San Diego Unified School District
San Diego Unified School District is the school district and a land investment corporation based in San Diego, United States. It was founded in 1854; as of 2005 it has over 15,800 employees. The average teacher in the district makes around $67,000 a year, with a benefit package worth around $24,000 a year; the district includes 113 elementary schools, 24 middle schools, 4 atypical schools, 10 alternative schools, 27 high schools and 25 charter schools. The district is governed by a five-member elected board of education. Board members are elected by district for four-year terms; the superintendent is appointed by the school board. From 2010 through 2013 the superintendent was a retired Navy rear admiral. On February 26, 2013, Kowba announced his retirement, effective June 30; the next day, February 27, the school board unanimously appointed elementary school principal Cindy Marten as the new superintendent. The quick appointment, without a search process or community input, was described as "highly unusual - unheard of" by the San Diego Union Tribune.
List of primary and secondary schools in San Diego organized by district In 2017, the district partnered with the Ocean Discovery Institute, a nonprofit that works to teach kids about science and conservation, to bring a $15 million tuition-free learning and research center to the City Heights neighborhood. The building will be a permanent campus for the nonprofit and will include two laboratories, a garden, a community kitchen and a residence for a live-in staff member; the Living Lab allows the nonprofit to reach all 10,000 students that attend and feed into Hoover High School. In 2010, the district launched a farm to school program in an effort to bring locally grown produce to schools; the program seeks to provide students access to as much local and California grown produce as possible. In addition to produce grown at farms, the district has a Garden to Café program which allows schools to be certified by the San Diego Department of Environmental Health allowing the school to grow and serve their own produce.
SDUSD NCES info and data San Diego Unified School District website San Diego County Office of Education
Culture of San Diego
The culture of San Diego, California is influenced by American and Mexican cultures due to its position as a border town, its large Hispanic population, its history as part of Spanish America and Mexico. San Diego's longtime association with the U. S. military contributes to its culture. Present-day culture includes many historical and tourist attractions, a thriving musical and theatrical scene, numerous notable special events, a varied cuisine, a reputation as one of America's premier centers of craft brewing. Tourism has affected the city's culture, as San Diego houses many tourist attractions, such as SeaWorld, Aquatica San Diego, the San Diego Zoo, San Diego Wild Animal Park, Belmont Park, Balboa Park, nearby Legoland. San Diego's Spanish influence can be seen in the many historic sites across the city, such as the Mission San Diego de Alcala, Old Town San Diego State Historic Park, Balboa Park. Cuisine in San Diego is diverse, but there is an abundance of wood fired California-style pizzas, Mexican and East Asian cuisine.
Annual events in San Diego include Comic-Con, the San Diego/Del Mar Fair, San Diego Pride, Street Scene Music Festival. San Diego has been a military town for more than 100 years. Present-day reflections of that tradition include tributes to military history such as the USS Midway Museum and Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, as well as numerous smaller memorials throughout the city. Annual events celebrating the military include the Miramar Air Show; because of its ethnic and cultural mix, San Diego has a wide range of cuisines. One can find Mexican, French, Filipino, Greek, German, Indian and East Asian, Middle Eastern and Pacific Islander food throughout the city. In addition, there are numerous seafood steakhouses; the city's long history and close proximity to Mexico has endowed the area with an extensive variety of authentic Mexican restaurants. Regional homemade specialties, border fare and haute cuisine are all available. San Diego's warm, dry climate and access to the ocean have made it a center for fishing and for growing fruits and vegetables.
Long a center of the tuna industry, San Diego benefits from an abundant supply of seafood. Many of the most popular restaurants can be found in the Gaslamp Quarter, Little Italy, La Jolla and Old Town. Local specialties include: Mexican Wood-fired, California-style pizza Southeast Asian specialties of all kinds Seafood of all kinds Local wines Locally produced hard and sweet apple cider and Julian apple pie Various fruits and vegetables Several chain restaurants made their start in San Diego; these include Jack in the Box, Pat & Oscar's, Rubio's, Roberto's, Alberto's, Anthony's Fish Grotto. Rubio's fish tacos were featured at the 1996 Republican National Convention, held in San Diego. San Diego County has a vibrant craft brewing community featuring more than 100 active local brewpubs and/or microbreweries; the city and county of San Diego are sometimes referred to as "America's craft beer capital". San Diego was listed first in the "Top Five Beer Towns in the U. S." by Men's Journal, the Full Pint said that San Diego is "one of the country's premier craft beer destinations" with a "thriving brewing culture".
San Diego brewers have pioneered several specialty beer styles, most notably the American Double India Pale Ale. Three San Diego County breweries are rated in the Top 10 breweries in the world: AleSmith Brewing Company, Pizza Port/Port Brewing Company/Lost Abbey, Stone Brewing Co. None of San Diego's original 20th century breweries survived the spread of big national brewing companies; the first of the new wave of local breweries and brewpubs was the Karl Strauss Brewing Company which opened in 1989. A second wave of microbrew companies was led by Port and Alesmith. Annual events celebrating San Diego's beer culture include San Diego Beer Week in November and numerous local craft beer festivals. San Diego has a small, but growing art scene. "Kettner Nights" at the Art and Design District in Little Italy has art and design exhibitions throughout many retail design stores and galleries on selected Friday nights. "Ray at Night" at North Park host a variety of small scale art galleries on the second Saturday evening of each month.
La Jolla and nearby Solana Beach have a variety of art galleries. Several art museums, such as the San Diego Museum of Art, the Timken Gallery, the Mingei International Museum featuring folk art, the Museum of Photographic Arts, the Museum of the Living Artist are located in Balboa Park; the Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego is located in an ocean front building in La Jolla and has a branch located at the Santa Fe Depot downtown. Balboa Park hosts dozens of museums and gardens, including the Museum of Man, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center, the San Diego Air & Space Museum; the San Diego Children's Museum is located downtown. The Columbia district on San Diego Bay is home to the Star of India and seven other floating museum ships and boats belonging to the San Diego Maritime Museum, as well as the unrelated San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum featuring the aircraft carrier USS Midway; the San Diego Symphony
History of San Diego
The written history of the San Diego, region began in the present state of California when Europeans first began inhabiting the San Diego Bay region. As the first area of California in which Europeans settled, San Diego has been described as "the birthplace of California."Explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo claims to have discovered San Diego Bay in 1542 200 years before Europeans settled the area. A fort and mission were established in 1769, which expanded into a settlement under first Spanish and Mexican rule. San Diego became part of the U. S. in 1848, the town was named the county seat of San Diego County when California was granted statehood in 1850. It remained a small town for several decades, but grew after 1880 due to development and the establishment of multiple military facilities. Growth was rapid during and after World War II. Entrepreneurs and boosters laid the basis for an economy based today on the military, defense industries, international trade, manufacturing. San Diego is now the eighth largest city in the country and forms the heart of the larger San Diego metropolitan area.
The area has long been inhabited by the Kumeyaay Native American people. The first European to visit the region was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542, his landing is re-enacted every year at the Cabrillo Festival sponsored by Cabrillo National Monument, but it did not lead to settlement. The bay and the area of present-day San Diego were given their current name sixty years by Sebastián Vizcaíno when he was mapping the coastline of Alta California for Spain in 1602. Vizcaino was a merchant. After holding the first Catholic service conducted on California soil on the feast day of San Diego de Alcala, he renamed the bay, he left after 10 days and was enthusiastic about its safe harbor, friendly natives, promising potential as a successful colony. Despite his enthusiasm, the Spanish were unconvinced. In 1769, Gaspar de Portolà and his expedition founded the Presidio of San Diego, on July 16, Franciscan friars Junípero Serra, Juan Viscaino and Fernando Parron raised and'blessed a cross', establishing the first mission in upper Las Californias, Mission San Diego de Alcala.
Colonists began arriving in 1774. In the following year the Kumeyaay indigenous people rebelled against the Spanish, they killed the priest and two others, burned the mission. Serra organized the rebuilding, a fire-proof adobe and tile-roofed structure was completed in 1780. By 1797 the mission had become the largest in California, with a population of more than 1,400 converted Native American "Mission Indians" relocated to and associated with it; the tile-roofed adobe structure was destroyed by an 1803 earthquake but replaced by a third church in 1813. In 1821 Mexico ousted the Spanish in the Mexican War of Independence and created the Province of Alta California; the San Diego Mission was secularized and shut down in 1834 and the land was sold off. 432 residents petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy.
The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area, now Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. The location was not ideal. Imported goods and exports had to be carried over the La Playa Trail to the anchorages in Point Loma; this arrangement was suitable only for a small town. In 1830 the population was about 600. In 1834 the presidio was described as "in a most ruinous state, apart from one side, in which the commandant lived, with his family. There were only two guns, one of, spiked, the other had no carriage. Twelve half-clothed and half-starved-looking fellows composed the garrison, they, it was said, had not a musket apiece." The settlement composed about forty brown huts and three or four larger, whitewashed ones belonging to the gentry. In 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because of its dwindling population, estimated as 100 to 150 residents, it was considered a suburb of Los Angeles. During the Mexican–American War the control of the city was exchanged three times: once in July 1846 when the USS Cyane and the California Battalion took control, in October 1846 when Californio forces took control, again in October 1846 when the American flag was raised again over the pueblo.
By November 1846, American control was secured with the arrival of reinforcements from the USS Congress. Following events near San Gabriel in early January 1847, peace returned to California. Alta California became part of the United States in 1848 following the U. S. victory in the Mexican–American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The resident "Californios" became American citizens with full voting rights. California was admitted to the Union as a state in 1850. San Diego, still little more than a village, was incorporated on March 27 as a city and was named the county seat of the newly established San Diego County; the United States Census reported the population of the town as 650 in 1850 and 731 in 1860. San Diego promptly got into financial trouble due to overspending on a poorly designed jail. In 1852 the state repealed the city charter, in effect declaring the city bankrupt, installed a state-controlled three-member board
A charter school is a school that receives government funding but operates independently of the established state school system in which it is located. Charter schools are an example of public asset privatization. There is ongoing debate on whether charter schools ought to be described as private schools or state schools. Advocates of the charter model state that they are public schools because they are open to all students and do not charge tuition, while critics cite charter schools' private operation and loose regulations regarding public accountability and labor issues as arguments against the concept. All Australian private schools have received some federal government funding since the 1970s. Since they have educated 30% of high school students. None of them is a charter school. Since 2009, the Government of Western Australia has been trialling the Independent Public School Initiative; these public schools could be regarded as akin to ` charter' Schools. The Canadian province of Alberta enacted legislation in 1994 enabling charter schools.
The first charter schools under the new legislation were established in 1995: New Horizons Charter School, Suzuki Charter School, the Centre for Academic and Personal Excellence. As of 2015, Alberta remains the only Canadian province. There are 23 charter school campuses operated by 13 Alberta charter schools; the number of charter schools is limited to a maximum of 15. Chile has a long history of private subsidized schooling, akin to charter schooling in the United States. Before the 1980s, most private subsidized schools were religious and owned by churches or other private parties, but they received support from the central government. In the 1980s, the government of Augusto Pinochet promoted neoliberal reforms in the country. In 1981 a competitive voucher system in education was adopted; these vouchers could be used in private subsidized schools. After this reform, the share of private subsidized schools, many of them secular, grew from 18.5% of schools in 1980 to 32.7% of schools in 2001. As of 2012, nearly 60% of Chilean students study in charter schools.
Colombia, like Chile, has a long tradition of private schools. With the economic crisis of religious orders, different levels of the state have had to finance these schools to keep them functioning. In some cities such as Bogotá, there are programs of private schools financed by public resources, giving education access to children from poor sectors; these cases, are small and about 60% of children and young people study in private schools paid for by their families. Moreover, private schools have higher quality than public ones; the United Kingdom established grant-maintained schools in England and Wales in 1988. They allowed individual schools; when they were abolished in 1998, most turned into foundation schools, which are under their local district authority but still have a high degree of autonomy. Prior to the 2010 general election, there were about 200 academies in England; the Academies Act 2010 aims to vastly increase this number. Due to Art. 7 of the Grundgesetz, private schools may only be set up if they do not increase the segregation of pupils by their parents' income class.
In return, all private schools are supported financially by government bodies, comparable to charter schools. The amount of control over school organization, curriculum etc. taken over by the state differs from state to state and from school to school. Average financial support given by government bodies was 85% of total costs in 2009. Academically, all private schools must lead their students to the ability to attain standardized, government-provided external tests such as the Abitur; some private schools in Hong Kong receive government subsidy under the Direct Subsidy Scheme. DSS schools are free to design their curriculum, select their own students, charge for tuition. A number of DSS schools were state schools prior to joining the scheme. Charter schools in New Zealand, labelled as Partnership schools | kura hourua, were allowed for after an agreement between the National Party and the ACT Party following the 2011 general election; the controversial legislation passed with a five-vote majority.
A small number of charter schools started in 2013 and 2014. All cater for students. Most of the students have issues with drugs, poor attendance and achievement. Most of the students are Pacific Islander. One of the schools is set up as a military academy. One of the schools ran into major difficulties within weeks of starting, it is now being run by an executive manager from Child and Family, a government social welfare organization, together with a commissioner appointed by the Ministry of Education. 36 organizations have applied to start charter schools. As in Sweden, the publicly funded but run charter schools in Norway are named friskoler and was formally instituted in 2003, but dismissed in 2007. Private schools have since medieval times been a part of the education system, is today consisting of 63 Montessori and 32 Steiner charter schools, some religious schools and 11 non-governmental funded schools like the Oslo International School, the German School Max Tau and the French School Lycée Français, a total of 195 schools.
All charter schools can have a list of admission priorities, but only the non-governmental funded schools are allowed to select their students and to make a profit. The charter schoo
Balboa Park (San Diego)
Balboa Park is a 1,200-acre urban cultural park in San Diego, United States. In addition to open space areas, natural vegetation zones, green belts and walking paths, it contains museums, several theaters, the world-famous San Diego Zoo. There are many recreational facilities and several gift shops and restaurants within the boundaries of the park. Placed in reserve in 1835, the park's site is one of the oldest in the United States dedicated to public recreational use. Balboa Park is managed and maintained by the Parks and Recreation Department of the City of San Diego. Balboa Park hosted the 1915–16 Panama–California Exposition and 1935–36 California Pacific International Exposition, both of which left architectural landmarks; the park and its historic Exposition buildings were declared a National Historic Landmark and National Historic Landmark District in 1977, placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Balboa Park contains museums, gardens and venues; the park is rectangular, bounded by Sixth Avenue to the west, Upas Street to the north, 28th Street to the east, Russ Boulevard to the south.
The rectangle has been modified by the addition of the Marston Hills natural area in the northwest corner of the park, while the southwest corner of the rectangle is occupied by a portion of the Cortez Hill neighborhood of Downtown San Diego and San Diego High School, both of which are separated from the park by Interstate 5. Encroaching on the northern perimeter of the park is Roosevelt Middle School. Two north-south canyons—Cabrillo Canyon and Florida Canyon—traverse the park and separate it into three mesas; the Sixth Avenue Mesa is a narrow strip bordering Sixth Avenue on the western edge of the park, which provides areas of passive recreation, grassy spaces, tree groves. The Central Mesa is home to much of the park's cultural facilities, includes scout camps, the San Diego Zoo, the Prado, Inspiration Point. East Mesa is home to many of the active recreation facilities in the park; the park is crossed by several freeways, which take up a total of 111 acres once designated for parkland. In 1948, California State Route 163 was built under the Cabrillo Bridge.
This stretch of road named the Cabrillo Freeway, has been called one of America's most beautiful parkways. A portion of Interstate 5 was built in the park in the 1950s. Surrounding the park are many of San Diego's older neighborhoods, including Downtown, Bankers Hill, North Park, Golden Hill. Balboa Park is a primary attraction in the region, its many mature, sometimes rare and groves comprise an urban forest. Many of the original trees were planted by the renowned American landscape architect, botanist and gardener Kate Sessions. An early proponent of drought tolerant and California native plants in garden design, Sessions established a nursery to propagate and grow for the park and the public; the park's gardens include Alcazar Garden, Botanical Building, Desert Cactus Garden, Casa del Rey Moro Garden, Inez Grant Parker Memorial Rose Garden, Japanese Friendship Garden, Bird Park, George W. Marston House and Gardens, Palm Canyon, Zoro Garden; the main entrance to the park is through the California Quadrangle.
That entry is a two-lane road providing vehicle access to the park. A plan to divert vehicle traffic around to the south of the California Quadrangle, so as to restore it as a pedestrian-only promenade, was dropped after legal challenges, but was reapproved after the legal challenges failed and is scheduled for completion in 2019. El Prado, a long, wide promenade and boulevard, runs through the park's center. Most of the buildings lining this street are in the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture style, a richly ornamented mixture of European Spanish architecture and the Spanish Colonial architecture of New Spain-Mexico. Along this boulevard are many of the park's museums and cultural attractions, including the San Diego Museum of Man, the San Diego Museum of Art, the Museum of Photographic Arts, the San Diego Art Institute, the San Diego Model Railroad Museum, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the San Diego History Center, the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center, the Timken Museum of Art. Other features along El Prado include the Reflection Pond, the latticed Botanical Building, the Bea Evenson Fountain.
Next to the promenade are the San Diego Automotive Museum. Theatrical and musical venues include the Spreckels Organ Pavilion, featuring one of the world's largest outdoor pipe organs; the Casa Del Prado Theater is the home of San Diego Junior Theatre, the country's oldest children's theatre program. The House of Pacific Relations International Cottages collected on El Prado offer free entertainment shows; the Botanical Building, designed by Carleton Winslow, was the largest wood lath structure in the world when it was built in 1915 for the Panama-California Exposition. It contains large specimen palms and other plants and sits next to a long reflecting pool on the El Prado side. Located in the eastern third of the park is the Morley Field Sports Complex, which includes the Balboa Park Golf Complex, which contains a public 18-hole golf course and 9-hole executive course. Among the institutions and facilities within the park's borders but not administere
Carlsbad City Library
The Carlsbad City Library is a public library in Carlsbad, California. Operated by the city government, the library consists of three branches: the Georgina Cole Library, the Dove Library, the Carlsbad City Library Learning Center; the first lending library collection in Carlsbad began in 1916 at a general store. Outgrowing the space, the book collection moved to a newspaper office, a former church building, a water company building, a former bank, a former church. After the City of Carlsbad was incorporated, the library was taken over by the new city government; the Georgina Cole Library, named after the city's first library director, was opened in November 1967, was the only library facility in the city for over thirty years. The facility contains a genealogical room, it is located at 1250 Carlsbad Village Drive. The Dove Library, which serves as the primary branch, opened in 1999, was built to accommodate the library's expanding collection of materials, it houses the William D. Cannon Art Gallery, the Ruby G. Schulman Auditorium, the Children's Garden.
It is located at 1775 Dove Lane, is the primary branch. Friends of the Carlsbad Library and the Carlsbad Library and Arts Foundation support many of the library programs. Located at 3368 Eureka Place, the Carlsbad City Library Learning Center houses bilingual Spanish-English materials, offers adult literacy programs to the public. Carlsbad libraries: Collection Development Policy, April 2008
San Diego Central Library
The San Diego Central Library @ Joan Λ Irwin Jacobs Common is the main branch of the San Diego Public Library, a public library system serving the city of San Diego, California. In 1952, the Carnegie library was demolished and a new Central Library was opened at the same location on June 27, 1954; that library closed permanently on June 9, 2013, to begin the 10-week process of transferring its 2.6-million-item collection to the new library. Over the years, many branch libraries have been opened throughout the City. In 2010, construction began on a new US$184.9 million, 366,673 square feet Central Library at 330 Park Boulevard in downtown San Diego. This 9-story structure was designed by San Diego architect Rob Quigley, it is topped with an iconic steel-and-mesh lattice dome over a two-story rare-book reading room. It opened on September 30, 2013; the library displays numerous books and collections, including the second largest collection of baseball memorabilia in the U. S; the Central Library houses a charter high school, e3 Civic High School, billed as the only school in the U.
S. to be housed within a library. The school is located on the sixth and seventh floors of the library and is visible to, but not accessible by, the public; the school serves grades 9 through 12. It opened on September 2013 with an initial student body of 260 ninth and tenth graders. Additional grades were added in 2014 and 2015 resulting in a student body of 500. In 2013, the Central Library received several awards, it received the National Award for Excellence in Structural Engineering. And the Decorative Concrete Council, a specialty council of the American Society of Concrete Contractors awarded the library “Best of Show.” The Central Library received an Orchid Award from the San Diego Architectural Foundation's Orchids & Onions Awards. San Diego Central Library @ Joan Λ Irwin Jacobs Common, City of San Diego