A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
History of opium in China
The history of opium in China began with the use of opium for medicinal purposes during the 7th century. In the 17th century the practice of mixing opium with tobacco for smoking spread from Southeast Asia, creating a far greater demand. Imports of opium into China stood at 200 chests annually in 1729, when the first anti-opium edict was promulgated. By the time Chinese authorities reissued the prohibition in starker terms in 1799, the figure had leaped; the decade of the 1830s witnessed a rapid rise in opium trade, by 1838, just before the First Opium War, it had climbed to 40,000 chests. The rise continued on after the Treaty of Nanking. By 1858 annual imports had risen to 70,000 chests equivalent to global production of opium for the decade surrounding the year 2000. By the late 19th century Chinese domestic opium production challenged and surpassed imports; the 20th century opened with effective campaigns to suppress domestic farming, in 1907 the British government signed a treaty to eliminate imports.
The fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911, led to a resurgence in domestic production. By the 1930s the Nationalist Government, provincial governments, the revolutionary bases of the Communist Party of China, the British colonial government of Hong Kong all depended on opium taxes as major sources of revenue, as did the Japanese occupation governments during the Second Sino-Japanese War. After 1949, both the respective governments of the People's Republic of China on the mainland and of the Republic of China on Taiwan claimed to have suppressed the widespread growth and use of opium. In fact, revealed that the opium products were still in production in Xinjiang and Northeast China with a special name called "special goods. Historical accounts suggest that opium first arrived in China during the Tang dynasty as part of the merchandise of Arab traders. On, Song Dynasty poet and pharmacologist Su Dongpo recorded the use of opium as a medicinal herb: "Daoists persuade you to drink the jisu water, but a child can prepare the yingsu soup."Initially used by medical practitioners to control bodily fluid and preserve qi or vital force, during the Ming dynasty, the drug functioned as an aphrodisiac or chunyao as Xu Boling records in his mid-fifteenth century Yingjing Juan: It is used to treat masculinity, strengthen sperm, regain vigour.
It enhances the art of alchemists and court ladies. Frequent use helps to cure the chronic diarrhea that causes the loss of energy... Its price equals that of gold. Ming rulers obtained opium via the tributary system, when it was known as wuxiang or "black spice"; the Collected Statutes of the Ming Dynasty record gifts to successive Ming emperors of up to 100 kilograms of wuxiang amongst tribute from the Kingdom of Siam, which included frankincense, costus root, ivory, rhino horn and peacock feathers. First listed as a taxable commodity in 1589, opium remained legal until the end of Ming dynasty, 1637. In the 16th century the Portuguese became aware of the lucrative medicinal and recreational trade of opium into China, from their factories across Asia chose to supply the Cantons, to satisfy both the medicinal and the recreational use of the drug. By 1729 emperor Yung-cheng had criminalised the new recreational smoking of opium in his empire. Following the 1764 Battle of Buxar, the British East India Company gained control of tax collection, along with the former Mughal emperors monopoly on the opium market, in the province of Bengal, this monopoly was formally incorporated into the company's activities via the East India Company Act, 1793..
The EIC was £28 million in debt as a result of the Indian war and the insatiable demand for Chinese tea in the UK market, which had to be paid for in silver. To redress the imbalance, the EIC began auctions of opium, offered in lieu of taxes, in Calcutta and saw its profits soar from the opium trade. Considering that importation of opium into China had been banned by Chinese law, the East India Company established an elaborate trading scheme relying on legal markets and leveraging illicit ones. British merchants carrying no opium would buy tea in Canton on credit, balance their debts by selling opium at auction in Calcutta. From there, the opium would reach the Chinese coast hidden aboard British ships. According to 19th Century sinologist Edward Parker, there were four types of opium smuggled into China from India: kung pan t'ou. A description of the cargo aboard Hercules at Lintin in July 1833 distinguished between "new" and "old" Patna, "new" and "old" Benares, Malwa; the "chests" contained small balls of opium that had originated in the Indian provinces of Bengal and Madras.
In 1797 the EIC further tightened its grip on the opium trade by enforcing direct trade between opium farmers and the British, ending the role of Bengali purchasing agents. British exports of opium to China grew from an estimated 15 long tons in 1730 to 75 long tons in 1773 shipped in over two thousand chests; the Qing dynasty Jiaqing Emperor issued an imperial decree banning imports of the drug in 1799. By 1804 the trade deficit with China had turned into a surplus, leading to seven million silver dollars going to India between 1806 and 1809. Meanwhile, Americans entered
Sir James Nicolas Sutherland Matheson, 1st Baronet, FRS, was a Scottish business man. Born in Shiness, Sutherland, Scotland, he was the son of Captain Donald Matheson, he attended the University of Edinburgh. He and William Jardine went on to co-found the Hong Kong-based trading conglomerate Jardine Matheson & Co. that became today's Jardine Matheson Holdings. After leaving university, Matheson spent two years in a London agency house before departing for Calcutta, India and a position in his uncle's trading firm, Mackintosh & Co. In 1807, Matheson was entrusted by his uncle with a letter to be delivered to the captain of a soon-to-depart British vessel, he forgot to deliver the missive and the vessel sailed without it. Incensed at his nephew's negligence, the uncle suggested that young James might be better off back in Britain, he went to engage a passage back home. However, a chance encounter with an old sea captain instead led to Matheson departing for Canton. Matheson first met William Jardine in Bombay in 1820.
The two men formed a partnership which included Hollingworth Magniac and Daniel Beale. At first the new firm dealt only with trade between Canton and Calcutta, at that time called the "country trade" but extended their business to London. In 1827 Alexander Matheson lent James a small hand press for the printing of the Canton Register which James founded as the first English language news sheet in China, edited by William Wightman Wood, an American from Philadelphia who would work for rival trading house Russell & Co. On 1 July 1832, Jardine and Company, a partnership, between William Jardine, James Matheson as senior partners, Hollingworth Magniac, Alexander Matheson, Jardine's nephew Andrew Johnstone, Matheson's nephew Hugh Matheson, John Abel Smith, Henry Wright, as the first partners was formed in Canton, took the Chinese name'Ewo'; the name was taken from the earlier Ewo Hong founded by Howqua which had an honest and upright reputation. In 1834, Parliament ended the monopoly of the British East India Company on trade between Britain and China.
Jardine and Company took this opportunity to fill the vacuum left by the East India Company. With its first voyage carrying tea, the Jardine ship Sarah left for England. Jardine Matheson began its transformation from a major commercial agent of the East India Company into the largest British trading Hong, or firm, in Asia from its base in Hong Kong. Jardine wanted the opium trade to expand in China and despatched Matheson to England to lobby the Government to press the Qing government to further open up trade. Matheson's mission proved unsuccessful and he was rebuked by the British Foreign Secretary the Duke of Wellington. In a report, Matheson complained to Jardine over being insulted by an "arrogant and stupid man". Matheson expressed his views plainly, contemporaneously describing, "... the Chinese a people characterised by a marvelous degree of imbecility, avarice and obstinacy..."Matheson returned to Asia in 1838 and the following year Jardine left for England to continue lobbying. Jardine's lobbying efforts proved more effective than his partner's and he succeeded in persuading the new British Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston to wage war on Qing China.
The subsequent First Opium War led to the Treaty of Nanking which allowed Jardine Matheson to expand from Canton to Hong Kong and Mainland China. After Jardine died a bachelor in 1843, his nephews David and Andrew Jardine assisted James Matheson in running the Hong as Tai-Pan. Matheson retired as Tai-Pan during the early 1840s and handed over to David Jardine, another nephew of Jardine. On 29 November 1834, Matheson became chairman of the newly formed "Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China"; the committee members represented a wide section of the business and missionary community in Canton: David Olyphant, William Wetmore, James Innes, Thomas Fox, Elijah Coleman Bridgman, Karl Gützlaff and John Robert Morrison. John Francis Davis, at that time chief superintendent of British trade in China, was made an honorary member. Matheson married Mary Jane Perceval on 9 November 1843, her father, Michael Henry Perceval, was the illegitimate son of assassinated British Prime Minister Spencer Perceval, Commissioner of the Port of Quebec from 1826 and a member, from Spencer Wood, of the Legislative Council of Lower Canada.
The Mathesons had no children. Matheson bought the Scottish Isle of Lewis in 1844 for over half a million pounds and built Lews Castle, near Stornoway, cleared more than 500 families off the land, shipping them to Canada, he went on to become the Governor of the Bank of England and the second largest landowner in Britain. |date=2006 |page=50}}</ref> In 1845, he began a programme of improvements on the island, including drainage schemes and road construction. He increased the programme during the Highland Potato Famine and by 1850 had spent £329,000 on the island. Between 1851 and 1855 he assisted 1,771 people to emigrate; when in London Matheson lived at 13 Cleveland Row. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1846; as a result of his actions during the Highland Potato Famine, Matheson was awarded a baronetcy in 1851. He became Member of Parliament for Ashburton from 1843 to 1852 on William Jardine's death, for Ross and Cromarty from 1852 to 1868, he led an active public life into his eighth decade, for many years served as chairman of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company.
His nephews succeeded him in directing Matheson & Company. Matheson died in 1878 at the age of 82 in Menton, upon which his wife erecte
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
William Huntington Russell
William Huntington Russell was an American businessman and politician. Notably, he was a co-founder of Bones, he was a descendant of several old New England families, including those of Pierpont, Willett and Russell. His ancestor Rev. Noadiah Russell was a founder and original trustee of Yale College. Born in Middletown, Russell was a cadet at the American Literary and Military Academy from 1826 until graduation in 1828, where he was taught under strict military discipline. In 1828, William's father died. Under severe financial restraints, he entered Yale College, he supported himself throughout his college years. In 1823 his older cousin Samuel Russell founded the successful merchant trading firm Russell & Co. but William was never associated with this firm. Russell had planned on entering the ministry, but his financial problems forced him to obtain an immediate income through teaching. In September 1836, he opened a private prep school for boys in a small dwelling house; the school would become known as the New Haven Commercial Institute.
To begin with, the school was only attended by a small number of boys, but by the time of Russell's death the school had become well known and had graduated around 4,000 boys. In about 1840, Russell introduced a thorough military drill and discipline into his school, he foresaw a Civil War in the future, wanted to make sure his boys were prepared to fight for the Union. His students were so well schooled in military affairs that on the outbreak of Civil War some were enlisted as drill instructors, he served on the Board of Visitors appointed by the Secretary of War in 1863 to inspect and produce a report on West Point. Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry Barnard served on this committee, he not only gave his students to the Union army, but his own services. Governor William Alfred Buckingham realized that Russell was one of the most knowledgeable men in military affairs. For this reason, Russell was hired to organize the Connecticut militia, he was made a major-general by act of the legislature. From 1846 to 1847, Russell served as a Whig in the Connecticut state legislature.
Upon the repeal of the Missouri Compromise in 1854, he became active as one of the leaders of the movement which resulted in the organization of the Republican Party. He was a friend of John Brown. Russell was named as a trustee in the will of John Brown, he was the Connecticut representative on the National Kansas Committee. In 1856, with several other Bonesmen, he incorporated Skull and Bones as the Russell Trust the Russell Trust Association; the Russell Trust Association is a tax-exempt association. In May 1885, Russell saw some boys throwing stones at birds in the park in Connecticut. Russell sought to protect the birds from the boys; the activity was too much for him and he fell unconscious from a fatal rupture of a blood vessel and died several days later. Whitlock, Reverdy. "William Huntington Russell and the Collegiate and Commercial Institute," Journal of the New Haven Colony Historical Society 18, no. 4: 83–89. "William Huntington Russell". Patriot & Teacher. Find a Grave. May 11, 2006. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
AmericasSecretEstablishment date=1981,accessdate=June 1, 2018
Samuel Wadsworth Russell House
The Samuel Wadsworth Russell House is a historic house at 350 High Street in Middletown, Connecticut. It was built in 1828 to a design by architect Ithiel Town, is described as one of the finest Greek Revival mansions in the northeastern United States, it is further notable for Town's client, Samuel Wadsworth Russell, the founder of Russell & Company, the largest and most important American firm to do business in the China trade in the 19th century. In 1970, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2001, it houses the Department of Philosophy. This building was erected in 1828 for Samuel Russell. Russell founded the trading firm of Russell & Company in Canton, China after serving there as trading representative of the Providence, Rhode Island firm of Edward Carrington & Company. Between 1818 and 1831 Russell's fortune was made in the illegal yet profitable importation of Turkish and Bengal opium into the port of Canton and the exportation of fine teas and silks from there to Europe and the United States.
In 1828 when his house was built Russell was in Canton, his friend Samuel D. Hubbard worked with Mrs. Russell to supervise the building of the house. In 1831 Russell returned to Middletown and his new home where he resided until his death in 1862; the Russell House was designed by Ithiel Town, one of the period's foremost architects and major proponent of the Greek Revival style in America. David Hoadley, a prominent New Haven builder-architect, superintended the construction; the house has the form of a Greek temple with six full height Corinthian columns supporting a heavy entablature and low flushboarded pediment. The front wall has five bays with recessed panels between the first and second story windows except in the center bay, where pilasters support a high entablature over the double entrance door; this doorway is surrounded by side and overlights. The windows on the two-bay side facades are separated vertically by panels like those on the front. Stucco scribed to resemble large block ashlar covers the brick masonry walls.
The house has a brownstone foundation supported by a gable roof. An antemion decorative motif is used on the portico column capitals, front corner pilasters, in the attic window screen covers; the heavy entablature has three bands in the architrave. Around 1855 the rear portico was enclosed and is now divided by six pilasters into five bays of windows with small protruding balconies in the end bays. A two-story north wing, added around 1855, is attributed to Alexander Jackson Davis, a former partner of Ithiel Town. Although not consistent with the symmetry of the whole, it is treated sympathetically through the use of identical pilasters and entablature; the Russell estate occupied all of the block bounded by High, Court and Washington Streets. Extensive grounds behind Russell House sloping down to Pearl Street were planted with formal gardens which included boxwood imported from England and plants brought from China by Samuel Russell. A double stair of intricate ironwork was added to the rear of the house at the time the portico was enclosed.
It leads from the first floor down to the garden lawn. The interior is divided by a spacious center hall with two rooms on either side. A stairway with landing is at the end of the hall; the four chimney stacks are placed in the outside wall of each of the rooms off the hall. The south parlors communicate through a set of folding doors, while the original north rooms have been opened up to provide a single large space. Close attention to detail characterizes the decorative treatment throughout the interior. Trompe l'oeil wall paintings simulate panelling on the walls of the north main rooms, entrance hall, stairwell. Elaborate decoration is seen in the marble fireplaces with Ionic columns supporting the mantelpieces, in the recessed panelling of the doors and folding window shutters. A wide frieze and heavy cornice of decorative plaster define the high ceilings of the interior; the Russell House represents a significant stage in the development of Greek Revival architecture in America, In his work Town and Davis, Roger Hale Newton mentions the Russell House as "indicative of the hand of Town in its undeniable sophistication."
Professor Talbot Hamlin places its design "in the richest Greek vein" and states that "its Corinthian columns and open plan are urban and magnificent rather than in the simple old tradition." Newton elaborates on the latter point when he states that the communicating suite of parlors with their grand scale "may have reflected an urban development quite contrary... to the prevailing modern provincial places." The Russell House demonstrates an early attempt by Ithiel Town to match the sophisticated design of an imposing Greek temple form with a compatible interior plan suited to living and entertaining on a grand scale. This plan was used in Town and Davis' work in New York, its successful application to the temple form provided a basis for vernacular interpretations of the Greek Revival style which dominated residential construction until the advent of picturesque architecture; the construction of the Russell House in 1828 established a standard of luxury and elegance for the residential architecture on High Street during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although many other imposing homes were built in this area of Middletown, the Russell House was never surpassed in sophistication and grandeur. It stands a monument to the
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to East Asia. After water, it is the most consumed drink in the world. There are many different types of tea. Tea originated in Southwest China during the Shang dynasty. An early credible record of tea drinking dates to the 3rd century AD, in a medical text written by Hua Tuo, it was popularized as a recreational drink during the Chinese Tang dynasty, tea drinking spread to other East Asian countries. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to Europe during the 16th century. During the 17th century, drinking tea became fashionable among Britons, who started large-scale production and commercialization of the plant in India. Combined and India supplied 62% of the world's tea in 2016; the term herbal tea refers to drinks not made from Camellia sinensis: infusions of fruit, leaves, or other parts of the plant, such as steeps of rosehip, chamomile, or rooibos.
These are sometimes called tisanes or herbal infusions to prevent confusion with tea made from the tea plant. The Chinese character for tea is 茶 written with an extra stroke as 荼, acquired its current form during the Tang Dynasty; the word is pronounced differently in the different varieties of Chinese, such as chá in Mandarin, zo and dzo in Wu Chinese, ta and te in Min Chinese. One suggestion is that the different pronunciations may have arisen from the different words for tea in ancient China, for example tú may have given rise to tê. There were other ancient words for tea, it has been proposed that the Chinese words for tea, tu, cha and ming, may have been borrowed from the Austro-Asiatic languages of people who inhabited southwest China. Most Chinese languages, such as Mandarin and Cantonese, pronounce it along the lines of cha, but Hokkien and Teochew Chinese varieties along the Southern coast of China pronounce it like teh; these two pronunciations have made their separate ways into other languages around the world.
Starting in the early 17th century, the Dutch played a dominant role in the early European tea trade via the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch borrowed the word for "tea" from Min Chinese, either through trade directly from Hokkien speakers in Formosa where they had established a port, or from Malay traders in Bantam, Java; the Dutch introduced to other European languages this Min pronunciation for tea, including English tea, French thé, Spanish té, German Tee. This pronunciation is the most common form worldwide; the Cha pronunciation came from the Cantonese chàh of Guangzhou and the ports of Hong Kong and Macau, which were major points of contact with the Portuguese traders who settled Macau in the 16th century. The Portuguese adopted the Cantonese pronunciation "chá", spread it to India. However, the Korean and Japanese pronunciations of cha were not from Cantonese, but were borrowed into Korean and Japanese during earlier periods of Chinese history. A third form, the widespread chai, came from Persian چای chay.
Both the châ and chây forms are found in Persian dictionaries. They are derived from the Northern Chinese pronunciation of chá, which passed overland to Central Asia and Persia, where it picked up the Persian grammatical suffix -yi before passing on to Russian as чай, Arabic as شاي, Urdu as چائے chay, Hindi as चाय chāy, Turkish as çay, etc; the few exceptions of words for tea that do not fall into the three broad groups of te, cha and chai are from the minor languages from the botanical homeland of the tea plant from which the Chinese words for tea might have been borrowed originally. English has all three forms: char, attested from the 16th century. However, the form chai refers to a black tea mixed with sugar or honey and milk in contemporary English. Tea plants are native to East Asia, originated in the borderlands of north Burma and southwestern China. Chinese tea Chinese Western Yunnan Assam tea Indian Assam tea Chinese Southern Yunnan Assam teaChinese type tea may have originated in southern China with hybridization of unknown wild tea relatives.
However, since there are no known wild populations of this tea, the precise location of its origin is speculative. Given their genetic differences forming distinct clades, Chinese Assam type tea may have two different parentages – one being found in southern Yunnan and the other in western Yunnan. Many types of Southern Yunnan assam tea have been hybridized with the related species Camellia taliensis. Unlike Southern Yunnan Assam tea, Western Yunnan Assam tea shares many genetic similarities with Indian Assam type tea. Thus, Western Yunnan Assam tea and Indian Assam tea both may have originated from the same parent plant in the area where southwestern China, Indo-Burma