Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
University of Ghana
The University of Ghana is the oldest and largest of the thirteen Ghanaian public universities. It was founded in 1948, in the British colony of the Gold Coast, as the University College of the Gold Coast, was an affiliate college of the University of London, which supervised its academic programmes and awarded degrees, it gained full university status in 1961, now has nearly 40,000 students. The original emphasis was on the liberal arts, social sciences, basic science and medicine. However, as part of a national educational reform program, the university's curriculum was expanded to provide more technology-based and vocational courses as well as postgraduate training; the university is based at Legon, about 12 kilometres northeast of the centre of Accra. Its medical school is in Korle Bu, with a teaching hospital and secondary campus in the city of Accra, it has a graduate school of nuclear and Allied Sciences at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, making it one of the few universities on the Africa continent offering programs in nuclear physics and nuclear engineering.
The formation of the West African Commission of the Asquith Commission on Higher Education in the Colonies under the chairmanship of Rt. Hon. Walter Elliot was the birth of this notable institution in 1948; the commission recommended the setting up of university colleges in association with the University of London, thus the University College of the Gold Coast was founded by Ordinance on 11 August 1948 for the purpose of providing for and promoting university education and research. This was made possible by the rejection of the first recommendation which stated that only one university college was feasible for the whole of British West Africa, which would be located in Nigeria by the people of Gold Coast led principally by Dr. J. B. Danquah; the library is located on the main campus of the University. There are five schools, one research institute under this college. School of Medicine and Dentistry School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences School of Nursing Located on the Legon campus though its students receive practical training at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital.
School of Pharmacy School of Public Health Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research Centre for Tropical, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Starting from the 2014/2015 academic year, the University of Ghana adopted the collegiate system and thus categorized all schools and departments under four colleges, which are: College of Basic and Applied Sciences College of Humanities College of Education College of Health Sciences There are six faculties outside the above colleges. Faculty of Arts British Faculty of Social Studies Faculty of Science Faculty of Law The Faculty of Law was first established as a department of the Faculty of Social Studies in the 1958/59 academic year and became a full-fledged faculty in the 1960/61 academic year. From the 2012/2013 academic year, the university will admit fresh S. H. S students into the LLB first-degree program but will retain the post-first degree program, thus the university will have two entry means to the Faculty of Law. Faculty of Engineering Sciences The university has these facilities in the various regions where it runs a variety of programs, including degree courses.
Awudome College has residential facilities that enable short courses over weekends and other duration to be run there. Accra Workers' College, Accra Awudome Residential Workers' College, Tsito Bolgatanga Workers' College, Bolgatanga Cape Coast Workers' College, Cape Coast Ho Workers' College, Ho Koforidua Workers' College, Koforidua Kumasi Workers' College, Kumasi Takoradi Workers' College, Sekondi-Takoradi Tamale Workers' College, Tamale Tema Workers' College, Tema Sunyani Workers' College, Sunyani Wa Workers' College, Wa The Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2018 ranks the University of Ghana at the 800-1000th place globally and 11th in Africa. Other rankings place the university as the best in Ghana. School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences Center of Excellence for Global Environmental Change Research. Center for Social Policy Analysis Center for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System Legon Center for International Affairs and Diplomacy Center for Migration International Center for African Music and Dance Center for Tropical Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Center for Biotechnology Research Center for African Wetlands Language Center West African Center for Crop Improvement West African Center for Cell Biology and Infectious Pathogens The United Nations University for Natural Resources in Africa Center for Gender Studies and Advocacy Regional Training Center for Archivists Ecological laboratory Legon Botanical Gardens The Ghana Herbarium Center for African Foods Center for West African foods Center for International foods Center for Ghana foods African Regional Center for training in postgraduate insect science Institute of African Studies Kade Agricultural Research Station, or Kade Agricultural Research Centre, is an agricultural research center located at Kade, in the Eastern Region of Ghana is part of the University of Ghana Centers of Research and Learning.
It is one of the three agricultural research centers of Ghana's university. The center at Kade was established in 1957, it covers an area of 99.3 hectares and is concerned with research into production of forest zone crops such as citrus, cocoyam, oil palm and rubber, with a special interest in agronomy of perennial crop plants. Commonwealth Hall Legon Hall Mensah Sarbah Hall Volta Hall Akuafo Hall Jubilee HallThe university has eight newly created halls of resi
Antelope Valley College
Antelope Valley College is a community college in Lancaster, California. It is part of the 112-campus California Community College system, it is operated by the Antelope Valley Community College District, with a primary service area of 1,945 square miles covering portions of Los Angeles and Kern counties. Instruction is offered at several sites, including Palmdale and Lancaster, through online and instructional television courses; the college offers Associate in Arts/Associate in Science degrees in 71 fields, as well as certificate programs in 59 vocational areas. The main campus in Lancaster hosts the satellite location of California State University, Bakersfield-Antelope Valley, where students can obtain bachelor's and master's degrees in select subjects; the institution began classes on September 10, 1929, as a department of Antelope Valley High School in Lancaster. It was established as Antelope Valley Junior College, providing the first two years of a college education for those living in what was a remote, rural area.
The name was modified to Antelope Valley College to reflect it comprehensive nature. The average daily attendance at the college was 13 during the 1929-30 school year. There was little growth in enrollment at the college during the depression years. Alfalfa farmers in Antelope Valley were hard hit during the 1930s, the smallest junior college in California suffered serious financial difficulties. Teachers took a 20 percent cut in salaries, which ranged from a state-mandated minimum of $1,350 a year to a $1,595 maximum. Average daily attendance at the college reached 100 by 1939, but with World War II, attendance plummeted. Attendance reached a low of 13 during the same ADA as the year the school was founded. There were pressures to close the junior college, but trustees and staff held out until veterans returned from the war. Enrollment grew during the postwar years because of the GI Bill of Rights and because Antelope Valley began developing an aircraft industry. In 1959, groundbreaking was held for a new college campus on 110 acres at Avenue K and 30th Street West, designed by the architect Henry L. Gogerty.
The college campus has expanded to 135 acres through land purchases. Antelope Valley College competes in the California Community College Athletic Association. Antelope Valley College has grown to a student population of 16,000, it is the largest and primary source of higher education in the region. The college maintains a temporary leased site in the City of Palmdale, which serves nearly 2,000 students. Plans call for creation of a full campus on 60 acres of land in southern Palmdale on 25th Street East, south of Avenue S. College officials are working toward a sustainable enrollment of 1,000 full-time equivalent students to qualify Palmdale for center status—a key step in developing a permanent campus. Officials in April 2009 expressed their intent to submit an initial project proposal for a campus to the state in June 2010. Antelope Valley College is accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Among the many programs offered through the college are an associate degree program in registered nursing approved by the Board of Registered Nursing, an airframe and powerplant technician program certified by the Federal Aviation Administration, a lower division engineering program that co-ordinates with an engineering degree program offered locally through California State University, Long Beach.
Other programs include aircraft fabrication and assembly, computer graphics, respiratory therapy, Firefighter I Academy and wildland fire technology. In conjunction with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, the Lancaster campus hosts the Sheriff's Training Academy, which meets the requirements of the Peace Officer Standards and Training for training members of the sheriff's department and other law enforcement agencies; the community college district is governed by a locally elected Board of Trustees consisting of five members serving four-year terms, plus a student trustee elected annually by members of the student body. Kevin Appier, former MLB pitcher for the Kansas City Royals and Anaheim Angels. Jim Bruske, former MLB pitcher, Los Angeles Dodgers and San Diego Padres, among others. Brodus Clay, former WWE wrestler wrestled in TNA as Tyrus. DeAndra Cobb, former running back, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Canadian Football League. Dave Cox, California State Senator, 1st District. Kevin Curtis and chief technology officer, InPhase Technologies.
Dewayne Dedmon, professional basketball player. Larry S. Dickenson, senior vice president, The Boeing Company. Frank Jackson, Associate Justice, Court of Appeal, Second Appellate District. Steve Knight, U. S. Congressman from California 25th District James C. Ledford Jr. mayor, City of Palmdale, California. Rex Parris and mayor, City of Lancaster, California. Tony Reed, former running back, Kansas City Chiefs, Denver Broncos. James Richards, former Canadian Football League offensive guard Greg Floyd Jr. professional basketball player for the JBA's LA Ballers, former JBA USA team member, Isaiah Rider, former professional basketball player. Kay Ryan, Poet Laureate, Library of Congress, July 2008 – 2010. Jim Slaton, former Milwaukee Brewers pitcher, bullpen coach, Seattle Mariners, current pitching coach of the Los Angeles Dodgers AAA affiliate Albuquerque Isotopes. Official website
Victor Valley College
Victor Valley College is a community college in the southeast corner of Victorville, United States, part of the 112-campus California Community College System. The Victor Valley Community College district includes Victorville, Apple Valley and Adelanto; the college was created by a vote of the public in 1960 and the first classes were held in 1961 at Victor Valley High School in an unused building. The 253-acre campus started construction in 1963 and was opened to students in 1965. During the 1990s and 2000s, the campus went through a number of improvements as the resident population of the High Desert increased, most notably an Adaptive Physical Education Building, Advanced Technology Building, Library, an expanded Performing Arts Center and the Student Activities Center. On February 14, 2012, Victor Valley Community College District opened its first satellite campus in Apple Valley called the Regional Public Safety Training Center just northwest of the Apple Valley County Airport The new center contains 46,000 sq. ft. of classrooms, conference rooms and lecture halls.
Directly outside the center, a prop area called "CERT City" has large vehicles, a hazard tower and disaster areas for simulated exercises. Construction on the second satellite campus, the "Westside" Workforce Development Center in West Hesperia remains in the planning stages with hopes to complete the project before 2020; the college provides nearly 40 major courses of study, with the most popular being Liberal Arts, Registered Nursing and Business Management. Other majors include vocational subjects in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Fire Science, Music, Digital Animation, Computer Information Systems, Automotive Repair, Construction Technology, Criminal Justice; as a junior college, VVC issues associate degrees. Thirty three of these programs offer Associate Degrees in either Associate of Arts or Associates of Science, along with California's Associates Transfer Degree which guarantees admission to either Cal State University or University of California campuses that participate in the program.
Offices are present on-site from universities in partnership with VVC to allow distance education coursework in a handful of majors that provide students with bachelor's degrees. There are Certificates of Achievement or Certificates of Participation for 128 Vocational subjects including Administration of Justice, Fire Technology, Computer Networking and Repair, Medical/Nursing. LocationVictor Valley College lies on the southern edge of the Mojave Desert; the college sits directly to the south of Spring Valley Lake. It is located at the most southeastern point in the City of Victorville. Directly south of the campus is Hesperia and east of the campus past the Mojave River is the town of Apple Valley; the San Bernardino and Los Angeles mountain ranges lie 15 miles to the south and southwest of the college. The Community College District boundaries are set east of Antelope Valley, south of Barstow, north of both San Bernardino and Rancho Cucamonga, northwest of Joshua Tree; the boundaries are for planning and research only, as California Community College campuses statewide practice Open Enrollment policies.
Campus propertyVictor Valley College features are split into Upper and Lower campuses by a steep hill halfway through the school property. The Upper Campus on the west is limited on the west by Spring Valley Lake Parkway, built around a man-made lake surrounded by campus buildings on all sides; the Lower Campus on the eastern side is bordered by the Mojave River and the Mojave Fish Hatchery, run by the State of California. The north of the campus property adjacent to Spring Valley Lake offers additional expansion room, somewhat limited by hilly terrain and natural debris flow. Bear Valley Road physically limits Victor Valley College on the south, being a major highway as well as the city limit of Hesperia; the current student population averages 12,000 full-time enrolled students. A full-time staff of 600 classified and instructional employees are on duty, which includes 140 full-time instructors. Student race and ethnicity statistics show that VVC is 47% Hispanic/Latino, 33% White, 12% Black or African-American.
63% of the student body is under the age of 25 years, 70% of the campus attends in-person, with 20% having some distance education courses in their schedule and 10% attend only in distance education classes. The following statistics apply out of all students who complete their programs of study within 150% of their "normal time" attending college: 16% Graduation Rate 15% of students transferring out to a 4-year college/university. VVC is a "feeder school" to California State University, San Bernardino with most transferees having attended VVC to complete their undergraduate work for the university. 14% of the male student body graduates versus 17% of the female population In Fall 2010, 100% of the students who were non-resident aliens graduated, with the second higher group being students who identify as multi-racial at 20%.150% of the "normal time" is the same amount of time used to permit
San Jacinto Fault Zone
The San Jacinto Fault Zone is a major strike-slip fault zone that runs through San Bernardino, San Diego, Imperial Counties in Southern California. The SJFZ is a component of the larger San Andreas transform system and is considered to be the most seismically active fault zone in the area. Together they relieve the majority of the stress between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates; the SJFZ itself consists of many individual fault segments, some of which have only been individualized as as the 1980s, but activity along the line of faults has been documented since the 1890s. One segment of the SJFZ, the Anza seismic gap, has not experienced any major activity since instrumental records have been kept; each segment was evaluated for its seismic risk and was assigned a probability for the occurrence of a large rupture for the thirty-year period starting in 1995. While several of the large earthquakes along the SJFZ have not resulted in significant property damage or loss of life the cities of Hemet and San Jacinto were both damaged in two significant events in 1899 and 1918.
The recurrence interval for a series of large earthquakes starting in 1899 was 18, 5, 14, 5, 12, 14, 19 years, yet there has not been a strong earthquake for 31 years. The San Jacinto Fault Zone and the San Andreas Fault accommodate up to 80% of the slip rate between the North American and Pacific plates; the extreme southern portion of the SAF has experienced two moderate events in historical times, while the SJFZ is one of California's most active fault zones and has produced both moderate and large events. The locations of earthquakes before the 1954 Arroyo Salada earthquake are not known, but the events' effects place them on the SJFZ and not on the SAF; the 1923 North San Jacinto Fault earthquake struck the Inland Empire area of southern California at a time of low population, a repeat event in modern times would result in heavy property damage and loss of life. A 1995 report by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities identified seven individual segments of the SJFZ; the group consisted of more than three dozen seismologists, including Keiiti Aki and C.
Allin Cornell, was organized by the Southern California Earthquake Center for the USGS and the California Office of Emergency Services. The 1995 paper was the third in a series of reports, set in motion following the 1992 Landers earthquake in southern California with the intention of updating the data and the approach for calculating the probabilities for large earthquakes along the southern San Andreas and San Jacinto Fault zones. Both these fault zones were grouped together as having adequate paleoseismic data to assign conditional probabilities for future damaging earthquakes; the original Working Group in 1988 had identified five segments of the fault zone. From north to south, the segments were labeled the San Bernardino Valley, San Jacinto Valley, Borrego Mountain, Superstition Hills; the 1995 group added the Coyote Creek and Superstition Mountain segments, defined the Anza segment to include the Clark and Casa Loma faults, updated the slip rates for each segment. The three northern sections were assigned 12 mm per year of slip and the four remaining sections were given 4 mm of slip, error rates were half the total estimated slip for each segment with the exception of the Anza segment which had exaggerated rates of +7 mm and −5 mm.
Thirty year probabilities for segment-rupturing earthquakes were estimated using three separate models a preferred weighted result was presented for each segment. While the San Bernardino and San Jacinto segments both saw large increases since the 1988 report, due in part to increased estimates for slip rates and decreased estimates for inherent displacement, the Anza segment was determined to have a decreased probability, based on an increased segment length; the Coyote Creek, Superstition Mountain, Superstition Hills segments received first time estimates and the Borrego Mountain segment received a more specific value of 6%. The northernmost primary strand of the SJFZ is the Claremont strand, it spans a total of 75 km, from its northern endpoint in Cajon Pass to its southern endpoint in the San Jacinto Valley. Within the San Bernardino Valley itself, the SJFZ approaches or intersects the right-lateral strike-slip San Andreas Fault to the north, the oblique normal Crafton Hills Fault Zone to the east, the Cucamonga Thrust to the west.
A series of moderate earthquakes affected this area in the 1890s, though it is uncertain how many of these occurred on the SJFZ. The Claremont strand has not had a major earthquake in the instrumental period, but paleoseismology indicates that its last surface rupturing event occurred in the early 19th century, that comparable earthquakes occur on average of every 160 to 220 years; the San Jacinto Valley is a 25 km long, ~4 km wide valley, formed by extension in a region of overlap between two major parallel strands of the SJFZ. The valley is bounded by the Claremont strand to the northwest and the 25 km long Casa Loma strand to the southeast; the Clark strand, separated from the Casa Loma by a small compressional step in the city of Hemet, continues southeastward out of the valley. This area was damaged by the historic earthquakes of 1899 and 1918; the 1899 event is thought to have occurred within the valley on the Casa Loma strand, while the 1918
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Softball is a variant of baseball played with a larger ball on a field that has base lengths of 60 feet, a pitcher's mound that ranges from 35-43 feet away from home plate, a homerun fence, 220 feet away from home plate. It was invented in 1887 in Chicago, United States as an indoor game; the game moves at a faster pace than traditional baseball. There is less time for the base runner to get to first; the name softball was given to the game in 1926, because the ball used to be soft, however in modern day usage, the balls are hard. A tournament held in 1933 at the Chicago World's Fair spurred interest in the game; the Amateur Softball Association of America governs the game in the United States and sponsors annual sectional and World Series championships. The World Baseball Softball Confederation regulates rules of play in more than 110 countries, including the United States and Canada. Women's fast pitch softball became a Summer Olympic sport in 1996, but it and baseball were dropped from the 2012 Games.
There are three types of softball. In the most common type, slow-pitch softball, the ball, which can measure either 11 or 12 inches in circumference depending on gender and league, must arch on its path to the batter, there are 10 players on the field at once. In fastpitch softball, the pitch is fast, there are nine players on the field at one time, bunting and stealing bases are permitted. Modified softball restricts the "windmill" wind-up used by fastpitch pitchers, although the pitcher is allowed to throw as hard as possible with the restricted back swing. Softball rules vary somewhat from those of baseball. Two major differences are that the ball must be pitched underhand—from 46 ft for men or 43 ft for women as compared with 60.5 ft in baseball—and that seven innings instead of nine constitute a regulation game. Despite the name, the ball used in softball is not soft, it is about 12 in in circumference, 3 in larger than a baseball. Softball recreational leagues for children use 11-inch balls until they participate in travel ball around age 12 and adjust to a 12-inch sized ball.
The infield in softball is smaller than on an adult or high school baseball diamond but identical to that used by Little League Baseball. In fast pitch softball the entire infield is dirt, whereas the infield in baseball is grass except at the bases and on the pitcher's mound which are dirt. Softball mounds are flat, while baseball mounds are a small hill. Softballs are pitched underhand; this changes the arc of the ball. For example, depending if the pitcher pitches a fastball, in softball the ball would most rise while in baseball because the pitcher is on a hill, the ball would drop; the earliest known softball game was played in Chicago, Illinois on Thanksgiving Day, 1887. It took place at the Farragut Boat Club at a gathering to hear the outcome of the Yale University and Harvard University football game; when the score was announced and bets were settled, a Yale alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard supporter. The Harvard fan swung at the rolled up glove. George Hancock, a reporter there, called out "Play ball!" and the game began, with the boxing glove tightened into a ball, a broom handle serving as a bat.
This first contest ended with a score of 41–40. The ball, being soft, was fielded barehanded. George Hancock is credited as the game's inventor for his development of a 17" ball and an undersized bat in the next week; the Farragut Club soon set rules for the game, which spread to outsiders. Envisioned as a way for baseball players to maintain their skills during the winter, the sport was called "Indoor Baseball". Under the name of "Indoor-Outdoor", the game moved outside in the next year, the first rules were published in 1889. In 1895 Lewis Rober, Sr. of Minneapolis organized outdoor games as exercise for firefighters. Rober's version of the game used a ball 12 inches in circumference, rather than the 16-inch ball used by the Farragut club, the Minneapolis ball prevailed, although the dimensions of the Minneapolis diamond were passed over in favor of the dimensions of the Chicago one. Rober may not have been familiar with the Farragut Club rules. Fire Station No. 19 in Minneapolis, Rober's post from 1896 to 1906, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in part for its association with the sport's development.
The first softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto in 1897. The name "softball" dates back to 1926; the name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress. The name softball had spread across the United States by 1930. By the 1930s, similar sports with different rules and names were being played all over the United States and Canada. By 1936, the Joint Rules Committee on Softball had standardized the rules and naming throughout the United States. Sixteen-inch softball sometimes referred to as "mush ball" or "super-slow pitch", is a direct descendant of Hancock's original game. Defensive players are not allowed to wear fi