California's Colorado Desert is a part of the larger Sonoran Desert. It encompasses 7 million acres, including the irrigated Coachella and Imperial valleys, it is home to fauna. The Colorado Desert is a subdivision of the larger Sonoran Desert encompassing 7 million acres; the desert encompasses Imperial County and includes parts of San Diego County, Riverside County, a small part of San Bernardino County. Most of the Colorado Desert lies at a low elevation, below 1,000 feet, with the lowest point of the desert floor at 275 feet below sea level, at the Salton Sea. Although the highest peaks of the Peninsular Ranges reach elevations of nearly 10,000 feet, most of the region's mountains do not exceed 3,000 feet. In this region, the geology is dominated by the transition of the tectonic plate boundary from rift to fault; the southernmost strands of the San Andreas Fault connect to the northernmost extensions of the East Pacific Rise. The region is subject to earthquakes, the crust is being stretched, which will result in a sinking of the terrain over time.
The Colorado Desert's climate distinguishes it from other deserts. The region experiences greater summer daytime temperatures than higher-elevation deserts and never experiences frost. In addition, the Colorado Desert experiences two rainy seasons per year toward the southern portion of the region; the west coast Peninsular Ranges, or other west ranges, of Southern California–northern Baja California, block most eastern Pacific coastal air and rains, producing an arid climate. Other short or longer-term weather events can move in from the Gulf of California to the south, are active in the summer monsoons; these include remnants of Pacific hurricanes, storms from the southern tropical jetstream, the northern intertropical convergence zone. The region's terrestrial habitats include creosote bush scrub. Higher elevations are dominated by pinyon pine and California juniper, with areas of manzanita and Coulter pine. In addition to hardy perennials, more than half of the desert's plant species are herbaceous annuals, appropriately timed winter rains produce abundant early spring wildflowers.
In the southern portion of the region, the additional moisture supplied by summer rainfall fosters the germination of summer annual plants and supports smoketree and palo verde trees. Common desert wildlife include mule deer, desert kangaroo rat, cactus mouse, black-tailed jackrabbit, Gambel's quail, red-diamond rattlesnake. Among sensitive species are flat-tailed horned lizard, Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard, desert tortoise, prairie falcon, Andrews' dune scarab beetle, peninsular bighorn sheep, California leaf-nosed bat; the best place to spot wildlife is at the wetland refuges along the Colorado River, Cibola National Wildlife Refuge and Imperial National Wildlife Refuge. In the Colorado Desert's arid environment and wetland habitats are limited in extent but are critically important to wildlife. Runoff from seasonal rains and groundwater springs forms desert arroyos, desert fan palm oases, freshwater marshes, brine lakes, desert washes and perennial streams, desert riparian vegetation communities dominated by cottonwood and non-native tamarisk.
Two of the region's most significant aquatic systems are the Colorado River. While most desert wildlife depend on aquatic habitats as water sources, a number of species, such as the arroyo toad, desert pupfish, Yuma rail, southwestern willow flycatcher, are restricted to these habitats. In some places, summer rains produce short-lived seasonal pools that host uncommon species like Couch's spadefoot toad. Desert fan palm oases are rare, they occur only where permanent water sources are available, such as at springs or along fault lines, where groundwater is forced to the surface by the movement of hard impermeable rock, can be found in the San Jacinto, Santa Rosa, Little San Bernardino mountains, in the canyons of Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, along the San Andreas Fault in the Coachella Valley. The only palm native to California, Washingtonia filifera, grows at the oases; some sub-regions of the Colorado Desert contain endemic flora. Along the Lower Colorado River Valley, in-flow side canyons, flatlands, or low-to-higher level elevations, at least three such flora occur: Hesperocallis undulata, Nolina bigelovii, Peucephyllum schottii.
Joshua Tree National Park Imperial NWR Sonny Bono Salton Sea NWR Indio Hills Palms Anza-Borrego Desert State Park Ocotillo Wells State Vehicular Recreation Area Picacho State Recreation Area Heber Dunes State Vehicular Recreation Area Salton Sea State Recreation Area The Colorado Desert is one of the least-populous regions in California, but human activities have had substantial impacts on the region's habitats and wildlife. Many unique communities aquatic and dune systems, are limited in distribution and separated by vast expanses of inhospitable, arid desert terrain. Limited human disturbances can have markedly deleterious effects on the endemic and sensitive species supported by these unique regional systems; some of the greatest human-caused effects on the region have resulted from the water diversions and flood control measures along the Colorado River. These measures have altered the region's hydrology by redistributing the region's water supp
San Vicente Reservoir
San Vicente Reservoir is a reservoir created by the San Vicente Dam in San Diego County, California. It is located in the Cuyamaca Mountains 4.3 miles north of Lakeside off California State Route 67. The reservoir is formed by impounding the waters of San Vicente Creek, the Colorado River via the First San Diego Aqueduct branch of the Colorado River Aqueduct from Lake Havasu, it is the largest reservoir in the city of San Diego, with a storage capacity of 249,358.0 AF In 2009, construction began of a $568 million project to increase the size of San Vicente Reservoir twofold. San Diego County Water Authority officials are hoping to receive funding from Proposition 18, but will continue the upgrade without these funds if the Proposition is unsuccessful; the raising of the dam more than doubled the reservoir's past capacity of 145,200,000 cu yd by increasing it 245,226,666 cu yd to a total of 390,426,666 cu yd. The reservoir is a popular place for fishing, boating and wakeboarding. San Vicente Reservoir - City of San Diego List of reservoirs and dams in California List of lakes in California U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Vicente Reservoir U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Vicente Creek U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Vicente Dam
Lower Colorado River Valley
The Lower Colorado River Valley is the river region of the lower Colorado River of the southwestern United States in North America that rises in the Rocky Mountains and has its outlet at the Colorado River Delta in the northern Gulf of California in northwestern Mexico, between the states of Baja California and Sonora. This north–south stretch of the Colorado River forms the border between the U. S. states of California/Arizona and Nevada/Arizona, between the Mexican states of Baja California/Sonora. It is defined as the region from below Hoover Dam and Lake Mead to its outlet at the northern Gulf of California, it is home to recreation activities from the river, the lakes created by dams and the home of various cities and towns along the river, or associated with the valley region. Five Indian reservations are located in the LCRV: the Chemehuevi, Fort Mojave and Colorado River Indian Reservations; some of the highest absolute air temperatures are recorded in the LCRV. Worldwide, only some deserts found in Africa and in the Middle East stand up with an hotter summer climate on average.
The LCRV is defined by three deserts. The Mojave Desert is in southeast California, southern Nevada, northwest Arizona. To the south is the Sonoran Desert on both sides of the Colorado River; however an ecozone delineation occurs in the transition from Arizona to southeast California. The Lower Colorado River Valley is located in the north, northwestern Sonoran Desert; the LCRV extends about 350 miles from Hoover Dam to the Colorado River Delta. The Sonoran Desert itself is more than twice as extensive north-to-south, about 450 miles in width. Two species, Desert Ironwood- and the Lesser Long-nosed Bat, have geographic ranges identical to the Sonoran Desert, are indicator species of the Sonoran Desert region; the spring flowering of Ironwood, the bat species migration arrivals become indicators of annual or multi-year climate trends for regions of the Sonoran Desert. The Lower Colorado River Valley subregion of the Sonoran Desert bioregion has multiple threats; some major threats include urbanization, clearing of land for agriculture, human occupancy – as a result of imported external resources, camping and camptrailers on BLM land.
Other threats include harvesting for fuelwood, etc. of desert ironwood, Olneya tesota, destruction of land by offroad vehicles in sand dunes, harvesting and manipulation of groundwater. Laughlin, Nevada in Clark County, Nevada Needles, California in San Bernardino County Bullhead City, Arizona Mojave Valley, Arizona Lake Havasu City, Arizona Vidal, California Parker, Arizona Blythe, California Quartzite, Arizona Winterhaven, California in Imperial County, California Yuma, Arizona in Yuma County, Arizona San Luis, Arizona San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora Rio Grande, the eastern river valley drainage of the Southwest USA Rio Grande Valley Category:Rio Grande Category:Fauna of the U. S. Rio Grande Valleys List of dams of the LCRV List of LCRV communities Little. Atlas of United States Trees, Volume 3, Minor Western Hardwoods, Elbert L, 1976, US Government Printing Office. Library of Congress No. 79-653298. Map 103, Olneya tesota. Journey of the Nectar Bats Map, Lesser Long-nosed Bat range. US Bureau of Reclamation, "Dams Along the Lower Colorado River"
Cataract Canyon is a 46-mile-long canyon of the Colorado River located within Canyonlands National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area in southern Utah. It begins at the Colorado's confluence with the Green River and its downstream terminus is the confluence with the Dirty Devil River; the lower half of the canyon is submerged beneath Lake Powell when the lake is at its normal high water elevation of 3,700 feet. Cataract Canyon is cut by the Colorado River into the Colorado Plateau, a vast continental uplift comprising much of the American Southwest; until 80 million years ago, the Colorado Plateau was near sea level. Over millions of years, a series of inland oceans transgressed onto and regressed from the region, resulting in a series of horizontally deposited rock layers. 70 to 80 million years ago, a series of mountain-building events called the Laramide orogeny uplifted the entire region. The Colorado River subsequently cut through the rock layers; the oldest rock layer visible in Cataract Canyon is the Paradox Formation, deposited 320 million years ago.
Indigenous peoples, most of the Fremont culture, inhabited the Canyonlands area long before European settlers arrived. Rock art and ruins have been found in Cataract Canyon; because of the remote location, it was some time before European explorers and settlers reached the area. The Colorado River and its canyons were more of an obstacle to travel than a destination to be explored; the first recorded European to reach Cataract Canyon was a fur trapper named Denis Julien in 1836. Julien carved his name into a rock wall in the lower section of Cataract Canyon, though this inscription is now covered by Lake Powell; the first organized exploration to travel the entire length of Cataract Canyon was the Powell Expedition in 1869, led by John Wesley Powell, a one-armed Civil War veteran who launched in wooden boats near Green River and traveled down the Green River to its confluence with the Colorado River at the top of Cataract Canyon. The rapids of Cataract Canyon terrified Powell and his men; the expedition portaged their boats around every rapid in a difficult and arduous task.
Because of the difficulty of the rapids, Powell named the canyon Cataract Canyon. After exiting Cataract Canyon, Powell continued his trip downstream through Glen Canyon, now submerged by Lake Powell, the Grand Canyon before ending his trip near the mouth of the Virgin River. Other river runners soon followed. Nathanial Galloway made numerous trips through the canyon beginning in 1894. Galloway would go on to pioneer rowing techniques still used by river runners today. Brothers Emery and Ellsworth Kolb traveled through the canyon in 1911; the Kolb brothers established a studio on the south rim of the Grand Canyon where they featured videos of their exploits running the rapids of the Colorado River. Buzz Holmstrom made a solo trip through Cataract Canyon and Grand Canyon in 1937 ending at the newly constructed Hoover Dam; the first commercial outfitter to offer trips through Cataract Canyon was Norman Nevills in 1938. The advent of rubber rafts came about in the early 1950s with the availability of surplus rubber rafts from World War II.
River runners found the rubber rafts easier to maneuver and much more forgiving than their wooden counterparts. With this newer equipment, many commercial outfitters began running Grand Canyon and Cataract Canyon. Cataract Canyon remains a popular whitewater rafting destination today; the rapids in the canyon are considered "big water", with a character similar to those found in Grand Canyon. Cataract Canyon is rated on the Class I-VI International Scale of River Difficulty, unlike the Grand Canyon, rated on a scale of one to ten. Unlike Grand Canyon, the flow of the Colorado River through Cataract Canyon is far enough downstream from a dam that it is unregulated; the river can reach extreme levels during the spring runoff in years following plentiful snow throughout the Colorado River watershed. During an average spring runoff, the Colorado River will peak at 52,000 cu ft/s; the maximum recorded flow of 114,900 cu ft/s occurred on May 27, 1984. The rapids of Cataract Canyon become difficult at flows above 30,000 cu ft/s and extreme at flows above 50,000 cu ft/s.
Most rapids in Cataract Canyon are named from upstream to downstream as Rapid 1, Rapid 2, etc. However, some rapids within the canyon have separate names due to their notoriety. Notorious are the "Big Drops", a set of three rapids in short succession named "Big Drop 1", "Big Drop 2" and "Big Drop 3". During high water, these three rapids run together to form one large rapid; these rapids contain many large hydraulic features including "Little Niagara", "Satan's Gut", "The Claw". During times of high runoff, the National Park Service sometimes establishes a camp below the big drops and uses a jetboat to facilitate rescues of capsized rafts and their passengers. However, it is understood that all river runners attempting Cataract Canyon at any river level should be capable of self-rescue and not depend on the NPS for support. Cataract Canyon contained several rapids which are submerged beneath Lake Powell and have been buried in lake sediment. "Gypsum Canyon Rapid" and "Dark Canyon Rapid" in particular were considered difficult rapids to navigate.
River trips which run Cataract Canyon must run one of the flatwater sections above the confluence of the Green and Colorado Rivers. Most groups launch at Potash or Mineral Bottom and spend up to five days
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
San Jacinto, California
San Jacinto is a city in Riverside County, California. It was named after Saint Hyacinth and is located at the north end of the San Jacinto Valley, with Hemet to its south and Beaumont, California, to its north; the mountains associated with the valley are the San Jacinto Mountains. The population was 44,199 at the 2010 census; the city was founded in 1870 and incorporated on April 20, 1888, making it one of the oldest cities in Riverside County. The city is home to Mt. San Jacinto College, a community college founded in 1965. San Jacinto will be home to the eastern end of the Mid County Parkway, a planned route that would connect it to the city of Perris. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the city became a home to many dairies, a center for agriculture. San Jacinto is home to the Soboba Casino, a gaming casino owned and operated by the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians; the Sobobas are self-sufficient in community affairs. They have opened the Noli Academy; the Luiseño were the original inhabitants of what would be called the San Jacinto Valley, having many villages with residents.
In their own language, these people called meaning People of the West. They are a Native American people who at the time of the first contacts with the Spanish in the sixteenth century, inhabited the coastal area of southern California, ranging fifty miles from what now is the southern part of Los Angeles County, California to the northern part of contemporary San Diego County and their settlements extended inland for thirty miles; the tribe was named Luiseño by the Spanish due to their proximity to the Mission San Luís Rey de Francia, founded on June 13, 1798 by Father Fermín Francisco de Lasuén, in what was the First Military District in what now is Oceanside, California, in northern San Diego County. The Anza Trail, one of the first European overland routes to California, named after Juan Bautista de Anza,4 crossed the valley in the 1770s. Mission padres named the valley, San Jacinto, Spanish for Saint Hyacinth, around 1820 they established an outpost there. In 1842 José Antonio Estudillo received the Rancho San Jacinto Viejo Mexican land grant.
In the 1860s, the Estudillo family began selling off portions of their rancho and through acquisitions, a small American community began to form. In 1868, local residents petitioned to form a school district and by 1870 a store and post office had been established. With these establishments, 1870 is considered the founding date of San Jacinto. A plan for the community was developed in 1883 and a city government for it was incorporated on April 20, 1888, within San Diego County. San Jacinto is one of the oldest American cities in the region. In May 1893, Riverside County was created by the division of northern San Diego County and part of what now is San Bernardino County, changing the county government over San Jacinto as the new county was created. In 1883, the San Jacinto Land Association laid out the modern city of San Jacinto at Five Points; the railroad arrived in 1888 and the city government was incorporated that same year. The local economy was built on agriculture for many years and the city received a boost from the many tourists who visited the nearby hot springs.
The city, its residents, helped to start the Ramona Pageant, in 1923, have supported the historic production since. On July 15, 1937, San Jacinto was the end point for the longest uninterrupted airplane flight to that date when Mikhail Gromov's crew of three made the historic 6,262-mile polar flight from Moscow, USSR in a Tupolev ANT-25; this flight followed another similar historic flight over the pole when Valery Chkalov's crew of three ended up in Vancouver's Pearson Airfield earlier that same year. With these two flights, the USSR earned two major milestones in the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale flight records. In the early 1950s the fraternal group E Clampus Vitus and the Riverside County Department of Transportation commemorated the Gromov flight by erecting a stone marker on Cottonwood Avenue, just west of Sanderson Avenue in west-central San Jacinto; the landing site is marked by California State Historical Landmark Number 989. San Jacinto is located at 33°47′14″N 116°58′0″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.1 square miles, of which, 25.7 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. The San Jacinto reservoir is an artificial lake used as a basin for the San Diego Aqueduct, a branch of the Colorado River Aqueduct, west of town. Since local geological records have been kept, the city has been struck by two large earthquakes, one on Christmas Day in 1899, the other on April 21, 1918; the 2010 United States Census reported that San Jacinto had a population of 44,199. The population density was 1,691.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Jacinto was 25,272 White, 2,928 African American, 812 Native American, 1,341 Asian, 124 Pacific Islander, 11,208 from other races, 2,514 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23,109 persons; the Census reported that 43,971 people lived in households, 169 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 59 were institutionalized. There were 13,152 households, out of which 6,460 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,954 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,121 had a fema
Glenwood Canyon is a rugged scenic 12.5 mi canyon on the Colorado River in western Colorado in the United States. Its walls climb as high as 1,300 feet above the Colorado River, it is the largest such canyon on the Upper Colorado. The canyon, which has provided the routes of railroads and highways through western Colorado furnishes the routes of Interstate 70 and the Central Corridor between Denver and Grand Junction; the canyon stretches from near Dotsero, where the Colorado receives the Eagle River, downstream in a west-southwest direction to just east of Glenwood Springs, on the mouth of the Roaring Fork. Most of the canyon is with the upper portion near Dotsero lying in Eagle County. In 1906, the canyon provided the route of the Taylor State Road, a gravel road, the first route for automobiles through the Colorado Rockies; the canyon provided the route for the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad in the late 19th century. Through acquisitions, the line is part of the Union Pacific system.
As Glenwood Canyon was one of the iconic scenic views along the California Zephyr passenger train, a monument to the dome car design was installed in the canyon. In the 1990s, the monument was relocated to the Colorado Railroad Museum in Golden to make way for the construction on Interstate 70; the canyon is considered one of the most scenic natural features on the Interstate Highway System of the United States. Foot access to the canyon is available at four rest areas along Interstate 70 in the canyon; the Hanging Lake Rest Area provides access to the canyon along a stretch where I-70 is concealed in the Hanging Lake Tunnel. The freeway is prone to rockslides in the canyon, such as the one that closed it in February 2016; the canyon was formed recently in Pleistocene time by the rapid cutting of the Colorado down through layers of sedimentary rock. The upper layers of the canyon are sandstone from Mississippian. Sections of the lower canyon walls are made of Cambrian rock; the Mississippian layer, prominent throughout much of the upper rim sections of the canyon is part of the Leadville Formation.
Gore Canyon Roadside Geology of Colorado by Halka Chronic. Glenwood Canyon I70 motorway project 12 years later