Canas Urbano is one of the 31 barrios of the municipality of Ponce, Puerto Rico. Along with Machuelo Abajo, Magueyes Urbano, Portugués Urbano, San Antón, Canas Urbano is one of the municipality's five rural barrios that are now part of the urban zone of the city of Ponce; the name of this barrio is of native indigenous origin. It was created in 1953. Canas Urbano is an urban quarter located in the southern section of the municipality, within the Ponce city limits, southwest of the traditional center of the city, Plaza Las Delicias, it is bounded on the North by Ponceña Street/PR-123, by Ausencia, La Gloria and Idilid Streets of Morel Campos, by Ten Street of Shanghai, Villa Street/Simon Bolivar Avenue, Palo de Pan Street, Dr. Ferran Street, Ferrocarril Street, Ramon Powell Street, on the South by PR-2, on the West by PR-132, Río Pastillo, Rio Canas, on the East by Global Street, Coto Canas Street/PR-2R/Pampanos Road, the old western branch of Rio Portugues. In terms of barrio-to-barrio boundaries, Canas Urbano is bounded in the North by Magueyes Urbano, Portugués Urbano, Segundo and Cuarto, in the South by Canas and Playa, in the West by Canas, San Anton, in the East by Segundo and San Anton.
Canas Urbano has 2.3 square miles of no water area. In 2000, the population of Canas Urbano was 21,482 persons, it had a density of 9,301 persons per square mile; the communities of Jardines del Caribe, Morel Campos, Aristides Chavier, San Antonio, Rio Canas, Los Maestros, Santa Maria, Perla del Sur, Villa Grillasca, Reparto Universitario are found here. Villa Grillasca was consisted of 720 duplex-style homes. Barrio Canas Urbano is home to the Juan Pachín Vicéns Auditorium, Francisco Montaner Stadium, the Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico and various other important landmarks
Bucaná is one of the 31 barrios of the municipality of Ponce, Puerto Rico. Together with Canas, Playa and Capitanejo, Bucaná is one of the municipality's five coastal barrios; the name of this barrio is of native Indian origin. It was founded in 1831. Prior to being established as a barrio of Ponce, around 1597, the bay of Ponce had a small place populated by Christian European settlers, called Bucaná. In 1800, Bucaná was known as Coto Bucaná, a type of grant of land suitable for farming to a resident by the Spanish king in recognition for some service provided by the resident to the King. Bucaná is an urban barrio located in the southern section of the municipality, within the Ponce city limits, southeast of the traditional center of the city, Plaza Las Delicias; the toponomy, or origin of the name, alludes to the river that makes its way through it, Río Bucaná. It is bounded on the North by Marginal Street/PR-578, on the South by the Caribbean Sea, on the West by Rio Bucana, PR-2, Rio Portugues, the Portugues-Bucana Rivers Channel, on the East by Bucara Street/Los Caobos Avenue, PR-52, the Costa Caribe Country Club East Access Road.
In terms of barrio-to-barrio boundaries, Bucaná is bounded in the North by Sabanetas, in the South by the Caribbean Sea, in the West by San Anton and Playa, in the East by Vayas. Bucaná has 1.34 0.81 square miles of water area. In 2000, the population of Bucaná was 3,963 persons, with a density of 2,958 persons per square mile, it has the shortest coastline of all five of Ponce's coastal barrios. The communities of Los Caobos and Camino del Sur are found in Bucana. Major roads in barrio Bucana are PR-1, PR-578 and PR-52. Barrio Bucaná is home to the Julio Enrique Monagas Family Park. Management Plan for La Esperanza Nature Preserve in Ponce, Puerto Rico. Matthew Bourque, Drew Digeser, Stephen Partridge, Hussein Yatim. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Worcester, Massachusttes. 2 May 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2013
A sugar refinery is a refinery which processes raw sugar into white refined sugar or that processes sugar beet to refined sugar. Many cane sugar mills produce raw sugar, sugar that still contains molasses, giving it more colour than the white sugar, consumed in households and used as an ingredient in soft drinks and foods. While cane sugar does not need refining to be palatable, sugar from sugar beet is always refined to remove the strong always unwanted, taste of beets from it; the refined sugar produced is more than 99 percent pure sucrose. Whereas many sugar mills only operate during a limited time of the year during the cane harvesting period, many cane sugar refineries work the whole year round. Sugar beet refineries tend to have shorter periods when they process beet but may store intermediate product and process that in the off-season. Raw sugar is either processed into white refined sugar in local refineries, sold to the local industry and consumers, or it is exported and refined in the country of destination.
Sugar refineries are located in heavy sugar-consuming regions such as North America and Japan. Since the 1990s many state-of-the art sugar refineries have been built in the Middle East and North Africa region, e.g. in Dubai, Saudi Arabia and Algeria. The world´s largest sugar refinery company is American Sugar Refining with facilities in North America and Europe; the raw sugar is stored in large warehouses and transported into the sugar refinery by means of transport belts. In the traditional refining process, the raw sugar is first mixed with heavy syrup and centrifuged to wash away the outer coating of the raw sugar crystals, less pure than the crystal interior. Many sugar refineries today buy high pol sugar and can do without the affination process; the remaining sugar is dissolved to make a syrup, clarified by the addition of phosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide that combine to precipitate calcium phosphate. The calcium phosphate particles entrap some impurities and absorb others, float to the top of the tank, where they are skimmed off.
After any remaining solids are filtered out, the clarified syrup is decolorized by filtration through the use of bone char, made from the bones of cattle, a bed of activated carbon or, in more modern plants, ion-exchange resin. The purified syrup is concentrated to supersaturation and crystallized under vacuum to produce white refined sugar; as in a sugar mill, the sugar crystals are separated from the mother liquor by centrifuging. To produce granulated sugar, in which the individual sugar grains do not clump together, sugar must be dried. Drying is accomplished first by drying the sugar in a hot rotary dryer, by blowing cool air through Centrifugal Blower/fan it for several days in so-called conditioning silos; the finished product is stored in large concrete or steel silos. It is shipped in bulk, big bags or 25 – 50 kg bags to industrial customers or packed in consumer-size packages to retailers; the dried sugar must be handled with caution, as sugar dust explosions are possible. For example, a sugar dust explosion which led to 13 fatalities was the 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion in Port Wentworth, GA.
Molasses Bagasse Press Mud As in many other industries factory automation has been promoted in sugar refineries in recent decades. The production process is controlled by a central process control system, which directly controls most of the machines and components. Only for certain special machines such as the centrifuges in the sugar house decentralized PLCs are used for security reasons. Onses, Richard. Continuous dissolution process for sugar, in Alimentacion Equipos y Tecnologio, Editorial Alcion, May 1987. Barcelona. Sugar related online glossary. Sugar refining. Centrifugal control and the quality of white sugar by Barbara Rogé et. al. retrieved on 27 June, 2010
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
The Caribbean Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere. It is bounded by Mexico and Central America to the west and south west, to the north by the Greater Antilles starting with Cuba, to the east by the Lesser Antilles, to the south by the north coast of South America; the entire area of the Caribbean Sea, the numerous islands of the West Indies, adjacent coasts, are collectively known as the Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea is one of the largest seas and has an area of about 2,754,000 km2; the sea's deepest point is the Cayman Trough, between the Cayman Islands and Jamaica, at 7,686 m below sea level. The Caribbean coastline has many gulfs and bays: the Gulf of Gonâve, Gulf of Venezuela, Gulf of Darién, Golfo de los Mosquitos, Gulf of Paria and Gulf of Honduras; the Caribbean Sea has the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. It runs 1,000 km along the coasts of Mexico, Belize and Honduras; the name "Caribbean" derives from the Caribs, one of the region's dominant Native American groups at the time of European contact during the late 15th century.
After Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas in 1492, the Spanish term Antillas applied to the lands. During the first century of development, Spanish dominance in the region remained undisputed. From the 16th century, Europeans visiting the Caribbean region identified the "South Sea" as opposed to the "North Sea"; the Caribbean Sea had been unknown to the populations of Eurasia until 1492, when Christopher Columbus sailed into Caribbean waters on a quest to find a sea route to Asia. At that time the Western Hemisphere in general was unknown to most Europeans, although it had been discovered between the years 800 and 1000 by the vikings. Following the discovery of the islands by Columbus, the area was colonized by several Western cultures. Following the colonization of the Caribbean islands, the Caribbean Sea became a busy area for European-based marine trading and transports, this commerce attracted pirates such as Samuel Bellamy and Blackbeard; as of 2015 the area is home to borders 12 continental countries.
The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Caribbean Sea as follows: On the North. In the Windward Channel – a line joining Caleta Point and Pearl Point in Haïti. In the Mona Passage – a line joining Cape Engaño and the extreme of Agujereada in Puerto Rico. Eastern limits. From Point San Diego Northward along the meridian thereof to the 100-fathom line, thence Eastward and Southward, in such a manner that all islands and narrow waters of the Lesser Antilles are included in the Caribbean Sea as far as Galera Point. From Galera Point through Trinidad to Galeota Point and thence to Baja Point in Venezuela. Note that, although Barbados is an island on the same continental shelf, it is considered to be in the Atlantic Ocean rather than the Caribbean Sea; the Caribbean Sea is an oceanic sea situated on the Caribbean Plate. The Caribbean Sea is separated from the ocean by several island arcs of various ages; the youngest stretches from the Lesser Antilles to the Virgin Islands to the north east of Trinidad and Tobago off the coast of Venezuela.
This arc was formed by the collision of the South American Plate with the Caribbean Plate and includes active and extinct volcanoes such as Mount Pelee, the Quill on Sint Eustatius in the Caribbean Netherlands and Morne Trois Pitons on Dominica. The larger islands in the northern part of the sea Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico lie on an older island arc; the geological age of the Caribbean Sea is estimated to be between 160 and 180 million years and was formed by a horizontal fracture that split the supercontinent called Pangea in the Mesozoic Era. It is assumed the proto-caribbean basin existed in the Devonian period. In the early Carboniferous movement of Gondwana to the north and its convergence with the Euramerica basin decreased in size; the next stage of the Caribbean Sea's formation began in the Triassic. Powerful rifting led to the formation of narrow troughs, stretching from modern Newfoundland to the west coast of the Gulf of Mexico which formed siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. In the early Jurassic due to powerful marine transgression, water broke into the present area of the Gulf of Mexico creating a vast shallow pool.
The emergence of deep basins in the Caribbean occurred during the Middle Jurassic rifting. The emergence of these basins marked the beginning of the Atlantic Ocean and contributed to the destruction of Pangaea at the end of the late Jurassic. During the Cretaceous the Caribbean acquired the shape close to that seen today. In the early Paleogene due to Marine regression the Caribbean became separated from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean by the land of Cuba and Haiti; the Caribbean remained like this for most of the Cenozoic until the Holocene when rising water levels of the oceans restored communication with the Atlantic Ocean. The Caribbean's floor is composed of sub-oceanic sediments of deep red clay in the deep basins and troughs. On continental slopes and ridges calcareous silts are found. Clay minerals having been deposited by the mainland river Orinoco and the Magdalena River. Deposits on th
Parque de la Ceiba
Parque de la Ceiba is a passive park in sector Cuatro Calles of barrio San Antón, Puerto Rico. Its centerpiece is a tree associated with the founding of the city. Now surrounded by the park with the same name, the emblematic 500-year-old Ceiba tree stands on the edge of the Ponce Historic Zone; the park opened under the administration of Mayor Jose Dapena Thompson. A sign on the fence that surrounds the tree identifies it as Ceiba pentandra; the park is located on Comercio street, next to Rio Portugues in the Cuatro Calles sector of barrio San Antón. Today the area is a mixed residential/commercial area on urban route PR-133; the park is managed by the Ponce municipal government. The tree is about half a mile east of Plaza Las Delicias; the park sits on an area believed to have been the site of the first settlement of Europeans in the Ponce region. "In the surroundings of the legendary Ceiba de Ponce, broken pieces of indigenous pottery and stones were found to confirm the presence of Taino Indians long before the Spaniards that latter settled in the area."It has been said that this tree was a large tree at the time of the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the New World.
Reference is made to a book that suggests the tree existed in 1696, an 1818 map of Ponce by Alejandro Ordóñez shows the location of the tree. In 1916, the tree measured 118 feet in circumference, measured at 4 feet from the ground surface. An image of the tree taken in 1900. Notice the photographer, at right,taking pictures of tourists posing on the tree; the feature of the park is the historic centuries-old tree. The tree is known as kapok tree and silk cotton tree; the scientific name of the tree is Ceiba pentandra. The legendary tree belongs to the genus Ceiba, of the species pentandra, the family Bombacaceae; the word Ceiba comes from a Taino word pronounced say-bah. Ceiba is one of tallest trees in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere, they have been known to reach heights of over 180 feet. The tree is related to the peculiar baobab trees of Africa; the Ceiba tree is Puerto Rico's official national tree. The tree has been decaying and, on 30 December 2006, it lost a large limb that accounted for some 30% of its foliage at that time.
The channeling of Rio Portugues and the development of a nearby recreational area have been mentioned as possible causes for the rapid deterioration of the tree in recent years. In June 2009, the environmentalist group ProOrnato Inc and the government of the municipality of Ponce joined efforts to preserve the old tree in a weekend-long event. On 18 July 2011, the tree lost another large limb. After this event, only 35% of the remaining tree was estimated to still be alive; the fruit of the Ceiba tree contains a fiber, eight time lighter than cotton and five times more buoyant than cork. As such it was used as the flotation for early life preservers. In addition to these attributes, the fiber repels water, has a low thermal conductivity and is resistant to rot. A little known fact is that before synthetics were used for insulation materials and pillows, these were stuffed with the fiber of the Ceiba tree fruit, it was discovered that the absorption capacity of this fiber is higher than that of the polypropylene material used in the cleanup of environmental oil spills.
"The wood of the Ceiba tree is exceedingly lightweight and worked. However, because it lacks durability and is susceptible to insects and decay, it was used for the construction of large canoes by the indigenous inhabitants of the region." Canoes made of Ceiba tree trunks were able to seat over 100 men. La Ceiba de Ponce is depicted in Francisco Oller’s first impressionist landscape masterpiece and on display at the Museo de Arte de Ponce. Arboles Ceiba en Puerto Rico: Inventorio Preliminar. Fondo de Mejoramiento. Centro de Mejoramiento. San Juan Puerto Rico. June 1977. Accessed 8 June 2018. La Ceiba Tree at Panoramio Painting of La Ceiba Tree, by Francisco Oller Picture of Ceiba Tree from Flickr. Around 8 August 1914. Picture of Ceiba Tree from Flickr. Dated between 1954 and 1956