Ashton upon Mersey
Ashton upon Mersey is an area of the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford, Greater Manchester, with a population of 9,693 at the 2011 census. It lies on the south bank of the River Mersey, 5 miles south of Manchester city centre. Part of Cheshire, it became an urban district in 1895 under the Local Government Act 1894. In 1930, the Ashton upon Mersey urban district was abolished and the area became a part of the urban district of Sale. A 4th century hoard of 46 Roman coins was discovered and is one of four known hoards dating from that period discovered within the Mersey basin. In the 18th century, it was thought that Ashton upon Mersey might have been the site of Fines Miaimae et Flaviae, a Roman station next to the River Mersey. However, this was based on the De Situ Britanniae, a manuscript forged by Charles Bertram, there is no evidence to suggest any such station existed. "Ashton" is Old English for "village or farm near the ash trees", suggesting that Ashton upon Mersey is of Anglo-Saxon origin.
The township is first mentioned in 1260. The poet Lascelles Abercrombie was born in Ashton upon Mersey. Karl Pilkington, the author and radio and TV personality, attended Ashton-on-Mersey School. Andy Rourke of the Smiths and Chris Sievey, better known as Frank Sidebottom, are from Ashton upon Mersey. Listed buildings in Sale, Greater Manchester Notes Bibliography
Sale, Greater Manchester
Sale is a town in Trafford, Greater Manchester, England. In Cheshire, it is on the south bank of the River Mersey, 1.9 miles south of Stretford, 2.5 miles northeast of Altrincham, 5.2 miles southwest of Manchester. In 2011, it had a population of 134,122. According to a 2017 study commissioned by the Royal Mail, Sale was found to be the 4th most desirable town to reside in England. Evidence of Stone Age and Anglo-Saxon activity has been discovered locally. In the Middle Ages, Sale was a rural township, linked ecclesiastically with neighbouring Ashton upon Mersey, whose fields and meadows were used for crop and cattle farming. By the 17th century, Sale had a cottage industry manufacturing garthweb, the woven material from which horses' saddle girths were made; the Bridgewater Canal reached the town in 1765. The arrival of the railway in 1849 triggered Sale's growth as a commuter town for Manchester, leading to an influx of middle class residents. Agriculture declined as service industries boomed.
Sale's urban growth resulted in a merger with neighbouring Ashton upon Mersey, following the Local Government Act 1929. The increase in population led to the granting of a charter in 1935, giving Sale honorific borough status. Since Sale has continued to thrive as a commuter town, supported by its proximity to the M60 motorway and the Manchester Metrolink network. Sale Water Park contains an artificial lake used for water sports. Sale FC and Sale Sharks rugby union clubs and Sale Harriers athletics club were founded in Sale, although only the first now remains in the town at their Heywood Road ground. A flint arrowhead discovered in Sale suggests a prehistoric human presence at the location, but there is no further evidence of activity in the area until the Roman period. A 4th-century hoard of 46 Roman coins was discovered in Ashton upon Mersey, one of four known hoards dating from that period discovered within the Mersey basin. Sale lies along the line of the Roman road which runs between the fortresses at Chester and York, via the fort at Manchester.
After the Roman departure from Britain in the early-5th century, Britain was invaded by the Anglo-Saxons. Some local field and road names, the name of Sale itself, are Anglo-Saxon in origin, which indicates the town was founded in the 7th or 8th centuries; the Old English salh, from which "Sale" is derived, means "at the sallow tree", Ashton upon Mersey means "village or farm near the ash trees". Although the townships of Sale and Ashton upon Mersey were not mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, that may be because only a partial survey was taken; the first recorded occurrences of Sale and Ashton upon Mersey are in 1199–1216 and 1260 respectively. The settlements were referred to as townships rather than manors, which suggests further evidence of Anglo-Saxon origins as townships were developed by the Saxons; the manor of Sale was one of 30 held by William FitzNigel, a powerful 12th century baron in north Cheshire. He divided it between Thomas de Sale and Adam de Carrington, who acted as Lords of the Manor on FitzNigel's behalf.
On de Sale's death, his land passed to John Holt. Sale descended through the Holt and Massey families until the 17th century, when their respective lands were sold. Sale Old Hall was built in about 1603 for James Massey to replace a medieval manor house, was one of the first buildings in northwest England to be made of brick, it was rebuilt in 1840 and demolished in 1920, but two buildings in its grounds have survived: its dovecote, now in Walkden Gardens, its lodge, the latter now occupied by Sale Golf Club. In 1745, Crossford Bridge – which dated back to at least 1367 – was torn down, it was one of a series of bridges crossing the River Mersey destroyed by order of the government, to slow the advance of Jacobite forces during the Jacobite rising. The Jacobites repaired the bridge upon reaching Manchester, used it to send a small force into Sale and Altrincham, their intention was to deceive the authorities into believing that the Jacobites were heading for Chester. The feint was successful and the main Jacobite army marched south through Cheadle and Stockport instead.
The extension of the Bridgewater Canal to Runcorn was completed as far as Sale by 1765, transformed the town's economy by providing a quick and cheap route into Manchester for fresh produce. Farmers who took their wares to market in Manchester brought back night soil to fertilise the fields. Not everyone benefited from the canal however. A 1777 map shows the village of Cross Street, on the site of the road now of the same name, divided between the townships of Sale and Ashton upon Mersey; the village is believed to have originated around this time. The map shows that Sale was spread out consisting of farmhouses around Dane Road, Fairy Lane, Old Hall Road. Sale absorbed Cross Street. About 300 acres of "wasteland" known as Sale Moor was enclosed in 1807, to be divided between the landowners in Sale; this was part of a nationwide initiative to begin cultivation of common land to lessen the food shortage caused by the Napoleonic Wars. Records of poor relief in the town start in 1808, a time when the region was in the grip of an economic depression.
Poorhouses, where paupers could stay rent-free, were built in the early-19th century, reflectin
Sir Ernest Joseph Soares, of 36 Princes Gate, of Upcott House in the parish of Pilton, near Barnstaple in North Devon, was a British solicitor and Liberal politician. Soares was the son of José Luís Xavier Soares, a Liverpool merchant of Indian origin tracing his roots to Ucassaim, Goa in Portuguese India. Prior to conversion to Christianity the family were Gaud Saraswat Brahmins with the surname Gaitonde, he was educated at St John's College, where he read law. He was a partner in Allen and Soares, solicitors, of Manchester. In 1900 he was elected to the House of Commons for Barnstaple, rented Upcott House, where he was resident in 1901, a large white stucco Georgian mansion one mile from the centre of Barnstaple and a prominent landmark for the voters and inhabitants of that town, from Sir William Robert Williams, 3rd Baronet of nearby Heanton Court, he served in the Liberal administration of H. H. Asquith as a Junior Lord of the Treasury from 1910 to 1911; the latter year failing health forced him to resign his seat in the House of Commons.
He was knighted the same year. When Soares was working as a solicitor in Manchester and residing at Woodheys, on Washway Road, in Ashton upon Mersey, he married Kate Lord, daughter of his near-neighbour Samuel Lord, the British-born American retail millionaire and founder of Lord & Taylor today the oldest luxury department store in the United States. Lord was born in Saddleworth and emigrated to America in about 1821. Having retired from managing his retail empire, in 1866 he returned to England and resided at Oakleigh, on The Avenue in Ashton upon Mersey. Lord left nine million dollars at his death. By his wife Soares had one daughter and only child: Kate Soares, who married Captain Walter Bell, MC, known as Karamojo Bell, the Scottish adventurer and African big game hunter, he died in Mayfair, London, in March 1926, aged 61. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Biography of Sir Ernest Soares at The Luso Pages Profiles of Eminent Goans and Present. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Ernest Soares
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.
Saddleworth is a civil parish of the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham in Greater Manchester, England. It comprises hamlets as well as suburbs of Oldham. Amongst the west side of the Pennine hills: Austerlands, Denshaw, Dobcross, Grasscroft, Grotton, Scouthead, Uppermill. Saddleworth lies 11 miles northeast of Manchester, it is broadly rural and had a population of 25,460 at the 2011 Census, making it one of the larger civil parishes in the United Kingdom. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, for centuries Saddleworth was a centre of woollen cloth production in the domestic system. Following the Industrial Revolution, in the 18th and 19th centuries, Saddleworth became a centre for cotton spinning and weaving. By the end of Queen Victoria's reign, mechanised textile production had become a vital part of the local economy; the Royal George Mill, owned by the Whitehead family, manufactured felt used for pianofortes, billiard tables and flags. Following the Great Depression Saddleworth's textile sector declined.
Much of Saddleworth's architecture and infrastructure dates from its textile processing days however, notably the Saddleworth Viaduct and several cottages and terraces, many built by the local mill owners. For centuries Saddleworth was linked, with the parish of Rochdale and was long talked of as the part of Yorkshire where Lancastrians lived; the former Saddleworth Urban District was the only part of the West Riding to have been amalgamated into Greater Manchester in 1974. However, strong cultural links with Yorkshire remain amongst its communities. There are several brass bands in the parish; the first documentary evidence of Saddleworth appears in the Domesday Book in which it is referred to as "Quick", spelt "Thoac". Place names derived from Celtic and Anglian dialects, along with the discovery of flint arrowheads and gold Viking rings all point to a much earlier Saddleworth as old as the Stone Age. A Roman road from Chester to York passed through the area. Castleshaw Roman fort was built to patrol the local section of the road.
The first fort on the site was an Agricolan period fort, built in turf and timber c. AD 79; this was refurbished soon after construction and abandoned c. AD 95. Within the south eastern half of the fort, a fortlet was constructed in turf and timber, c. AD 105; this was redeveloped during its brief occupation and abandoned again in c. AD 125. In the Saddleworth area is a bowl barrow, which may be Bronze Age, located at:-. Despite excavations, no grave goods or human remains have been found in the barrow; the steep slopes of the Saddleworth area and the acidic soils of the region have never been conducive to intensive farming. Small, basic mills had been existent in Saddleworth before the industrial revolution, but these were replaced by larger more intensive establishments. By the end of Queen Victoria's reign, mechanised textile production had become a vital part of the local economy; the boom in industry that had occurred in Saddleworth during the Industrial Revolution called for greater transport links.
Construction of the Huddersfield Narrow Canal was begun in 1794, at the height of Canal Mania, connecting Huddersfield to Stalybridge via Saddleworth and completed seventeen years in 1811. The decline of canals and the rise of steam powered locomotives left the canal falling behind the competition, so it was decided that a railway tunnel would be built parallel to the canal, completed in 1848; the rise in traffic demanded a second tunnel be built, completed in 1871. Both of these were single line tunnels and superseded by the 1894 tunnel, a double line tunnel, the only one of the three still carrying passengers; the three brothers, Ralph Radcliffe Whitehead, James Heywood Whitehead and Francis Frederick Whitehead, were philanthropic and amongst other bequests in the 1850s built Christ Church in Friezland along with the Parsonage and Headmaster's house. The land on which these were built was purchased in 1849 from L. & N. W. Railway Company; the Church School has been rebuilt and the Parsonage and grounds, built in the Gothic Revival style, has become a Grade II listed building, now in private hands.
The boom in industry called for greater transport links, including the Huddersfield Narrow Canal and several railways. Unlike the majority of the Oldham Metropolitan Borough, where the industrial architecture was constructed from Accrington redbrick, Saddleworth's textiles mills and supporting infrastructure was made from the local millstone grit; this is in keeping with other settlements amongst the southwest Pennines, such as Milnrow near Rochdale. Although on the western side of the Pennine watershed, Saddleworth, or'Quick' as it was once known, has lain within the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire since the middle ages. From a ancient time, the area formed part of the Agbrigg Wapentake, in the "Land of the King in Eurvicsire". For a time, during the 17th century, Saddleworth constituted a chapelry within the ancient parish of Rochdale in Salfordshire, otherwise in the ancient county of Lancashire. In 1866 it became a civil parish in its own right and in 1889 became part of the administrative county of the West Riding of Yorkshire.
In 1894 the parish's boundaries were
Lord & Taylor
Lord & Taylor is a department store in the United States, the oldest department store in the country. Headquartered in New York City, it is a subsidiary of the oldest commercial corporation in North America, the Hudson's Bay Company. Lord & Taylor has 45 locations, four L&T outlets. English-born Samuel Lord started a dry goods business in New York in 1824, opened the original store that would become Lord & Taylor in 1826, on Catherine Street; the shop stocked hosiery, misses' wear, cashmere shawls. His cousin, George Washington Taylor, joined in 1834, the store was named Lord & Taylor. James S. Taylor, Lord's brother-in-law, replaced George Taylor in 1845 and the store moved to Grand and Chrystie Streets in 1854. In 1860, they opened a second store on Broadway at Grand Street. Lord retired in 1862. In 1870, the Broadway store moved a mile uptown, to a new cast-iron building at Broadway and 20th Street, in the area known as the "Ladies' Mile"; the new store expanded around 1890 by annexing a building to east.
The downtown store continued to function, expanded through to Forsyth Street, advertised until at least 1887 as a new building. Samuel Lord's estate sold the Grand Street store in 1901; the Starrett & van Vleck-designed Fifth Avenue store and headquarters opened between 38th and 39th streets on February 24, 1914. The Broadway store was sold, on March 26; the Fifth Avenue store became a New York City Landmark on October 30, 2007. A founding unit of Associated Dry Goods, Lord & Taylor was considered to be its "crown jewel"; when the May Company acquired ADG in 1986, it was assumed that May bought it just for the luxury division. In 1945, Dorothy Shaver became the first woman to head a major retail establishment in the United States as president of Lord & Taylor; as vice president working with the well-known design firm of Raymond Loewy Associates, she opened what is credited as the first branch store, in Manhasset, New York. Unlike earlier forays into the suburbs that consisted of smaller boutique-style shops, this was a merchandising effort that became the model for modern suburban shopping.
The store consisted of 66 individual shops. Lord & Taylor's relationship with Raymond Loewy Associates continued until 1969, following the construction of the Stamford, store. Many of Lord & Taylor's special services, including personal shoppers, were introduced while Shaver presided. During this period she introduced the Andrew Geller hand written logo and the American Beauty Rose as icons of the store. Shaver died in 1959. William J. Lippincott was elected chairman and chief executive in 1972, his obituary in The New York Times read: "In his years as president and chairman, Lord & Taylor moved beyond its traditional territory in the northeast to open stores in Atlanta and Dallas and four stores in Illinois." A management shakeup ousted him in 1976. Under the leadership of CEO Joseph E. Brooks during the 1970s, the company aggressively expanded into Texas and Michigan; the chain withdrew from the oil-shocked Texas and southern Florida markets in 1989–1990 after its 1986 acquisition by May. Under May, the majority of the upscale Hahne & Co.
Wanamaker's, Woodward & Lothrop chains were converted to Lord & Taylor. Jane Elfers became Lord & Taylor's second female president in June 2000. Former Neiman Marcus executive, Brendan Hoffman replaced her in October 2008, when Elfer's contract had expired. A third female president, Bonnie Brooks, took over in 2011, a fourth female president, Liz Rodbell, took over in 2013. Federated Department Stores, now Macy's Inc, acquired May Department Stores on August 30, 2005. On January 12, 2006, Federated chairman, CEO Terry Lundgren announced that Lord & Taylor would be sold by the end of the year. In a move that took advantage of valuable real estate, Federated announced on March 10, 2006, that seven conflicting Lord & Taylor locations would either close or downscale into Macy's; the legendary Center City, Philadelphia store, former flagship of the John Wanamaker chain, opened after a one-month renovation as Macy's City Center on August 1, 2006. On June 22, 2006, NRDC Equity Partners, LLC announced it would purchase Lord & Taylor for $1.2 billion after Federated converted and closed the seven locations that it announced were closing.
Federated continued to service Lord & Taylor consumer credit accounts in an agreement with NRDC under the terms of its sale until mid-2007. On July 16, 2008, NRDC Equity Partners announced that it had purchased the 338-year-old Hudson's Bay Company for an undisclosed price, with the intention of expanding internationally, positioned Lord & Taylor under HBC; the combined HBC, as of February 2018, consists of Hudson's Bay and Home Outfitters in Canada, Galeria Kaufhof in Germany, Lord & Taylor and Saks Fifth Avenue in the United States. HBC committed to spend an additional $250 million upgrading stores; the Fifth Avenue flagship store received a $150 million update in 2010. In March 2017, Lord & Taylor partnered with Brideside to launch an in-store bridal shop. In April 2017, Lord & Taylor completed a $12 million renovation plan at the Fifth Avenue store, however in October 2017 they announced that they were selling the building to WeWork for $850 million. In February 2019 the sale completed for $725 million in cash and the remainder in equity, forming a joint venture with Lord & Taylor was minority owners.
On April 1, 2018 the Hudson Bay Company gave notice of a theft of customers credit and debit cards due to a hacking incident. A hacking group, known as JokerStash or Fin7, was attempting to sell the information from f
Barnstaple (UK Parliament constituency)
Barnstaple was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Barnstaple in Devon, in the South West of England. It returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until 1885, when its representation was reduced to a single member; the constituency was created in 1295, abolished for the 1950 general election. The town of Barnstaple is today represented by the North Devon constituency. 1885–1918: The Municipal Boroughs of Barnstaple and Bideford, the Sessional Divisions of Bideford and Braunton. 1918–1950: The Municipal Boroughs of Barnstaple and Bideford, the Urban Districts of Ilfracombe and Northam, the Rural Districts of Barnstaple and Bideford. The election was declared due to bribery, causing a by-election. Laurie's election was declared due to bribery, causing a by-election. Prinsep withdrew from the election during polling. Potts' death caused a by-election. On petition, Lloyd's election was declared void due to bribery and, on 15 April 1864, Bremridge was declared elected.
Waddy resigned in order to contest Sheffield, causing a by-election. General election 1914/15: Another general election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. General election 1939/40: Another general election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected.