1906 San Francisco earthquake
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. High intensity shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, an agricultural region to the south of the San Francisco Bay Area. Devastating fires soon lasted for several days. Thousands of homes were dismantled; as a result, up to 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed. The events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest earthquakes in the history of the United States; the death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history and high in the lists of American disasters. The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate; the strike-slip fault is characterized by lateral motion in a dextral sense, where the western plate moves northward relative to the eastern plate.
This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, a distance of about 810 miles. The maximum observed; the 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the modern moment magnitude scale is 7.9. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earth's crust took place both before and after the earthquake's impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the supposed cause of the damage along the 450-kilometer-long segment of the San Andreas plate boundary; the 1906 rupture propagated both southward for a total of 296 miles. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, inland as far as central Nevada. A strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds; the strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds. There were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake.
Interpreted as precursory activity to the 1906 earthquake, they have been found to have a strong seasonal pattern and have been postulated to be due to large seasonal sediment loads in coastal bays that overlie faults as a result of the erosion caused by hydraulic mining in the years of the California Gold Rush. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement. In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more offshore of San Francisco, to the northwest of the Golden Gate; the most recent analyses support an offshore location for the epicenter, although significant uncertainty remains. An offshore epicenter is supported by the occurrence of a local tsunami recorded by a tide gauge at the San Francisco Presidio. Analysis of triangulation data before and after the earthquake suggest that the rupture along the San Andreas Fault was about 500 km in length, in agreement with observed intensity data.
The available seismological data support a shorter rupture length, but these observations can be reconciled by allowing propagation at speeds above the S-wave velocity. Supershear propagation has now been recognized for many earthquakes associated with strike-slip faulting. Using old photographs and eyewitness accounts, researchers were able to estimate the location of hypocenter of the earthquake as offshore from San Francisco or near the city of San Juan Bautista, confirming previous estimates. At the time, 375 deaths were reported; the total number of deaths is still uncertain, but various reports presented a range of 700–3,000+. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area. In Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina. Between 227,000 and 300,000 people were left homeless out of a population of about 410,000.
Newspapers described Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, the Panhandle and the beaches between Ingleside and North Beach as covered with makeshift tents. More than two years many of these refugee camps were still in operation; the earthquake and fire left long-standing and significant pressures on the development of California. At the time of the disaster, San Francisco had been the ninth-largest city in the United States and the largest on the West Coast, with a population of about 410,000. Over a period of 60 years, the city had become the financial and cultural center of the West. S. economic and military power was projected into the Asia. Over 80 % of the city was destroyed by the fire. Though San Francisco rebuilt the disaster diverted trade and populati
Sawyer Camp Trail
Sawyer Camp Trail is a popular six mile trail located in the San Andreas Fault rift valley in San Mateo County, California near Hillsborough and the San Mateo Highlands. 300,000 people use the trail every year. It provides excellent views of San Francisco Peninsula's Crystal Springs Watershed; the trail is managed by San Mateo County and surfaced in asphalt. There is considerable biodiversity along the trail due to the variation in habitat and the presence of serpentine soils. In particular the plant communities of Northern coastal scrub and California oak woodland are present. Starting from the south, the trail begins in a parking lot located just north of the Crystal Springs Dam; the southern end of the trail is located on the east side of Lower Crystal Springs Reservoir and it heads north parallel to the long axis of the reservoir. The section of the trail north of reservoir passes by dense groves of trees before heading east on the San Andreas Dam; the last segment of the trail parallels the eastern shore of the San Andreas Lake before the path heads northeast and ascends the Bay Hills.
The path terminates on Hillcrest Boulevard right next to Interstate 280 in western Millbrae. On November 4, 1769, Gaspar de Portola and his men camped north of here, after descending from Sweeney Ridge where they were reputed to be the first white men to view the San Francisco Bay. Portola's camp is now beneath the waters of San Andreas Lake. In November 1774, Captain Fernando Rivera, a principal officer of Portola's, the first to lead a group to purposely explore the Peninsula, camped near one of the Shalshone villages, it was in the meadow near the Jepson Laurel. His chaplain and diarist, Father Francisco Palou, named the area San Andreas, honoring that saint's feast day. Sawyer - The Man and The Road It isn't known from whom Leander Sawyer bought the land, but he became active in this area soon after the land was sold, he lived in a small adobe built near a natural spring in the hill, just southwest of the Laurel. This was remembered by some old timers of the area. No trace of it remains today.
The Sawyer Camp Trail was Sawyer's access to his camp where -old timers say- he kept an inn to dispense food to picnickers, to serve as a lodging place for horsemen traveling through the area. The trail was used by the stagecoach from Millbrae, which connected with the San Mateo Stageline to Half Moon Bay. During the 1850s and 60s, Sawyer grazed cattle in the area to keep down the brush and make a better area for incoming wagons. Sawyer Camp Trail called San Andreas Valley Road, or just Valley Road, was once the main highway between San Francisco and Half Moon Bay. Wagons pulled by teams of horses hauled wood over the road. Much of the old road was flooded by the Crystal Springs Reservoir by 1888; when the city of San Francisco took over the watershed lands, narrow winding, Sawyer Camp Trail was a county road. The Water Department fenced it for the protection of San Francisco's drinking water; the gravel road was open for vehicular traffic from dawn to dusk, until 1978. In 1978, the San Mateo County Board of Supervisors designated the road a non-vehicular recreation trail, paved it for bicycles with funds provided by the State Department of Parks and Recreation.
It served many hikers and equestrians, is one of the most popular facilities operated by the San Mateo County Parks Department. The Jepson Laurel It is one of the most famous landmarks along Sawyer Camp Trail, it has been established to be over 600 years old, it is now the largest Laurel in California. In 1923, this tree was named in honor of Willis Linn Jepson, one of California's most noted botanists. At that time, there was only one larger Laurel known in the State, it grew along the Russian River near Cloverdale, but was cut down "because it shaded too much hayfield." This vulnerable tree was fenced to protect it from soil compacting, which could conceivably weaken its roots. The San Francisco Water Department, on whose property it is located, assumed the tree's preservation and protection. In 1981, San Mateo County Parks, on permit from the Water Department, opened the area near the tree and constructed a picnic area. California Laurel known as Bay Tree and Oregon Myrtle, has a wood, heavy, fine grained, exceptionally strong.
Some of the most popular recreational activities on the trail include walking and cycling. Dogs are not allowed. Much of the trail is marked with a center stripe to minimize conflict with those traveling in opposite directions and distances from the ends of the trail are indicated on signs every half-mile. All of the trail runs alongside the scenic Crystal Springs Reservoir, it is common to see ducks and rabbits. San Mateo County Parks and Recreation: Sawyer Camp Trail Bay Area Hiker: Sawyer Camp Trail East Palo Alto Wiki: Hiking Trails in San Mateo County — with nearby trails. Sawyer Camp Trail: Topography and Elevation
Andrew the Apostle
Andrew the Apostle known as Saint Andrew, was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter. He is referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called. According to Orthodox tradition, the apostolic successor to Saint Andrew is the Patriarch of Constantinople; the name "Andrew", like other Greek names, appears to have been common among the Jews and other Hellenized people of Judea. No Hebrew or Aramaic name is recorded for him. Saint Andrew was born, in 6 BC in Galilee; the New Testament states that Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter, a son of John, or Jonah. He was born in the village of Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee. "The first striking characteristic of Andrew is his name: it is not Hebrew, as might have been expected, but Greek, indicative of a certain cultural openness in his family that cannot be ignored. We are in Galilee, where the Greek language and culture are quite present."Both he and his brother Peter were fishermen by trade, hence the tradition that Jesus called them to be his disciples by saying that he will make them "fishers of men".
At the beginning of Jesus' public life, they were said to have occupied the same house at Capernaum. In the Gospel of Matthew and in the Gospel of Mark Simon Peter and Andrew were both called together to become disciples of Jesus and "fishers of men"; these narratives record that Jesus was walking along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, observed Simon and Andrew fishing, called them to discipleship. In the parallel incident in the Gospel of Luke Andrew is not named, nor is reference made to Simon having a brother. In this narrative, Jesus used a boat described as being Simon's, as a platform for preaching to the multitudes on the shore and as a means to achieving a huge trawl of fish on a night which had hitherto proved fruitless; the narrative indicates that Simon was not the only fisherman in the boat but it is not until the next chapter that Andrew is named as Simon's brother. However, it is understood that Andrew was fishing with Simon on the night in question. Matthew Poole, in his Annotations on the Holy Bible, stressed that'Luke denies not that Andrew was there'.
In contrast, the Gospel of John states that Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist, whose testimony first led him, another unnamed disciple of John the Baptist, to follow Jesus. Andrew at once recognized Jesus as the Messiah, hastened to introduce him to his brother; the Byzantine Church honours him with the name Protokletos, which means "the first called". Thenceforth, the two brothers were disciples of Christ. On a subsequent occasion, prior to the final call to the apostolate, they were called to a closer companionship, they left all things to follow Jesus. Subsequently, in the gospels, Andrew is referred to as being present on some important occasions as one of the disciples more attached to Jesus. Andrew told Jesus about the boy with the loaves and fishes, when Philip wanted to tell Jesus about certain Greeks seeking Him, he told Andrew first. Andrew was present at the Last Supper. Andrew was one of the four disciples who came to Jesus on the Mount of Olives to ask about the signs of Jesus' return at the "end of the age".
Eusebius in his Church History 3.1 quoted Origen as saying. The Chronicle of Nestor adds that he preached along the Black Sea and the Dnieper river as far as Kiev, from there he traveled to Novgorod. Hence, he became a patron saint of Ukraine and Russia. According to tradition, he founded the See of Byzantium in AD 38. According to Hippolytus of Rome, Andrew preached in Thrace, his presence in Byzantium is mentioned in the apocryphal Acts of Andrew. Basil of Seleucia knew of Apostle Andrew's missions in Thrace and Achaea; this diocese would develop into the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Andrew, along with Saint Stachys, is recognized as the patron saint of the Patriarchate. Andrew is said to have been martyred by crucifixion at the city of Patras in Achaea. Early texts, such as the Acts of Andrew known to Gregory of Tours, describe Andrew as bound, not nailed, to a Latin cross of the kind on which Jesus is said to have been crucified; the iconography of the martyrdom of Andrew — showing him bound to an X-shaped cross — does not appear to have been standardized until the Middle Ages.
The apocryphal Acts of Andrew, mentioned by Eusebius and others, is among a disparate group of Acts of the Apostles that were traditionally attributed to Leucius Charinus. "These Acts belong to the third century: ca. A. D. 260," in the opinion of M. R. James, who edited them in 1924; the Acts, as well as a Gospel of St Andrew, appear among rejected books in the Decretum Gelasianum connected with the name of Pope Gelasius I. The Acts of Andrew was edited and published by Constantin von Tischendorf in the Acta Apostolorum apocrypha, putting it for the first time into the hands of a critical professional readership. Another version of the Andrew legend is found in the Passio Andreae, published by Max Bonnet (Supplement
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Francesc Palóu or Francisco Palóu was a Spanish Franciscan missionary and historian on the Baja California Peninsula and in Alta California. Palóu made significant contributions to the Alta Baja California mission systems. Along with his mentor, Junípero Serra, Palóu worked to build numerous missions throughout Alta and Baja California, many structures of which still stand today. A member of the Franciscan Order, Palóu became "Presidente" of the missions in Baja California, of missions of Alta California. Palóu's work in the Spanish mission system spans from his early twenties to his death at the age of 66. According to biographer Herbert E. Bolton, "Fray Palóu was a diligent student, devout Christian, loyal disciple, tireless traveler, zealous missionary, firm defender of the faith, resourceful pioneer, successful mission builder, able administrator, fair minded historian of California". Palóu is noted for his pious biography of Serra and for his multi-volume early history of the Californias.
Francisco Palóu was born in Palma, Spain, where he joined the Franciscan Order. Together with Junípero Serra, he traveled to New Spain in 1740 and served as a missionary in the Sierra Gorda region of Querétaro; when the Jesuits were expelled from Baja California in 1768, the Franciscans under Serra were sent to replace them. Palóu was assigned to the mission of San Javier; the following year, Serra went north to find the new mission province of Alta California, Palóu succeeded him as head of the Baja California missions. When the Dominicans took over the peninsular Baja California missions in 1773, Palóu, being Franciscan, moved on to Upper California, marking the geographical boundary between the two orders' fields, he assisted in the exploration of the site of San Francisco and administered Mission San Francisco de Asís. When Serra died, Palóu was acting head of the Baja California missions, but soon returned to central Mexico; as a missionary of the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Palóu traveled and proselytized in the Spanish colonial empire.
His extensive travels left him knowledgeable of world matters, well-respected as a scholar. Coming from simple beginnings, Palóu was born in 1723 at Palma, on the Island of Majorca, began religious work early in his life as he entered the Franciscan Order around the age of seventeen in 1739. After developing a mentor/student relationship with Junípero Serra, they both eagerly joined the Spanish mission system in Alta California. They, along with several other missionaries, reached Veracruz, New Spain in 1749. Palóu worked in New Spain for many in missions such as Sierra Gorda, he was recalled, along with Serra, to work in the San Saba region of Texas. However, the biggest part of Palóu's journey would not begin until 1767, when he and fourteen other Franciscan friars were sent north to extend their efforts and replace many of the Jesuit missionaries, expelled from Spain. Much of Palóu's life would be spent in Alta California, many of his notable endeavors occurred there as well. Palóu and the other friars reached Loreto in Lower California in the spring of 1768.
Palou was given control of Mission San Francisco Javier. The following year, Junipero Serra left for Alta California to proceed with the further establishment of missions in that region; this left the office of "president" or superior of all missions in Lower California for Palóu to control until 1773. When the Lower Californian missions were turned over to the Dominican missionaries, Palóu was able to rejoin his brethren and mentor in Upper California, he first went to San Diego continued onwards to Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo, which Serra had been using as his headquarters. Palóu assisted in the placement of friars and recorded historical data, the only surviving account of some aspects of the early California missions. In 1774, Palóu accompanied Captain Rivera's expedition to the Bay of San Francisco, on December 4 planted the cross on a hill he named "Lobos", which sits in clear view of the Golden Gate and Pacific Ocean; the name lives on within the Presidio of San Francisco. The Rivera expedition returned to the Presidio of Monterey via the coastal route first explored by the Portolà expedition of 1769.
At the north end of Monterey Bay and Palóu inspected the area around today's Santa Cruz, described by friar Juan Crespí and recommended by Crespí as a future mission site. Palóu agreed, on December 9 selected a location where Mission Santa Cruz was founded by Fermín Lasuén, in 1791. Palóu returned to Lobos in 1776 with the De Anza expedition and, on June 28, offered up the first mass at the future site of Mission Dolores, which Palóu founded but a few weeks later. Palóu remained at the new mission until he was called to give his mentor and close friend, Junípero Serra, his last rites in 1784 at Mission San Carlos. With Serra's death, Palóu became the acting presidente of the Upper California missions until the formal appointment of Lasuén as successor to Serra. Palóu remained at Mission San Carlos until failing health and old age led him to retire in 1785 to the missionary College of San Fernando de Mexico, he was elected guardian of the college and held this office until his death in Mexico, where he had completed his biography of Serra, most of which he had written while still in California.
Francisco Palóu played many key roles and offices vital to the establishment of several of the missions in California and many of those in Mexico. He compiled a standard history of the California missions from 1767 to 1784 in his "noticias" as a four-volume set, he wrote of his teacher, Junípero Serra. Both works provide key inform
San Mateo Creek (San Francisco Bay Area)
San Mateo Creek is a perennial stream whose watershed includes Crystal Springs Reservoir, for which it is the only natural outlet after passing Crystal Springs Dam. After discovering San Francisco Bay from Sweeney Ridge on November 4, 1769, the Portolà expedition descended what Portolà called the Cañada de San Francisco, now San Andreas Creek, both of which emptied into the "Laguna Grande" where the party camped; the Laguna Grande place name is shown on the 1840s diseño del Rancho Cañada de Raymundo and an 1856 plat. The campsite is marked by California Historical Marker No. 94 "Portola Expedition Camp", located at Crystal Springs Dam, on Skyline Boulevard, 0.1 mi south of Crystal Springs Road. They camped here a second time on November 12, on their return trip. Padre Palóu, on an expedition from Mission San Carlos Borromeo to explore the western side of San Francisco Bay led by Captain Fernando Rivera, renamed Portola's Cañada de San Francisco to Cañada de San Andrés on November 30, 1774, it being the feast day of St. Andrew.
Palou's name was applied to the San Andreas fault when the fault was discovered to be the creator of the valley. In 1776, the expedition led by Captain Juan Bautista de Anza, rather than stay on the coast as Portola had done, followed an inland route from Monterey, California established by Pedro Fages in 1770. De Anza descended the Santa Clara Valley to San Francisco Bay and followed its western shoreline up the peninsula to San Francisco; the de Anza party selected the sites for Mission San Francisco de Asís and the Presidio of San Francisco. De Anza picked up Portola's trail at San Francisquito Creek, following the Cañada de San Andrés north from there. On the return to Monterey, the party camped on the banks of San Mateo Creek on March 29, 1776. In de Anza's diary on March 29, 1776, he wrote: "Night having fallen, at a quarter past six I went down to the arroyo of San Andreas and to another, that of San Matheo, where it descends to empty into the estuary. There I found in our camp nearly all the men of the village friendly and joyful, putting themselves out to serve us in every way, a circumstance which I have noted in all the natives seen from the 26th up to now, but one which I had not experienced theretofore since leaving the people of the Colorado River."Shortly thereafter, the rest of the de Anza party - families and priests on their way to help establish the presidio and mission - camped here for three days, June 24–27, 1776.
A plaque labelled "California State Historical Landmark No. 47 Anza Expedition Camp" is located at Arroyo Court, one block west on West 3rd Avenue, San Mateo. San Mateo Creek's source elevation is at 1,000 feet on Sweeney Ridge from which it flows southeasterly for 11.2 km before entering the northwest arm of Lower Crystal Springs Reservoir. The northeast arm of Lower Crystal Springs Reservoir is formed by San Mateo Creek's tributary, San Andreas Creek which descends to the Reservoir southeast along the San Andreas Rift. Another tributary, Laguna Creek, flows northwards from Woodside with its source on Edgewood County Park and Natural Preserve, fed Laguna Grande and joined San Mateo Creek just upstream from Crystal Springs Canyon, where San Mateo Creek turned east to flow through the canyon. Laguna Grande was submerged when an earthen dam was constructed in 1877, forming Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir; the old earthen dam became a causeway between Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs when the latter was formed by Herman Schussler's concrete Crystal Springs Dam, which dammed up San Mateo Creek in 1888 to form the lower reservoir.
The causeway is now crossed by Highway 92. In addition to San Mateo Creek and its San Andreas Creek and Laguna Creek tributaries, the waters of Crystal Springs Reservoir consist of runoff from the eastern slopes of the Montara block of the Santa Cruz Mountains and imported Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct water deriving from the Sierra Nevada; the two Crystal Springs lakes and San Andreas Lake used to be known as Spring Valley Lakes for the Spring Valley Water Company which owned them. Lower Crystal Springs Reservoir now covers the town of Crystal Springs which grew up around a resort of the same name. From the Crystal Springs Dam San Mateo Creek flows northeast 8 km through San Mateo where it is intermittent and altered, to San Francisco Bay about 1.1 km west of the mouth of Seal Slough. This watercourse lies within San Mateo County and flows eastward to discharge into San Francisco Bay. San Mateo Creek once hosted coho salmon as evidenced by specimens collected by Professor Alexander Agassiz of Harvard University in the 1850s and 1860s.
He collected steelhead trout from the creek. Historical records indicate that Chinook salmon occurred in at least two San Francisco Bay Area watersheds, San Mateo Creek in San Mateo County and San Leandro Creek in Alameda County. Fog drip may play a key role in the precipitation in the upper watershed. On Cahill Ridge, just west of San Mateo Creek and east of Pilarcitos Creek, at an altitude of 1,000 feet, Oberlander measured fog drip beneath tanoak, coast redwood and three Douglas fir trees, the latter 125 feet tall, he found that the trees most exposed produced the most precipitation and in five weeks of measurement fog drip below the tanoak produced 59 inches of precipitation, more than the total annual precipitation on nearby grasslands and chaparral. The Douglas fir
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students