The San Antonio Spurs are an American professional basketball team based in San Antonio. The Spurs compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division; the team plays its home games at the AT&T Center in San Antonio. The Spurs are one of four former American Basketball Association teams to remain intact in the NBA after the 1976 ABA–NBA merger and are the only former ABA team to have won an NBA championship; the franchise has won NBA championships in 1999, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2014. As of May 2015, the Spurs had the highest winning percentage among active NBA franchises; as of May 2017, the Spurs had the best winning percentage of any franchise in the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada over the previous three decades. From 1999–2000 to 2016–17, the Spurs won 50 games each season, setting a record of 18 consecutive 50-win seasons. In the 2018–19 season, the Spurs matched an NBA record for most consecutive playoff appearances with 22.
The team's recent success has coincided with the tenure of current head coach Gregg Popovich and with the playing careers of Spurs icons David Robinson and Tim Duncan. The Spurs are the city's only team in any of the four major U. S. professional sports leagues and the only major-league team in the city's history to have lasted more than five years. Spurs players are active members of the San Antonio community, many former Spurs are still active in San Antonio including David Robinson with the Carver Academy and George Gervin with the George Gervin Youth Center; the Spurs set several NBA attendance records while playing at the Alamodome including the largest crowd for an NBA Finals game in 1999, the Spurs continue to sell out the smaller AT&T Center on a regular basis. Since 2003, the team has been forced on an extended road trip for much of February since the AT&T Center hosts the San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo during that month; this is informally known as the "Rodeo Road Trip". The Spurs have posted winning road records during this period, including an NBA-record longest single road trip winning streak.
When the Spurs have won the NBA title, the team's victory parades have been boat trips on the San Antonio River Walk. The San Antonio Spurs started out as the Dallas Chaparrals of the original version of the American Basketball Association. Coached by player/coach Cliff Hagan the Dallas Chaparrals were one of 11 teams to take the floor in the inaugural season of the upstart ABA; the Chaps' second season was a bit of a disappointment, as the team finished in 4th place with a mediocre 41–37 record. In the playoffs the Chaparrals fell to the New Orleans Buccaneers; the team suffered from general disinterest in Dallas. In fact, during the 1970–71 season, the name "Dallas" was dropped in favor of "Texas" and an attempt was made to make the team a regional one, playing games in Fort Worth, at the Tarrant County Convention Center, as well as Lubbock, at the Lubbock Municipal Coliseum, but this proved a failure and the team returned full-time to Dallas in time for the 1971–72 season, splitting their games at Moody Coliseum and Dallas Convention Center Arena.
While the Chaparrals had been modestly successful on the court, they were sinking financially by their third season. The financial difficulties were caused by the ownership group's refusal to invest much money on the team. After missing the playoffs for the first time in their existence in the 1972–73 season, nearly all of the owners wanted out. A group of 36 San Antonio businessmen—led by Angelo Drossos, John Schaefer, Red McCombs—worked out a "lend-lease" deal with the Dallas ownership group. Drossos and his group would lease the team for three years with an option to purchase, they were allowed to move the team to San Antonio but and would return the team to Dallas if no purchase occurred by 1975. After the deal was signed, the team was renamed the San Antonio Gunslingers. However, before they played a game, the name was changed to Spurs; the team's primary colors were changed from the red and blue of the Chaparrals to the now familiar black and white motif of the Spurs, with the branding taking effect for the 1973–74 season.
In their first game at HemisFair Arena, the Spurs lost to the San Diego Conquistadors despite attracting a noisy crowd of 6,000 fans. A smothering defense was the team's trademark, as they held opponents to less than 100 points in an ABA-record 49 games; the early Spurs were led by ABA veteran James Silas, the team grew stronger by acquiring Swen Nater and George Gervin from the Virginia Squires in January. The ABA tried claiming it was detrimental to the league; the Spurs finished their inaugural season under that banner with a 45–39 record, good for third place in the Western Division. In the playoffs, the team was defeated by the Indiana Pacers in seven games in the first round. San Antonio embraced the Spurs with open arms. Drossos, Schaefer and McCombs knew a runaway hit. After only one year, they exercised their option to tear up the lease agreement, buy the franchise outright and keep the team in San Antonio for good; the team made themselves at home at HemisFair Arena, playing to large and raucous crowds.
Despite a respectable 17–10 start during the 1974–75 season, Coach Tom Nissalke was fired as the team's ownership become tired of the Spurs' slow playing style. He was re
Mamadou Diallo is a Guinean footballer. When Diallo was seven years old, he was inspired to become a footballer after his brother became a professional footballer in the local league, he signed a contract with Hougang United FC in 2008. He was able to secure a contract and a work permit to ply his trade in Singapore without any issues; the peak of his career in Singapore football was after a season with Hougang United which won him the Yeo's people choice award for 2013 S league season. For season 2014, Hougang United FC was ready to offer a contract renewal but he was denied a work permit by the Singapore Ministry of Manpower. Upon hearing this, some Hougang United fans started a petition in 2014 as a last effort to dissuade the Ministry from denying the permit.
A pellet boiler is a heating system that burns wood pellets. Pellet boilers are used in central heating systems for heat requirements from 3.9 kW to 1 MW or more. Pellet central heating systems are used in single family homes, in larger residential, commercial, or institutional applications. Pellet boiler systems run most efficiently at full load and can be regulated down to 30% of full load. Since the warm up phase of pellet boilers takes longer than for oil or gas firing systems, short burning phases have negative effects on the fuel efficiency. In order to improve energy efficiency and reduce harmful emissions, pellet boilers are combined with buffer systems, such as insulated water tanks.. Similar to wood chip heating systems, pellet fuel is delivered periodically and automatically from the pellet storage or the day tank according to need in the combustion chamber. With the heat generated from the burning pellets, circuit water is heated in the boiler of the pellet; the heat distribution is the same as in other systems distribution.
Unlike oil or gas heating systems, pellet heating systems require the integration of a hot water tank in the heating system in order to reduce heat losses. The furnace is automatically supplied with combustible material; the control technology of the system regulates the fuel input in order to match the required heat output. Depending on the specific system, the supplied wood pellets are automatically ignited either with hot air blowers or from a permanent ember bed in the combustion chamber. Wood pellet heating systems work with different techniques of combustion. There are developed loading techniques for pellet combustion, like drop chute firing, underfeed firing, side-fed firing, or the use of a roller grate system; the method of charging and combustion of the pellet fuel is divided into 5 technologies. Drop shaft burner - Pellets slide down a drop chute into a burn pot; this way the combustion area is defined, combustion can therefore be controlled. With this technology the least ash remains compared with other systems and can be carried out of the burn pot by cleaning mechanisms.
This type of charging is used for Pellet stoves. Roller grate system - The pellets fall from above onto several slow-turning steel plates with small clearances. A skimmer cleans the clearance spaces with every revolution so that the ash can fall down unhindered and combustion air can be fed through upwards. Underfeed burner - The pellets are pressed from below into a burn plate by an auger where they are burnt and the ash that remains falls over the edge of the plate into the ash pan below. Side-fed firing or retorte burner - This technology functions to the underfeed firing except that the fuel is pressed via an auger onto the burn plate from the side. At the same time, the burn plate as well as the air supply can be configured to match partial performances. Suction technology The 100% burnback security of the drop-chute system is combined with a solid metal rotary valve and prevents coating of the cyclone or suction turbine with dust; the narrow and high cyclone cleans the return air of dust and thereby guarantees maximum service life of the turbine.
The variable control firebed possible with the drop principle, together with the high combustion chamber temperatures, makes modulation characteristics possible. For more efficiency and less pollution in the air, modern pellet heating systems control combustion either via a temperature or flame space sensor in combination with an infinitely variable input of combustion air via a suck-blow fan or a lambda probe; the hot flue gases are led into the chimney via a heat exchanger with manual or automatic cleaning of the reheating surfaces. Pellet systems are available in different power ranges from about 3.9 Kilowatt single ovens between about 4 and 20 kW. Most systems available today have a power control over the fuel and combustion air supply, so that they can be operated at full load and at part load. Pellet boilers achieve a combustion efficiency of about 85-95% at full load in thermal power operation. With few exceptions, the efficiency decreases; the technical heating efficiencies described may vary from the actual plant efficiencies, the reason the plant concept plays a major role.
The use of a sufficiently large buffer storage is useful. The wood pellets are stored in bulk in a tank or storage area and supplied to the burner by means of a conveyor system; the storage area must be dry, since the pellets react hygroscopically on clammy walls or in high humidity during storage with crumbling. Compared to oil, wood pellets require about three times the storage volume, though with less technical effort for the space, as unlike pellets, heating oils are water-polluting substances. For storage, the pellets can be accommodated in a single storage space; the floor should be in the shape of a funnel made out of wood. At the end of the funnel is the inlet for the screw conveyor or the extraction pipe. More outlets in the storage room ensure unobstructed operation in case of problems of one of the extraction points. Alternatives to a storage room are prefabricated tanks made of sheet steel. Buried underground tanks or free-standing silos can be used, if sufficient space is available in the building.
In areas with high humidity it is important to use must tight tank systems to ensure the quality of pellet fuel. To convey the pellets from the storage facility to the boiler room, blower or screw systems can be used; the choice depends on the distance from the storage to the boiler room. For distances g