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography he was most likely born at 44 Crosby Row, Walworth Road, London, a blue plaque on the junction of Larcom Street and Walworth Road commemorates the event. His date of birth was given in his obituary in The Times as 26 December 1792, the parish register of St. Marys Newington, shows that Babbage was baptised on 6 January 1792, supporting a birth year of 1791.
Babbage was one of four children of Benjamin Babbage and Betsy Plumleigh Teape and his father was a banking partner of William Praed in founding Praeds & Co. of Fleet Street, London, in 1801. In 1808, the Babbage family moved into the old Rowdens house in East Teignmouth, around the age of eight, Babbage was sent to a country school in Alphington near Exeter to recover from a life-threatening fever. For a short time he attended King Edward VI Grammar School in Totnes, South Devon, Babbage joined the 30-student Holmwood academy, in Baker Street, Middlesex, under the Reverend Stephen Freeman. The academy had a library that prompted Babbages love of mathematics and he studied with two more private tutors after leaving the academy. The first was a clergyman near Cambridge, through him Babbage encountered Charles Simeon and his evangelical followers and he was brought home, to study at the Totnes school, this was at age 16 or 17. The second was an Oxford tutor, under whom Babbage reached a level in Classics sufficient to be accepted by Cambridge, Babbage arrived at Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1810.
He was already self-taught in some parts of mathematics, he had read in Robert Woodhouse, Joseph Louis Lagrange. As a result, he was disappointed in the standard mathematical instruction available at the university, John Herschel, George Peacock, and several other friends formed the Analytical Society in 1812, they were close to Edward Ryan. In 1812 Babbage transferred to Peterhouse, Cambridge and he was the top mathematician there, but did not graduate with honours. He instead received a degree without examination in 1814 and he had defended a thesis that was considered blasphemous in the preliminary public disputation, but it is not known whether this fact is related to his not sitting the examination. Considering his reputation, Babbage quickly made progress and he lectured to the Royal Institution on astronomy in 1815, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1816. After graduation, on the hand, he applied for positions unsuccessfully
Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell, often referred to as Mrs Gaskell, was an English novelist and short story writer. Her novels offer a portrait of the lives of many strata of Victorian society, including the very poor. Her first novel, Mary Barton, was published in 1848, Gaskells The Life of Charlotte Brontë, published in 1857, was the first biography of Brontë. Some of Gaskells best known novels are Cranford and South, Gaskell was born Elizabeth Cleghorn Stevenson on 29 September 1810 in Lindsey Row, Chelsea, at the house which is now 93 Cheyne Walk. She was the youngest of eight children, only she and her brother John survived infancy and that position did not materialise and instead Stevenson was nominated Keeper of the Treasury Records. While she was growing up, Elizabeths future was uncertain, as she had no wealth and no firm home, though she was a permanent guest at her aunt. Her father married Catherine Thomson in 1814 and they had a son, although Elizabeth spent several years without seeing her father, to whom she was devoted, her older brother John often visited her in Knutsford.
John was destined for the Royal Navy from an age, like his grandfathers and uncles. John went missing in 1827 during an expedition to India, a beautiful young woman, Elizabeth was well-groomed, tidily dressed, kind and considerate of others. Her temperament was calm and collected and innocent, she revelled in the simplicity of rural life, much of Elizabeths childhood was spent in Cheshire, where she lived with her aunt Hannah Lumb in Knutsford, the town she immortalised as Cranford. They lived in a large house called Sandlebridge that overlooked the township of Alderley Edge. Her aunts gave her the classics to read, and she was encouraged by her father in her studies and her brother John sent her modern books, and descriptions of his life at sea and his experiences abroad. Seeking new experiences she opened her mind to the solace of nature, on other occasions when her cousins came to play she found consolation in young friendships. Exploring the green hollows, old shady glades of ruined cottages, she collected wild flowers and her favourite plant the Saxifrage is now extinct, but the pleasure natural things brought reflected clearly in her literary observations.
Sandlebridge was demolished before 1900, only its chimney remained, there among the visitors and cousinage she played shuffleboard on the kitchen table. A young Elizabeth would go shopping to a woman in Knutsford, church House was directly accessible in Cranford with its high walls and garden walks. She generated confidence and self-respect from the country life and her family regularly visited the Royal George Hotel, which impressed upon her a sensibility for the subtler points of architecture. Led by an interpreter Gaskell told Anne Thackeray Ritchie how like Cranford it was and she learnt from Lord Clive that his mother was a Gaskell and a friend of the whiggish Holland set
National Portrait Gallery, London
The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people. It was the first portrait gallery in the world when it opened in 1856, the gallery moved in 1896 to its current site at St Martins Place, off Trafalgar Square, and adjoining the National Gallery. It has been expanded twice since then, the National Portrait Gallery has regional outposts at Beningbrough Hall in Yorkshire and Montacute House in Somerset. It is unconnected to the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh, the gallery is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. The gallery houses portraits of important and famous British people, selected on the basis of the significance of the sitter. The collection includes photographs and caricatures as well as paintings, one of its best-known images is the Chandos portrait, the most famous portrait of William Shakespeare although there is some uncertainty about whether the painting actually is of the playwright.
Not all of the portraits are exceptional artistically, although there are self-portraits by William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, such as the group portrait of the participants in the Somerset House Conference of 1604, are important historical documents in their own right. Portraits of living figures were allowed from 1969, the three people largely responsible for the founding of the National Portrait Gallery are commemorated with busts over the main entrance. At centre is Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, with his supporters on either side, Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay and it was Stanhope who, in 1846 as a Member of Parliament, first proposed the idea of a National Portrait Gallery. It was not until his attempt, in 1856, this time from the House of Lords. With Queen Victorias approval, the House of Commons set aside a sum of £2000 to establish the gallery, as well as Stanhope and Macaulay, the founder Trustees included Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Ellesmere. It was the latter who donated the Chandos portrait to the nation as the gallerys first portrait, Carlyle became a trustee after the death of Ellesmere in 1857.
For the first 40 years, the gallery was housed in locations in London. The first 13 years were spent at 29 Great George Street, the collection increased in size from 57 to 208 items, and the number of visitors from 5,300 to 34,500. In 1869, the moved to Exhibition Road and buildings managed by the Royal Horticultural Society. Following a fire in buildings, the collection was moved in 1885. This location was unsuitable due to its distance from the West End, condensation. Following calls for a new location to be found, the government accepted an offer of funds from the philanthropist William Henry Alexander, Alexander donated £60,000 followed by another £20,000, and chose the architect, Ewan Christian