Charles Frederick Holder
Charles Frederick Holder was an American naturalist and writer who produced over 40 books and thousands of articles. Known as a pioneer of big-game fishing, he founded and led the Tuna Club of Avalon, credited as the first game fishing organization, he was active in Pasadena, where he was a trustee of Throop College and co-founder of the Tournament of Roses. Holder came from a wealthy Massachusetts Quaker family, his father was his mother Emily Augusta Gove. He attended the Friends' school in Providence, Rhode Island, Allen's preparatory school at West Newton, Massachusetts, as well as from private tutors. In 1869, he attended the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis but he did not continue in the Navy after graduation. After working as a curator at New York's American Museum of Natural History, he moved to Pasadena, California in 1885. A passionate naturalist throughout his life, he was known for his books on marine zoology and the first books on big-game fishing, a sport Holder pioneered in 1898.
His books are noted for their combination of accurate scientific detail with exciting narratives. From 1890 to 1891, Holder was a President of the Tournament of Roses Association, for 1910 he was named the tournament grand marshal, he became known in Pasadena as a businessman and conservationist/sportsman. In 1898, he founded the Tuna Club of Avalon on Santa Catalina Island, as an international organization that called for proper management of all game fish. In 1910, he traveled with Frederick Russell Burnham to Mexico and uncovered Mayan artifacts, including the Esperanza Stone, a paranormal relic described in The Book of the Damned. Holder died in Pasadena as a result of an automobile accident and is buried in Mountain View Cemetery in Altadena, next to his wife, Sarah Elizabeth Ufford Holder. In 1998, he was inducted in the International Game Fish Association Hall of Fame. Elements of zoology, Southern California: its climate, mountains, watering places, fruits and game, a guide-book, All about Pasadena and its vicinity.
The topics include horseback hunts for lynx and wolves. Throughout, Holder argues for the sportsman's role in conservation. Sport fishing in California and Florida. Bulletin of the Bureau of fisheries, volume XXVIII. Proceedings of the Fourth International fishery congress, Washington. Pasadena, the crown of the valley, Fish stories alleged and experienced, with a little history natural and unnatural Recreations of a sportsman on the Pacific coast, The Channel islands of California. ISSN 0036-8733. Salt Water Game Fishing, Biography of Frederick Russell Burnham List of American fishers Media related to Charles Frederick Holder at Wikimedia Commons Works related to Charles Frederick Holder at Wikisource Works by or about Charles Frederick Holder at Internet Archive Works by Charles Frederick Holder at LibriVox
The Chumash are a Native American people who inhabited the central and southern coastal regions of California, in portions of what is now San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara and Los Angeles counties, extending from Morro Bay in the north to Malibu in the south. They occupied three of the Channel Islands: Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, San Miguel. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Nipomo, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Lake Castaic, Simi Valley and Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area and lived along the southern California coast for millennia, they inhabited the Antelope Valley in Palmdale and traded with the Kitanemuk tribe in the Mojave desert. The Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources; the tribe lived in an area of three environments: the interior, the coast, the Northern Channel Islands.
These provided a diverse array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is composed of the land outside the coast and spanning the wide plains and mountains; the coast covers the cliffs and land close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the areas of the ocean from which the Chumash harvested. The Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory. All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the incoming ocean winds; the mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy. What villagers gathered and traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of fish and land densely covered by trees and animals, the Chumash had a diverse array of food. Abundant resources and a winter harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a sedentary lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory.
Such connections spread out the land’s wealth, allowing the Chumash to live comfortably without agriculture. The closer a village was to the ocean, the greater its reliance on maritime resources. Due to advanced canoe designs and island people could procure fish and aquatic mammals from farther out. Shellfish were a good source of nutrition: easy to find and abundant. Many of the favored varieties grew in tidal zones. Shellfish grew in abundance during winter to early spring; some of the consumed species included mussels, a wide array of clams. Haliotis rufescens was harvested along the Central California coast in the pre-contact era; the Chumash and other California Indians used red abalone shells to make a variety of fishhooks, beads and other artifacts. Ocean animals such as otters and seals were thought to be the primary meal of coastal tribes people, but recent evidence shows the aforementioned trade networks exchanged oceanic animals for terrestrial foods from the interior. Any village could acquire fish, but the coastal and island communities specialized in catching not just smaller fish, but the massive catches such as swordfish.
This feat, difficult for today’s technology, was made possible by the tomol plank canoe. Its design allowed for the capture of deepwater fish, it facilitated trade routes between villages. Before contact with Europeans, coastal Chumash relied less on terrestrial resources than they did on maritime. Regardless, they consumed similar land resources. Like many other tribes, deer were the most important land mammal. Interior Chumash placed greater value on the deer, to the extent that they had unique hunting practices for them, they dressed as deer and grazed alongside the animals until the hunters were in range to use their arrows. Chumash close to the ocean pursued deer, though in understandably fewer numbers, what more meat the villages needed they acquired from smaller animals such as rabbits and birds. Plant foods composed the rest of Chumash diet acorns, which were the staple food despite the work needed to remove their inherent toxins, they could be ground into a paste, easy to eat and store for years.
Coast live. Native Americans have lived along the California coast for at least 13,000 years; the first settlement started over 13,000 years ago near the Santa Barbara coast. The name Chumash means “bead maker” or “seashell people” being that they originated near the Santa Barbara coast; the Chumash tribes near the coast benefited most with the “close juxtaposition of a variety or marine and terrestrial habitats, intensive upwelling in coastal waters, intentional burning of the landscape made the Santa Barbara Channel region one of the most resource abundant places on the planet”. Before the mission period, the Chumash lived in over 150 independent villages, speaking variations of the same language. Much of their culture consisted of basketry, bead manufacturing and trading, cuisine of local abalone and clam, herbalism which consisted of using local herbs to produce teas and medical rel
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are located on the western coasts of continents, between 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator between oceanic climates towards the poles, semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator. In essence, due to the seasonal shift of the subtropical high-pressure belts with the apparent movement of the Sun, a Mediterranean climate is an intermediate type between these other climates, with winters warmer and drier than oceanic climates and summers imitating sunny weather in semi-arid and arid climates; the resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, the matorral in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called "Mediterranean trinity" of agricultural products have traditionally developed: wheat and olive.
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, including Algiers, Beirut, İzmir, Marseille, Rome and Valencia. Examples of major cities with Mediterranean climates that lie outside of the historic Mediterranean basin include major examples as Adelaide, Cape Town, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Perth, San Francisco and Victoria. Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates and "cool dry-summer" climates are referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group. Temperate climates or "C" zones have an average temperature above 0 °C, but below 18 °C, in their coolest months; the second letter indicates the precipitation pattern. Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, use a 40 mm level; the third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C, while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C.
Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, parts of New Zealand. Additional highland areas in the subtropics meet Cs requirements, though they, are not associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, the eastern part of the Azores. Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification, the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C or higher, the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm. Thus, under this system, many Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do, the rare Csc zones become Eo, with only the classic dry-summer to warm winter, low annual rainfall locations included in the Mediterranean type climate.
During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate are influenced by cold ocean currents which keep the weather in the region dry and pleasant. Similar to desert climates, in many Mediterranean climates there is a strong diurnal character to daily temperatures in the warm summer months due to strong heating during the day from sunlight and rapid cooling at night. In winter, Mediterranean climate zones are no longer influenced by the cold ocean currents and therefore warmer water settles near land and causes clouds to form and rainfall becomes much more likely; as a result, areas with this climate receive all of their precipitation during their winter and spring seasons, may go anywhere from 3 to 6 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation. In the lower latitudes, precipitation decreases in both the winter and summer because they are closer to the Horse latitudes, thus bringing smaller amounts of rain. Toward the polar latitudes, total moisture increases; the rainfall tends to be more evenly distributed throughout the year in Southern Europe, while in the Eastern Mediterranean and in Southern California the summer is nearly or dry.
In places where evapotranspiration is higher, steppe climates tend to prevail, but still follow the weather pattern of the Mediterranean climate. The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have mild winters and warm summers; however winter and summer temperatures can vary between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. For instance, in the case of winters and Los Angeles experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall unknown, whereas Tashkent has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season. In contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around 21 °C due to
Obsidian is a occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. Obsidian is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools with minimal crystal growth, it is found within the margins of rhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows, where the chemical composition causes a high viscosity which, upon rapid cooling, forms a natural glass from the lava. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this viscous lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Obsidian is hard and amorphous. In the past it was used to manufacture cutting and piercing tools and it has been used experimentally as surgical scalpel blades.... among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass, a substance similar to the stone found by Obsidius in Ethiopia. The translation into English of Natural History written by Pliny the Elder of Rome shows a few sentences on the subject of a volcanic glass called obsidian, discovered in Ethiopia by Obsidius, a Roman explorer. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of cooled lava, the parent material.
Extrusive formation of obsidian may occur when felsic lava cools at the edges of a felsic lava flow or volcanic dome or when lava cools during sudden contact with water or air. Intrusive formation of obsidian may occur. Tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions, though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. Obsidian is mineral-like, but not a true mineral, it is sometimes classified as a mineraloid. Though obsidian is dark in color, similar to mafic rocks such as basalt, obsidian's composition is felsic. Obsidian consists of SiO2 70% or more. Crystalline rocks with obsidian's composition include rhyolite; because obsidian is metastable at the Earth's surface, no obsidian has been found, older than Cretaceous age. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water. Having a low water content when newly formed less than 1% water by weight, obsidian becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater, forming perlite. Pure obsidian is dark in appearance, though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities.
Iron and other transition elements may give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. Few samples are nearly colorless. In some stones, the inclusion of small, radially clustered crystals spherulites of the mineral cristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern. Obsidian may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow, aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled; these bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen. An iridescent, rainbow-like sheen is caused by inclusions of magnetite nanoparticles. Obsidian can be found in locations, it can be found in Argentina, Azerbaijan, Canada, Georgia, Greece, El Salvador, Iceland, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Scotland and the United States. Obsidian flows which may be hiked on are found within the calderas of Newberry Volcano and Medicine Lake Volcano in the Cascade Range of western North America, at Inyo Craters east of the Sierra Nevada in California.
Yellowstone National Park has a mountainside containing obsidian located between Mammoth Hot Springs and the Norris Geyser Basin, deposits can be found in many other western U. S. states including Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Washington and Idaho. Obsidian can be found in the eastern U. S. states of Virginia, as well as North Carolina. There are only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean: Lipari, Pantelleria and Monte Arci. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Gyali. Acıgöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia, one of the more important source areas in the prehistoric Near East; the first known archaeological evidence of usage was in Kariandusi and other sites of the Acheulian age dated 700,000 BC, although the number of objects found at these sites were low relative to the Neolithic. Use of obsidian in pottery of the Neolithic in the area around Lipari was found to be less at a distance representing two weeks journeying. Anatolian sources of obsidian are known to have been the material used in the Levant and modern-day Iraqi Kurdistan from a time beginning sometime about 12,500 BC.
The first attested civilized use is dated to the late fifth millennium BC, known from excavations at Tell Brak. Obsidian was valued in Stone Age cultures because, like flint, it could be fractured to produce sharp blades or arrowheads. Like all glass and some other types of occurring rocks, obsidian breaks with a characteristic conchoidal fracture, it was polished to create early mirrors. Modern archaeologists have developed a relative dating system, obsidian hydration dating, to calculate the age of obsidian artifacts. In the Ubaid in the 5th millennium BC, blades were manufactured from obsidian extracted from outcrops located in modern-day Turkey. Ancient Egyptians used obsidian imported from the eastern Mediterranean and southern Red Sea regions. Obsidian was used in ritual circumcisions because of its deftness and sharpness. In the eastern Mediterranean
A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody, they are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, are under 6 m tall. Plants of many species may grow either depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs less than 2 m tall, such as lavender and most small garden varieties of rose, are termed "subshrubs". An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery; when clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a "stool" results in long new stems known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their character. Shrubs in common garden practice are considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either evergreen.
In botany and ecology, a shrub is more used to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants which are less than 8 metres high and have many stems arising at or near the base. For example, a descriptive system adopted in Australia is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant species. For shrubs 2–8 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-shrub mid-dense foliage cover — open-shrub sparse foliage cover — tall shrubland sparse foliage cover — tall open shrublandFor shrubs less than 2 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-heath or closed low shrubland— mid-dense foliage cover — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland— sparse foliage cover — low shrubland sparse foliage cover — low open shrubland Those marked with * can develop into tree form
Naval Base Coronado
Naval Base Coronado is a consolidated Navy installation encompassing eight military facilities stretching from San Clemente Island, located seventy miles west of San Diego, California, to the Mountain Warfare Training Camp Michael Monsoor and Camp Morena, located sixty miles east of San Diego. In 1997, Naval Base Coronado was created, incorporating eight separate Naval installations under one Commanding Officer; those facilities include: Naval Air Station North Island. These eight facilities encompass more than 57,000 acres and make NBC the largest command in the southwest region of the U. S. Employing over 36,000 military and civilian personnel, NBC accounts for over 30% of the Region's total workforce, has the largest workforce in San Diego County.. Naval Air Station North Island NASNI is located at the north end of Coronado Island in San Diego Bay and is the home port of several aircraft carriers of the United States Navy; the installation hosts nearly all of the Pacific Fleet's helicopter squadrons, several fixed-wing squadrons, multiple Naval Air Reserve activities and is home to the both Fleet Readiness Center Southwest and the headquarters for Commander, Naval Air Forces.
It is part of the largest aerospace-industrial complex in the United States Navy, the 57,000-acre Naval Base Coronado in San Diego County, California. Naval Amphibious Base Coronado NAB is a major shore command, supporting 27 tenant commands, is the West Coast focal point for special and expeditionary warfare training and operations; the on base population is 7,000 military student personnel. Naval Outlying Landing Field Imperial Beach Formerly known as Naval Air Station Imperial Beach, NOLF IB is a facility for helicopters, situated on 1,204 acres 14 miles south of San Diego and within the city limits of Imperial Beach, California, it is referred to locally as "Ream Field." It is known as "The Helicopter Capital of the World". Naval Auxiliary Landing Field San Clemente Island SCI known as Frederick Sherman Field, is a military airport located on San Clemente Island. Silver Strand Training Complex SSTC, located between Imperial Beach and Coronado is the premier training facility for the U. S. Military special forces.
SERE Training Facility Warner Springs Survival, Evasion and Escape training for U. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps flight crews, Naval Special Warfare, Marine Corps Force Recon and Marine Corps Special Operations personnel is conducted at the U. S. Navy's training site in Warner Springs, located in the Cleveland National Forest; the facility is one of two such facilities in the U. S. Navy, with an east coast counterpart facility located in Maine, it is in a remote area near the community of Warner Springs in the northeastern San Diego County, at an elevation of about 3200 feet. The Camp consist of a headquarters area with an administrative building, several staff barracks building, a wastewater treatment plant, a training compound. Camp Michael Monsoor Mountain Warfare Training Facility MWTF known as the La Posta Mountain Warfare Training Facility, located 50 miles east of San Diego, near the city of Campo, in San Diego County, is a 1,063 acres training facility used by the Naval Special Warfare Center.
Camp Morena Located north of Lake Morena County Park, near California. In late 2007, it was announced that, "The Navy plans to spend $600,000 for “camouflage” landscaping and rooftop adjustments so that a 1960s-era barracks at the Naval Amphibious Base Coronado near San Diego will no longer look like a Nazi Swastika from the air; the resemblance went unnoticed by the public for decades until it was spotted in aerial views on Google Earth." Naval Base Coronado website Cnic.navy.mil: Naval Base Coronado New York Times: Naval Base Coronado article