Riverside County, California
Riverside County, California is one of fifty-eight counties in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,189,641, making it the 4th-most populous county in California, the name was derived from the city of Riverside, which is the county seat. Riverside County is included in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, the county is included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area. There is a concentration of sprawling tract housing communities around Riverside and along the Interstate 10,15. Roughly rectangle-shaped, Riverside County covers 7,208 square miles in Southern California, the county is mostly desert in the central and eastern portions, but has a Mediterranean climate in the western portion. Most of Joshua Tree National Park is located in the county, the resort cities of Palm Springs, Palm Desert, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Rancho Mirage, and Desert Hot Springs are all located in the Coachella Valley region of Riverside County.
Large numbers of Los Angeles area workers have moved to the county in recent years to take advantage of affordable housing. Along with neighboring San Bernardino County, it was one of the fastest growing regions in the prior to the recent changes in the regional economy. In addition, but significant, numbers of people have been moving into Southwest Riverside County from the San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area, the cities of Temecula and Murrieta accounted for 20% of the increase in population of the county between 2000 and 2007. The indigenous peoples of what is now Riverside County are the Luiseño, Cupeño, the Luiseño lived in the Aguanga and Temecula Basins, Elsinore Trough and eastern Santa Ana Mountains and southward into San Diego County. The Cahullia lived to the east and north of the Luiseño in the valleys, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains. The first European settlement in the county was a Mission San Luis Rey de Francia estancia or farm and grapes were grown here. In 1819, the Mission granted land to Leandro Serrano, mayordomo of San Antonio de Pala Asistencia for the Mission of San Luis Rey for Rancho Temescal, following Mexican independence and the 1833 confiscation of Mission lands, more ranchos were granted.
New Mexican colonists founded the town of La Placita on the east side of the Santa Ana River at the extremity of what is now the city of Riverside in 1843. When the initial 27 California counties were established in 1850 the area known as Riverside County was divided between Los Angeles County and San Diego County. In 1853 the eastern part of Los Angeles County was used to create San Bernardino County, between 1891 and 1893 several proposals, and legislative attempts, were put forth to form new counties in Southern California. These proposals included one for a Pomona County and one for a San Jacinto County, none of the proposals were adopted until a measure to create Riverside County was signed by Governor Henry H. Markham on March 11,1893. The new county was created from parts of San Bernardino County, on May 2,1893, seventy percent of voters approved the formation of Riverside County
San Bernardino Mountains
The San Bernardino Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in Southern California in the United States. Situated north and northeast of San Bernardino and spanning two California counties, the range out at 11,489 feet at San Gorgonio Mountain – the tallest peak in all of Southern California. The San Bernardinos form a significant region of wilderness and are popular for hiking and skiing, the mountains were formed about eleven million years ago by tectonic activity along the San Andreas Fault, and are still actively rising. Many local rivers originate in the range, which receives more precipitation than the surrounding desert. The ranges unique and varying environment allows it to some of the greatest biodiversity in the state. For over 10,000 years, the San Bernardinos and their surrounds have been inhabited by indigenous peoples, Spanish explorers first encountered the San Bernardinos in the late 18th century, naming the eponymous San Bernardino Valley at its base. European settlement of the region progressed slowly until 1860, when the became the focus of the largest gold rush ever to occur in Southern California.
Recreational development of the began in the early 20th century. Since then, the mountains have been engineered for transportation. Four major state highways and the California Aqueduct traverse the mountains today, the Morongo Valley in the southeast divides the range from the Little San Bernardino Mountains. Encompassing roughly 2,100 square miles, the mountains lie mostly in San Bernardino County, the range divides three major physiographic regions, the highly urbanized Inland Empire to the southwest, the Coachella Valley in the southeast, and the Mojave Desert to the north. Most of the lies within the boundaries of the San Bernardino National Forest. From its northwestern end, the crest of the mountains rises steadily until they are interrupted by the gorge of Bear Creek, many cities lie at the base of the San Bernardino Mountains. These include San Bernardino and Yucaipa in the south, Yucca Valley to the east, in addition, there are several mid-sized to large towns in the mountains themselves, including Big Bear Lake, Big Bear City, Lake Arrowhead and Running Springs.
Cities within the San Bernardino Mountains total a population of about 44,000, several regional streams and rivers have their headwaters in the mountains. The principal drainage is provided by the Santa Ana River, which runs westwards into the Pacific Ocean in Orange County, the San Bernardino Mountains are a humid island in the mostly semi-arid southern California coastal plain. Parts of the San Bernardino Mountains have annual totals in excess of 40 inches. Most of the falls between November and March, summers are mostly dry except for infrequent thunderstorms during late summer
San Gorgonio Wilderness
The San Gorgonio Wilderness is located in the eastern San Bernardino Mountains, in San Bernardino County and into northern Riverside County, Southern California. It begins north of San Gorgonio Pass, approximately 2 miles west of Morongo Valley and 10 miles northwest of Palm Springs, California. The wilderness is part of the slope of the San Bernardino Mountains, with topography rapidly changing from low, rolling foothills and canyons to steep. These mountains include Mount San Gorgonio and several peaks over 10,000 feet. Elevations range from 2,300 to 11,502 feet, the United States Congress designated the San Gorgonio Wilderness in 1964. By 1984, it expanded to 23,720 acres, in 1994, it was further expanded with additional BLM lands and it now has a total of 94,702 acres. The San Gorgonio Wilderness is now within the Sand to Snow National Monument and it is managed jointly by the San Bernardino National Forest and the Bureau of Land Management. San Bernardino Mountains topics Recreation. gov, San Gorgonio Wilderness area Wilderness.
net, San Gorgonio Wilderness San Gorgonio Wilderness Association
The Transverse Ranges are a group of mountain ranges of southern California, in the Pacific Coast Ranges physiographic region in North America. The Transverse Ranges begin at the end of the California Coast Ranges. They derive the name Transverse Ranges due to their east–west orientation, most of the system lies in the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. Lower elevations are dominated by chaparral and scrubland, while higher elevations support large conifer forests, most of the ranges in the system are fault blocks, and were uplifted by tectonic movements during the Cenozoic Era. Most of the Transverse Ranges are bounded to the north and east by the San Andreas Fault, which separates the ranges from the California Coast Ranges, notable passes along the fault include Tejon Pass, Cajon Pass, and San Gorgonio Pass. Components of Transverse Ranges to the north of the include the Tehachapi Mountains. The western and southern boundaries are generally acknowledged to be the Pacific Ocean and various alluvial valleys, major passes not along the San Andreas Fault include Gaviota Pass, San Marcos Pass, the Conejo Grade, Newhall Pass, and Cahuenga Pass.
The mountains are notable for being steep and difficult to traverse across, on its northern end, there are few passes that are sufficiently low or wide enough to accommodate significant volumes of traffic. This results in significant traffic issues throughout Southern California when a pass has to be shut due to heavy snow or construction. Occasionally, such as Santa Barbara during the 2005 La Conchita landslide, the Transverse Ranges manifest themselves as a series of roughly parallel ridges with an average height of 3, 000–8,000 feet. They begin at Point Conception in Santa Barbara County, and include the Santa Ynez Mountains that run parallel to the coast behind Santa Barbara. Also in Santa Barbara County, they include the San Rafael Mountains, the Ranges include the steep San Gabriel Mountains northeast of Los Angeles, the San Rafael Hills, Puente Hills, San Jose Hills, and Chino Hills, and the San Bernardino Mountains. The Mojave Desert and Californias low desert, including the Coachella Valley, are at the end of the ranges.
The northern Channel Islands of California are part of the Transverse Ranges, San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, snow falls above 6,000 feet most winters, and above 3,000 feet every few years. It is rare for elevations above 8,000 feet to go multiple winters without snow, the tree line lies at about 11,000 feet, San Gorgonio Mountain is the only peak with an alpine environment. The Transverse Ranges have a geological history, and the rock composition of the ranges are varied. The Transverse Ranges represent a complex of tectonic forces and faulting stemming from the interaction of the Pacific Plate, the San Andreas Fault is a dextral strike-slip fault with a right step, causing the mountains. Their elevation is somewhat better understood as a consequence of this step, the crust atop the Pacific Plate south of the ranges does not easily make the turn westward as the entire plate moves northwestward, forcing pieces of the crust to compress and lift
San Bernardino, California
San Bernardino /ˈsæn ˌbɜːrnɑːrˈdiːnoʊ/ is a city located in the Riverside-San Bernardino metropolitan area. It serves as the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, as one of the Inland Empires anchor cities, San Bernardino spans 81 square miles on the floor of the San Bernardino Valley and has a population of 209,924 as of the 2010 census. San Bernardino is the 17th-largest city in California and the 100th-largest city in the United States, San Bernardino is home to numerous diplomatic missions for the Inland Empire, being one of four cities in California with numerous consulates. The governments of Guatemala and Mexico have established their consulates in the area of the city. California State University, San Bernardino is located in the part of the city. The university hosts the Coussoulis Arena, in addition, the city is home to the Inland Empire 66ers baseball team, they play their home games at San Manuel Stadium in downtown San Bernardino. In August 2012, San Bernardino became the largest city to choose to file for protection under Chapter 9 of the U. S.
Bankruptcy code, San Bernardinos case was filed on August 1. On December 2,2015, a terrorist attack left 14 people dead and 22 seriously injured, the city of San Bernardino, occupies much of the San Bernardino Valley, which indigenous tribespeople originally referred to as The Valley of the Cupped Hand of God. The Tongva Indians called the San Bernardino area Waaach in their language, upon seeing the immense geological arrowhead-shaped rock formation on the side of the San Bernardino Mountains, they found the hot and cold springs to which the arrowhead seemed to point. Politana was the first Spanish settlement in the San Bernardino Valley, Two years the settlement was destroyed by superstitious local tribesmen, following the powerful earthquakes that shook the region. Several years later, the Serrano and Mountain Cahuilla rebuilt the Politana rancheria and they did and established the San Bernardino de Sena Estancia. Serrano and Cahuilla people inhabited Politana until long after the 1830s decree of secularization, the city of San Bernardino one of the oldest communities in the state of California, and in its present-day location, was not largely settled until 1851, after California became a state.
The first Anglo-American colony was established by pioneers associated with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or Mormons, hardworking Mormon colonists developed irrigated, commercial farming and lumbering, supplying agricultural produce and lumber throughout Southern California. The city was incorporated in the year 1857. Later that year most of the colonists were recalled by Brigham Young in 1857 due to the Utah War, once highly regarded in early California, news of the Mountain Meadows Massacre poisoned attitudes toward the Mormons. They sold these lands to new settlers who came to dominate the culture and politics in the county, many the new land owners unlike the sober Mormons, indulged in drinking at saloons now allowed in the town. Disorder and violence in the vicinity became common, reaching a climax in the 1859 Ainsworth - Gentry Affair, in 1860 a gold rush began in the mountains nearby with the discovery of gold by William F. Holcomb in Holcomb Valley early 1860. Another strike followed in the reach of Lytle Creek
Santa Rosa Wilderness
The Santa Rosa Wilderness is a 72, 259-acre wilderness area in Southern California, in the Santa Rosa Mountains of Riverside and San Diego counties, California. The United States Congress established the wilderness in 1984 with the passage of the California Wilderness Act, in 2009, the Omnibus Public Land Management Act was signed into law which added more than 2,000 acres. Most of the Santa Rosa Wilderness is within the Santa Rosa, the Santa Rosa Mountains have areas of cultural significance containing primitive trails, roasting pits, milling stations, rock shelters and examples of rock art. Native Americans have identified areas that are used for temporary habitation, resource collection. Remains of historical settlement and mining include quarry sites, mining prospects. The wilderness protects habitat that supports the largest herd of Peninsular bighorn sheep in the country, the Peninsular Range bighorn sheep herd utilize the entire range between 1,000 to 4,000 feet elevation. Bear Creek, Deep Canyon and Martinez Canyon are important as summer concentration areas, besides bighorn sheep, there are mule deer and coyote.
Native rare plants in the Santa Rosa Wilderness include shrubs such as Santa Rosa sage, perennial herbs include Santa Rosa Mountains leptosiphon, and triple ribbed milkvetch. The rugged terrain is formed by uplifted blocks of igneous and metamorphic rocks situated between two major fault zones, the San Andreas and the San Jacinto. Perennial streams erode the steep-walled canyons and support large fan palm oases, the Santa Rosa Mountain range and the two faults all trend northwest-southeast and are part of the Peninsular Ranges that extend from Southern California to Baja, Mexico. Recreational activities in the Santa Rosa Wilderness include backpacking, horseback riding, day hiking, the Boo Hoff equestrian trail is one of the few trails in the wilderness that is constructed and maintained by a local equestrian club. The Cactus Spring Trail which is an ancient aboriginal pathway, links the Santa Rosa plateau with the floor in the Coachella Valley. To the west, this trail connects with designated areas in the San Bernardino National Forest.
Rabbit Peak, located near the boundary, is a notable desert peak for its challenging climb to the 6. Local Sierra Club chapters lead organized day and overnight trips to the peak and local colleges utilize the Santa Rosa Mountains frequently as a living laboratory for scientific and informal studies and outings. Hunting is restricted to the half of the wilderness since the northern portion is located within a State Wildlife Refuge. Deer and dove are hunted in season, Fauna of the Colorado Desert List of Sonoran Desert wildflowers Category, Geography of the Colorado Desert BLM Wilderness Study Areas Report, Santa Rosa Mountains,1990
Bureau of Land Management
President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies, the General Land Office and the Grazing Service. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states, Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. The mission of the BLM is to sustain the health, originally BLM holdings were described as land nobody wanted because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits, the agency manages 221 wilderness areas,23 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Landscape Conservation System totaling about 30 million acres. There are more than 63,000 oil and gas wells on BLM public lands, total energy leases generated approximately $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, and Native American groups. The BLMs roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution.
As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored, during the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies. After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, France, in the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function, Land was sold so that the government would have money to survive. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted, the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by trial and error, once the territory of Ohio had been surveyed, in 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were finally fulfilled, over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land.
Several different types of patents existed and these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, and town lots. A system of land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land that was surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory. This pattern gradually spread across the entire United States, the laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, gas, the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees. The Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937, commonly referred as the O&C Act, in 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for new agency to integrate and reorganize
Paint Your Wagon (film)
Paint Your Wagon is a 1969 Western musical film starring Lee Marvin, Clint Eastwood, and Jean Seberg. The film was adapted by Paddy Chayefsky from the 1951 musical Paint Your Wagon by Lerner and it is set in a mining camp in Gold Rush-era California. It was directed by Joshua Logan, when a wagon crashes into a ravine, prospector Ben Rumson finds two adult male occupants, one of whom is dead and the other of whom has a broken arm and leg. As the first man is about to be buried, gold dust is discovered at the grave site, Ben stakes a claim on the land and adopts the surviving brother as his Pardner while he recuperates. Pardner is initially innocent and romantic, illustrated by him singing a love song about a girl named Elisa. Pardner is a farmer who hopes to make enough in the rush to buy some land. Ben claims that while he is willing to fight, Ben will share the spoils of prospecting on the condition that Pardner takes care of him in his moments of drunkenness and melancholy. After the discovery of gold, No Name City springs up as a tent city with the miners alternating between wild parties and bouts of melancholy.
The men become frustrated with the lack of female companionship, so the arrival of a Mormon, Jacob Woodling. The miners claim it is unfair for the Mormon to have two wives when they have none and they persuade him to sell one of his wives to the highest bidder. Elizabeth, Jacobs younger and more rebellious wife, agrees to be based on the reasoning that whatever she gets. A drunken Ben winds up with the highest bid for Elizabeth, Ben is readied for the wedding by the other miners, and is married to Elizabeth under mining law, with Ben being granted exclusive rights to all her mineral resources. Elizabeth, not content to be treated as property, threatens to shoot Ben on their wedding night if she is not treated with respect. While she believes Ben is not the type to truly settle down, Ben is impressed by Elizabeths determination. He enlists the miners to keep this promise, and Elizabeth rejoices in having a proper home, sensing the other miners becoming obsessed with her, Ben is consumed by jealousy and paranoia.
The town will prosper with additional sources of income as other miners from outlying regions will likely be willing to spend their money in No Name City if it means a chance to visit prostitutes, Ben heads up the mission and leaves Elizabeth in the care of Pardner. The two fall in love, whereupon Elizabeth, saying she still loves Ben, convinces them that if a Mormon man can have two wives, why cant a woman have two husbands. As the town booms, the arrangement with Ben, but soon the town becomes large enough that more civilized people from the East begin to settle there
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Interstate 15 in California
The route consists of the southernmost 287.26 miles of I-15, a major Interstate Highway that extends north through Nevada, a short section of Arizona, Utah and Montana to the Canada–US border. It is a thoroughfare for traffic between San Diego and the Inland Empire, as well as between Southern California, Las Vegas and points beyond. South of its junction at Interstate 8 in San Diego, the highway becomes SR15, extending 5.59 miles to Interstate 5, about 12 miles from the Mexican border. This segment was signed as a state route instead of an Interstate. Including this segment, the length of Route 15 is 293.64 miles. Wetterling and San Bernardino County Sheriffs Lieutenant Alfred E. Stewart Memorial Highway, SR15 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System. SR15 begins south of I-5 at 32nd Street near Harbor Drive, after this, SR15 has an interchange with SR94, which has been cited as not being up to Interstate standards. Between the Polk Avenue and Orange Avenue overpasses, the freeway goes under a city park that was built on top of the freeway during construction in 2001, pedestrian bridges were built at Monroe Avenue and Landis Street to reduce the effects of the freeway geographically dividing the community.
Between I-8 and I-805, SR15 follows the alignment of 40th Street. It continues seamlessly into the terminus of I-15 at I-8 in San Diego. On the northbound conversion to I-15 at I-8, there is no End SR15 sign, there are various local names for the highway, such as the Escondido Freeway between San Diego and Escondido. I-15 between SR163 and Pomerado Road/Miramar Road is known as the Semper Fi Highway in recognition of the nearby Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. I-15 between Scripps Poway Pkwy and Camino Del Norte is known as the Tony Gwynn Memorial Freeway in recognition of Tony Gwynn who played in the San Diego Padres, North of the Escondido city limits it is known as the Avocado Highway, whose designation ends upon entering Temecula. There are other names as noted below. Heading northward, I-15 currently begins at I-8, at the place that its continuation, SR15. I-15 goes through Mission Valley and intersects with SR52, before merging with SR163, after traversing the Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, I-15 comes into Rancho Peñasquitos, where it intersects with the end of SR56.
Northward, the route crosses Lake Hodges inside the upper San Diego city limits, I-15 continues north into Escondido, where it interchanges with SR78. In Riverside County, SR79 joins I-15 and runs concurrently with the route for a 3. 2-mile portion in Temecula, then, I-15 intersects with the southern end of I-215, which continues the designation of the Escondido Freeway
Toro Peak, in Southern California, is the highest mountain in the Santa Rosa Mountain Range. It is located 15 mi south of Palm Springs,12 mi west of the Salton Sea, part of the mountain is under the jurisdiction of the San Bernardino National Forest. Another portion, including the 8,717 ft summit and the United States Geological Survey marker on the summit, is gated and controlled by the Santa Rosa Indian Reservation, a third portion of the mountain is administered by the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument. The mountain is accessible from California State Route 74 via a road approximately 5 miles east of Route 74s junction with Route 371. The dirt road begins at an elevation of 4,700 feet, a 4x4 or off-road vehicle is recommended because the road is steep and rocky. From Toro Peaks summit one can see the Santa Rosa Mountain Range to Palm Springs, and neighboring mountains such as San Jacinto Peak, Mount San Gorgonio, Palomar Mountain, to the east/southeast, the Salton Sea and Imperial Valley are visible.
From the peak in good weather Charleston Peak in Nevada is visible, Toro Peak and the Santa Rosa Mountains come under the category of sky island mountains. Vegetation on the mountain is a variety of trees, Incense Cedar, White Fir, Jeffrey Pine, Ponderosa Pine, Sugar Pine and on the highest slopes Limber Pine. Typical of mountains closest to the Pacific in California, these trees ignore the elevation separations of vegetation that are found on other mountains. In winter, the weather on Toro Peak and the Santa Rosa Mountains can be difficult, snow falls on the mountain more than a few times during the winter and accounts for most of the annual precipitation, with a smaller percentage coming from scattered thunderstorms during the summer. Nighttime and daytime seasonal lows in the winter and seasonal summer highs are taken from the Long Valley Ranger Station on neighboring Mount San Jacinto and this mountain is one of the many scattered sky islands in the southwest. Toro Peaks high elevation helps clear the smog emitted from Los Angeles, there is limited human activity beyond a few remote campsites on various parts of the mountain.
San Bernardino National Forest Album of Toro Peak pictures, August 2009 Topo map of Toro Peak