Giovanni Bellini was an Italian Renaissance painter the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters. His father was Jacopo Bellini, his brother was Gentile Bellini, his brother-in-law was Andrea Mantegna, he was considered to have revolutionized Venetian painting, moving it towards a more sensuous and colouristic style. Through the use of clear, slow-drying oil paints, Giovanni created deep, rich tints and detailed shadings, his sumptuous coloring and fluent, atmospheric landscapes had a great effect on the Venetian painting school on his pupils Giorgione and Titian. Giovanni Bellini was born in Venice, he was brought up in his father's house, always lived and worked in the closest fraternal relation with his brother Gentile. Up until the age of nearly thirty we find in his work a depth of religious feeling and human pathos, his own, his paintings from the early period are all executed in the old tempera method: the scene is softened by a new and beautiful effect of romantic sunrise color.
In a changed and more personal manner, he drew. With less harshness of contour, a broader treatment of forms and draperies and less force of religious feeling. Giovanni's early works have been linked both compositionally and stylistically to those of his brother-in-law, Andrea Mantegna. In 1470 Giovanni received his first appointment to work along with his brother and other artists in the Scuola di San Marco, where among other subjects he was commissioned to paint a Deluge with Noah's Ark. None of the master's works of this kind, whether painted for the various schools or confraternities or for the ducal palace, has survived. To the decade following 1470 must be assigned the Transfiguration now in the Capodimonte Museum of Naples, repeating with ripened powers and in a much serener spirit the subject of his early effort at Venice; the great altar-piece of the Coronation of the Virgin at Pesaro, which would seem to be his earliest effort in a form of art almost monopolized in Venice by the rival school of the Vivarini.
As is the case with a number of his brother, Gentile's public works of the period, many of Giovanni's great public works are now lost. The still more famous altar-piece painted in tempera for a chapel in the church of S. Giovanni e Paolo, where it perished along with Titian's Peter Martyr and Tintoretto's Crucifixion in the disastrous fire of 1867. After 1479–1480 much of Giovanni's time and energy must have been taken up by his duties as conservator of the paintings in the great hall of the Doge's Palace; the importance of this commission can be measured by the payment Giovanni received: he was awarded, first the reversion of a broker's place in the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, afterwards, as a substitute, a fixed annual pension of eighty ducats. Besides repairing and renewing the works of his predecessors he was commissioned to paint a number of new subjects, six or seven in all, in further illustration of the part played by Venice in the wars of Frederick Barbarossa and the pope; these works, executed with much interruption and delay, were the object of universal admiration while they lasted, but not a trace of them survived the fire of 1577.
Of the other, the religious class of his work, including both altar-pieces with many figures and simple Madonnas, a considerable number have been preserved. They show him throwing off the last restraints of the Quattrocento manner; the old intensity of pathetic and devout feeling fades away and gives place to a noble, if more worldly and charm. The enthroned Virgin and Child become tranquil and commanding in their sweetness; the full splendour of Venetian color invests alike the figures, their architectural framework, the landscape and the sky. An interval of some years, no doubt chiefly occupied with work in the Hall of the Great Council, seems to separate the San Giobbe Altarpiece, that of the church of San Zaccaria at Venice. Formally, the works are similar, so a comparison between serves to illustrate the shift in Bellini's work over the last decade of the 15th century. Both pictures are of the Holy Conversation type. Both show the Madonna seated between classicizing columns. Both place the holy figures beneath a golden mosaicked half dome that recalls the Byzantine architecture in the basilica of St. Mark.
In the work Bellini depicts the Virgin surrounded by: St. Peter holding his keys and the Book of Wisdom. Stylistically, the lighting in the San Zaccaria piece has
Pierre-Auguste Renoir known as Auguste Renoir, was a French artist, a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty and feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau." He was the father of filmmaker Jean Renoir and ceramic artist Claude Renoir. He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir, son of Pierre. Pierre-Auguste Renoir was born in Limoges, Haute-Vienne, France, in 1841, his father, Léonard Renoir, was a tailor of modest means, so in 1844, Renoir's family moved to Paris in search of more favorable prospects. The location of their home, in rue d’Argenteuil in central Paris, placed Renoir in proximity to the Louvre. Although the young Renoir had a natural proclivity for drawing, he exhibited a greater talent for singing, his talent was encouraged by his teacher, Charles Gounod, the choir-master at the Church of St Roch at the time. However, due to the family’s financial circumstances, Renoir had to discontinue his music lessons and leave school at the age of thirteen to pursue an apprenticeship at a porcelain factory.
Although Renoir displayed a talent for his work, he tired of the subject matter and sought refuge in the galleries of the Louvre. The owner of the factory recognized his apprentice’s talent and communicated this to Renoir’s family. Following this, Renoir started taking lessons to prepare for entry into Ecole des Beaux Arts; when the porcelain factory adopted mechanical reproduction processes in 1858, Renoir was forced to find other means to support his learning. Before he enrolled in art school, he painted hangings for overseas missionaries and decorations on fans. In 1862, he began studying art under Charles Gleyre in Paris. There he met Alfred Sisley, Frédéric Bazille, Claude Monet. At times, during the 1860s, he did not have enough money to buy paint. Renoir had his first success at the Salon of 1868 with his painting Lise with a Parasol, which depicted Lise Tréhot, his lover at the time. Although Renoir first started exhibiting paintings at the Paris Salon in 1864, recognition was slow in coming as a result of the turmoil of the Franco-Prussian War.
During the Paris Commune in 1871, while Renoir painted on the banks of the Seine River, some Communards thought he was a spy and were about to throw him into the river, when a leader of the Commune, Raoul Rigault, recognized Renoir as the man who had protected him on an earlier occasion. In 1874, a ten-year friendship with Jules Le Cœur and his family ended, Renoir lost not only the valuable support gained by the association but a generous welcome to stay on their property near Fontainebleau and its scenic forest; this loss of a favorite painting location resulted in a distinct change of subjects. Renoir was inspired by the style and subject matter of previous modern painters Camille Pissarro and Edouard Manet. After a series of rejections by the Salon juries, he joined forces with Monet, Sisley and several other artists to mount the first Impressionist exhibition in April 1874, in which Renoir displayed six paintings. Although the critical response to the exhibition was unfavorable, Renoir's work was comparatively well received.
That same year, two of his works were shown with Durand-Ruel in London. Hoping to secure a livelihood by attracting portrait commissions, Renoir displayed portraits at the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876, he contributed a more diverse range of paintings the next year when the group presented its third exhibition. Renoir did not exhibit in the fourth or fifth Impressionist exhibitions, instead resumed submitting his works to the Salon. By the end of the 1870s after the success of his painting Mme Charpentier and her Children at the Salon of 1879, Renoir was a successful and fashionable painter. In 1881, he traveled to Algeria, a country he associated with Eugène Delacroix to Madrid, to see the work of Diego Velázquez. Following that, he traveled to Italy to see Titian's masterpieces in Florence and the paintings of Raphael in Rome. On 15 January 1882, Renoir met the composer Richard Wagner at his home in Sicily. Renoir painted Wagner's portrait in just thirty-five minutes. In the same year, after contracting pneumonia which permanently damaged his respiratory system, Renoir convalesced for six weeks in Algeria.
In 1883, Renoir spent the summer in Guernsey, one of the islands in the English Channel with a varied landscape of beaches and bays, where he created fifteen paintings in little over a month. Most of these feature Moulin Huet, a bay in Saint Martin's, Guernsey; these paintings were the subject of a set of commemorative postage stamps issued by the Bailiwick of Guernsey in 1983. While living and working in Montmartre, Renoir employed Suzanne Valadon as a model, who posed for him and many of his fellow painters. In 1887, the year when Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee, upon the request of the queen's associate, Phillip Richbourg, Renoir donated several paintings to the "French Impressionist Paintings" catalog as a token of his loyalty. In 1890, he married Aline Victorine Charigot, a dressmaker twenty years his junior, along with a number of the artist's friends, had served as a model for Le Déjeuner des canotiers in 1881, wit
Timken Museum of Art
The Timken Museum of Art is a fine art museum, established in 1965 and located at 1500 El Prado in Balboa Park in San Diego, close to the San Diego Museum of Art. It is the only Balboa Park museum with free admission; the groundwork for the museum was laid in 1951 when Walter Ames helped sisters Amy and Anne Putnam to form the nonprofit Putnam Foundation to own and manage their art collection. The sisters had settled in San Diego in the early 20th century and made donations to the San Diego Museum of Art in its early years. At first the Foundation loaned items from its collection to noteworthy museums across the United States; when the Timken Museum opened in 1965, the Putnam Foundation Collection provided its initial material and Walter Ames became its first director. The museum building stands on the site of the former Home Economy Building designed for the 1915 Panama-California Exposition and known as the Pan-Pacific Building, the Cafe of the World, the American Legion Building; that building was torn down in 1963 and replaced by the Timken Museum, designed by the architectural firm of Frank L.
Hope and Associates and funded by the Timken family. The museum is bronze housing a five-room gallery. Shortly after the museum opened, John Walker, of the National Gallery of Art, praised its collection, some of, on loan at his institution until the Timken neared completion: "It is one of the finest small museums I have seen... I congratulate you on the discrimination shown. You have been wise; some cities have built large museums, hoped that innumerable works of art of true excellence would miraculously appear. I am afraid. Money is not the problem; the problem is to find pictures to buy. I can't replace those. Paintings like these are unavailable at any price." The museum displays European old master paintings and tapestries under natural light. Supplementing the European holdings are collections of American painting and Russian icons. Acquisitions have expanded the collection from the original 40 to 60 major works, including ones by American, Italian and French masters, as well as works of the Flemish and Dutch schools, including masterpieces by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, Frans Hals.
In 2015, in honor of the Museum's 50th anniversary, the Timken acquired a Zurbarán 3/4 portrait of St. Francis in meditation; the Timken is the only San Diego museum with a Rembrandt in its permanent collection. The museum's founding benefactors, the Putnam sisters, were related to two Revolutionary War generals, Israel Putnam and Rufus Putnam. Coincidentally, one of the museum's most important acquisitions in recent decades is the John Singleton Copley painting of the woman who may well have triggered the Revolutionary War, Margaret Kemble Gage. Media related to Timken Museum of Art at Wikimedia Commons Official website
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Simon Vouet was a French painter and draftsman, who today is best remembered for helping to introduce the Italian Baroque style of painting to France. Simon Vouet was born on January 1590 in Paris, his father Laurent taught him the rudiments of art. Simon's brother Aubin Vouet and his grandson Ludovico Dorigny were painters. Simon began his painting career as a portrait painter. At age 14 he travelled to England to paint a commissioned portrait and in 1611 was part of the entourage of the Baron de Sancy, French ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, for the same purpose. From Constantinople he went to Venice and was in Rome by 1614, he remained in Italy until 1627 in Rome where the Baroque style was becoming dominant. He received a pension from the King of France and his patrons included the Barberini family, Cassiano dal Pozzo, Paolo Giordano Orsini and Vincenzo Giustiniani, he visited other parts of Italy: Venice. He was a natural academic, who absorbed what he saw and studied, distilled it in his painting: Caravaggio's dramatic lighting.
Vouet's immense success in Rome led to his election as president of the Accademia di San Luca in 1624. In 1626 he married Virginia da Vezzo. Despite his success in Rome, Vouet returned to France in 1627, following pressing recommendations from the Duc de Béthunes and a summons from the King. A French contemporary, lacking the term "Baroque", said, "In his time the art of painting began to be practiced here in a nobler and more beautiful way than before," and the allegory of "Riches" demonstrates a new heroic sense of volumes, a breadth and confidence without decorative mannerisms. Vouet's new style was distinctly Italian, he adapted this style to the grand decorative scheme of the era of Louis XIII and Richelieu and was made premier peintre du Roi. Louis XIII commissioned portraits, tapestry cartoons and paintings from him for the Palais du Louvre, the Palais du Luxembourg and the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. In 1632, he worked for Cardinal Richelieu at the Château de Malmaison. In 1631 he decorated the château of the président de Fourcy, at Chessy, the hôtel Bullion, the château of Marshal d'Effiat at Chilly, the hôtel of the Duc d’Aumont, the Séguier chapel, the gallery of the Château de Wideville.
In Paris, Vouet was the fresh dominating force in French painting, producing numerous public altarpieces and allegorical decors for private patrons. Vouet's sizeable atelier or workshop produced a whole school of French painters for the following generation, through Vouet, French Baroque painting retained a classicizing restraint from the outset, his most influential pupil was Charles le Brun, who organized all the interior decorative painting at Versailles and dictated the official style at the court of Louis XIV of France, but who jealously excluded Vouet from the Académie Royale in 1648. Vouet's other students included Valentin de Boulogne, Charles Alphonse du Fresnoy, Pierre Mignard, Eustache Le Sueur, Nicolas Chaperon, Claude Mellan and the Flemish artist Abraham Willaerts. Gardener André Le Nôtre a landsscape architect, studied in his studio. Vouet was a friend of Claude Vignon. A number of Vouet's decorative schemes have been lost but are recorded in engravings by Claude Mellan and Michel Dorigny.
1990: retrospective of Simon Vouet's work at the Galeries nationales of the Grand Palais. 2002-2003: Simon Vouet ou l'éloquence sensible at the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes, devoted to drawings from his French period now in the collection of the Staatsbibliothek in Munich. 2008-2009: Simon Vouet, les années italiennes, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes, in collaboration with the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d'archéologie de Besançon. Palais de la Justice Palais Cardinal, Musée des hommes illustre The Châteaux de Rueil Château de La Muette Château-Neuf de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, The Four Cardinal Virtues Château de Fontainebleau Residence of Chancelier Séguier Residence of Maréchal de La Meilleraye Residence of Président Tuboeuf Church of Saint-Nicolas-des-Champs à Paris, The Assumption, Apostles at the Tomb of the Virgin Church of Saint-Etienne à Chilly-Mazarin, Burial of Christ Hôtel-Bullion Church of Saint-Merry à Paris, Saint Merry releasing the Prisoners Renaud and Armide, Renaud in the arms of Armide, Louvre Moses saved from the waters The Life of Ulysses Saint Sebastian, Sarah Campbell Blaffer Foundation Saint Peter visiting Saint Agatha in Prison, 1624 Intelligence and Will, Capitoline Museums, Rome Virgin and Child à la rose, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Marseille Hesselin Virgin and Child, Louvre Sainte Marie Madeleine, National Gallery, Rome Allegory of the Fine Arts, National Gallery, Rome Allegory of Peace, National Gallery, Rome Allegory of Charity, Museum of Draguignan Diana, Somerset House, London Virgin and Child with an Angel, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Caen Suicide of Lucretia, Narodni Gallery, Prague Roman Charity, Musée Bonnat, Bayonne Burial, Fitzw
Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida was a Spanish painter. Sorolla excelled in the painting of portraits and monumental works of social and historical themes, his most typical works are characterized by a dexterous representation of the people and landscape under the bright sunlight of his native land and sunlit water. Joaquín Sorolla was born on 27 February 1863 in Spain. Sorolla was the eldest child born to a tradesman named Joaquin Sorolla, his wife, Concepción Bastida, his sister, was born a year later. In August 1865, both children were orphaned when their parents died from cholera, they were thereafter cared for by a locksmith. He received his initial art education at the age of 9 in his native town, under a succession of teachers including Cayetano Capuz, Salustiano Asenjo. At the age of eighteen he traveled to Madrid, vigorously studying master paintings in the Museo del Prado. After completing his military service, Sorolla, at age twenty-two, obtained a grant which enabled a four-year term to study painting in Rome, where he was welcomed by and found stability in the example of Francisco Pradilla, the director of the Spanish Academy in Rome.
A long sojourn to Paris in 1885 provided his first exposure to modern painting. Back in Rome he studied with José Benlliure, Emilio Sala, José Villegas Cordero. In 1888, Sorolla returned to Valencia to marry Clotilde García del Castillo, whom he had first met in 1879, while working in her father's studio. By 1895, they would have three children together: Maria, born in 1890, Joaquín, born in 1892, Elena, born in 1895. In 1890, they moved to Madrid, for the next decade Sorolla's efforts as an artist were focussed on the production of large canvases of orientalist, mythological and social subjects, for display in salons and international exhibitions in Madrid, Venice, Munich and Chicago, his first striking success was achieved with Another Marguerite, awarded a gold medal at the National Exhibition in Madrid first prize at the Chicago International Exhibition, where it was acquired and subsequently donated to the Washington University Museum in St. Louis, Missouri, he soon rose to general fame and became the acknowledged head of the modern Spanish school of painting.
His picture The Return from Fishing was much admired at the Paris Salon and was acquired by the state for the Musée du Luxembourg. It indicated the direction of his mature output. Sorolla painted two masterpieces in 1897 linking art and science: Portrait of Dr. Simarro at the microscope and A Research; these paintings were presented at the National Exhibition of Fine Arts held in Madrid in that year and Sorolla won the Prize of Honor. Here, he presents his friend Simarro as a man of science who transmits his wisdom investigating and, in addition, it is the triumph of naturalism, as it recreates the indoor environment of the laboratory, catching the luminous atmosphere produced by the artificial reddish-yellow light of a gas burner that contrasts with the weak mauvish afternoon light that shines through the window; these paintings may be among the most outstanding world paintings of this genre. An greater turning point in Sorolla's career was marked by the painting and exhibition of Sad Inheritance, an large canvas finished for public consideration.
The subject was a depiction of crippled children bathing at the sea in Valencia, under the supervision of a monk. They are the victims of hereditary syphilis. Campos has suggested that the polio epidemic that struck the land of Valencia some years earlier is present for the first time in the history of painting, through the image of two affected children; the painting earned Sorolla his greatest official recognition, the Grand Prix and a medal of honor at the Universal Exhibition in Paris in 1900, the medal of honor at the National Exhibition in Madrid in 1901. A series of preparatory oil sketches for Sad Inheritance were painted with the greatest luminosity and bravura, foretold an increasing interest in shimmering light and of a medium deftly handled. Sorolla thought well enough of these sketches that he presented two of them as gifts to American artists. After this painting Sorolla never returned to a theme of such overt social consciousness; the exhibit at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900 won him a medal of honour and his nomination as Knight of the Legion of Honour.
A special exhibition of his works—figure subjects and portraits—at the Galeries Georges Petit in Paris in 1906 eclipsed all his earlier successes and led to his appointment as Officer of the Legion of Honour. The show included nearly 500 works, early paintings as well as recent sun-drenched beach scenes and portraits, a productivity which amazed critics and was a financial triumph. Though subsequent large-scale exhibitions in Germany and London were greeted with more restraint, while in England in 1908 Sorolla met Archer Milton Huntington, who made him a member of The Hispanic Society of America in New York City, invited him to exhibit there in 1909; the exhibition comprised 356 paintings. Sorolla painted more than twenty portraits. Sorolla's work is exhibited together with that of his contemporaries and friends, John Singer Sargent and Anders Zorn. Although formal portr