The Cuyamaca Mountains, locally the Cuyamacas, are a mountain range of the Peninsular Ranges System, in San Diego County, southern California. The mountain range runs northwest to southeast; the Laguna Mountains are directly adjacent to the east, with Palomar Mountain and Hot Springs Mountain more distant to the north. Most of the range consists of extensive oak forest and chaparral, part of the California montane chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, interspersed with pine forests and lush riparian zones, featuring year round creeks and waterfalls; the San Diego River and Sweetwater River both have their headwaters in these mountains, which flow over 50 miles to the ocean. The pine forests were extensively burned by the 2003 Cedar Fire, along with many large areas of chaparral and oak woodland, which has since experienced slow and steady regrowth; the high elevation results in snowfall throughout the winter months. Cuyamaca Peak, at 6,512 feet, is San Diego County's second highest, after Hot Springs Peak.
The range's highest peaks are Cuyamaca Peak at 6,512 feet, Stonewall Peak at 5,700 feet. The San Diego River and the Sweetwater River both have headwaters in the Cuyamacas; the Cuyamaca Reservoir lies adjacent to the east side of the range. Mountains are protected within the Cleveland National Forest. Cuyamaca Rancho State Park, with California oak woodlands habitat, is located in the range; the former mining town of Julian is in the northern section, the towns of Descanso, Pine Valley and Guatay is in the southern. Alpine, a more populated town with some dense residential development, lies directly to the west of the range, bordering the Lakeside and El Cajon areas. Interstate 8 passes through the southern part of the Cuyamaca Mountains. California State Route 79, known as the Cuyamaca Highway, runs north–south along the eastern part of the mountains. Gold was discovered in the Cuyamacas in 1870 and the mountains were subject to a gold rush. Towns and encampments of Coleman City, Branson City, Eastwood and Banner sprang up to support the miners.
First a mining camp called Stonewall the company town of Stratton, renamed Cuyamaca City, had a peak population of 500 and served the Stonewall Mine. The town was abandoned after mining operations ceased, few traces of it exist; the site of the town now lies within Cuyamaca Rancho State Park. Other gold mines were supported by the town of Julian, which celebrates its mining history with an annual festival called Gold Rush Days; the Eagle-High Peak Mine, no longer productive, gives daily tours. A variety of recreational activities are available in the Cuyamaca Mountains. Lake Cuyamaca offers camping grounds for tents as well as areas to park motorhomes; the lake itself offers boating. There are trails throughout the range that support hiking and horseback riding; the town of Julian is on the north end of the range, it offers its share of events and 19th century history. Nearby Julian is California Wolf Center, a conservation and research center dedicated to wolf recovery in the wild. California chaparral and woodlands California mixed evergreen forest California montane chaparral and woodlands
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a passenger railroad service that provides medium- and long-distance intercity service in the contiguous United States and to nine Canadian cities. Founded in 1971 as a quasi-public corporation to operate many U. S. passenger rail services, it receives a combination of state and federal subsidies but is managed as a for-profit organization. Amtrak's headquarters is located one block west of Union Station in Washington, D. C. Amtrak serves more than 500 destinations in 46 states and three Canadian provinces, operating more than 300 trains daily over 21,400 miles of track. Amtrak owns 623 miles of this track and operates an additional 132 miles of track; some track sections allow trains to run as fast as 150 mph. In fiscal year 2018, Amtrak served 31.7 million passengers and had $3.4 billion in revenue, while employing more than 20,000 people. Nearly 87,000 passengers ride more than 300 Amtrak trains on a daily basis. Nearly two-thirds of passengers come from the 10 largest metropolitan areas.
The name Amtrak is a portmanteau of the words America and trak, the latter itself a sensational spelling of track. In 1916, 98% of all commercial intercity travelers in the United States moved by rail, the remaining 2% moved by inland waterways. Nearly 42 million passengers used railways as primary transportation. Passenger trains were owned and operated by the same owned companies that operated freight trains; as the 20th century progressed, patronage declined in the face of competition from buses, air travel, the automobile. New streamlined diesel-powered trains such as the Pioneer Zephyr were popular with the traveling public but could not reverse the trend. By 1940, railroads held just 67 percent of commercial passenger-miles in the United States. In real terms, passenger-miles had fallen by 40 % from 42 billion to 25 billion. Traffic surged during World War II, aided by troop movement and gasoline rationing; the railroad's market share surged with a massive 94 billion passenger-miles. After the war, railroads rejuvenated their overworked and neglected passenger fleets with fast and luxurious streamliners.
These new trains brought only temporary relief to the overall decline. As postwar travel exploded, passenger travel percentages of the overall market share fell to 46% by 1950, 32% by 1957; the railroads had lost money on passenger service since the Great Depression, but deficits reached $723 million in 1957. For many railroads, these losses threatened financial viability; the causes of this decline were debated. The National Highway System and airports, both funded by the government, competed directly with the railroads, who paid for their own infrastructure. Progressive Era rate regulation limited the railroad's ability to turn a profit. Railroads faced antiquated work rules and inflexible relationships with trade unions. To take one example, workers continued to receive a day's pay for 100-to-150-mile work days. Streamliners covered that in two hours. Matters approached a crisis in the 1960s. Passenger service route-miles fell from 107,000 miles in 1958 to 49,000 miles in 1970, the last full year of private operation.
The diversion of most U. S. Postal Service mail from passenger trains to trucks and freight trains in late 1967 deprived those trains of badly needed revenue. In direct response, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway filed to discontinue 33 of its remaining 39 trains, ending all passenger service on one of the largest railroads in the country; the equipment the railroads had ordered after World War II was now 20 years old, worn out, in need of replacement. As passenger service declined various proposals were brought forward to rescue it; the 1961 Doyle Report proposed. Similar proposals failed to attract support; the federal government passed the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965 to fund pilot programs in the Northeast Corridor, but this did nothing to address passenger deficits. In late 1969 multiple proposals emerged in the United States Congress, including equipment subsidies, route subsidies, lastly, a "quasi-public corporation" to take over the operation of intercity passenger trains.
Matters were brought to a head on March 5, 1970, when the Penn Central, the largest railroad in the Northeast United States and teetering on bankruptcy, filed to discontinue 34 of its passenger trains. In October 1970, Congress passed, President Richard Nixon signed into law, the Rail Passenger Service Act. Proponents of the bill, led by the National Association of Railroad Passengers, sought government funding to ensure the continuation of passenger trains, they conceived the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, a private entity that would receive taxpayer funding and assume operation of intercity passenger trains. The original working brand name for NRPC was Railpax, but shortly before the company started operating it was changed to Amtrak. There were several key provisions: Any railroad operating intercity passenger service could contract with the NRPC, thereby joining the national system. Participating railroads bought into the NRPC using a formula based on their recent intercity passenger losses.
The purchase price could be satisfied either by cash or rolling stock. Any participating railroad was freed of the obligation to operate intercity passenger service after May 1, 1971, except for those services chosen by the Department of Transportation as part of a "basic system" of servic
Interstate 15 in California
Route 15, consisting of the contiguous segments of State Route 15 and Interstate 15, is a major north–south state highway and Interstate Highway in the U. S. state of California, connecting San Bernardino and San Diego Counties. The route consists of the southernmost 289.24 miles of I-15, which extends north through Nevada, Utah and Montana to the Canada–US border. It is a major thoroughfare for traffic between San Diego and the Inland Empire, as well as between Southern California, Las Vegas and points beyond. South of its junction at Interstate 8 in San Diego, the highway becomes SR 15, extending 6.13 miles to Interstate 5, about 12 miles from the Mexican border. This segment was signed as a state route instead of an Interstate, but it is being upgraded to Interstate standards so it would become part of I-15 in the future. Including this segment, the entire length of Route 15 is 295.37 miles in California. Interstate 15 has portions designated as the Escondido Freeway, Avocado Highway, Temecula Valley Freeway, Corona Freeway, Ontario Freeway, Barstow Freeway, CHP Officer Larry L. Wetterling and San Bernardino County Sheriff's Lieutenant Alfred E. Stewart Memorial Highway, or Mojave Freeway.
I-15 and SR 15 are part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, are part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-15 from SR 76 to SR 91 and SR 58 to SR 127 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. SR 15 begins south of I-5 at 32nd Street near Harbor Drive. After this, SR 15 has an interchange with SR 94, cited as not being up to Interstate standards; the route interchanges with I-805. Between the Polk Avenue and Orange Avenue overpasses, the freeway goes under a city park, built on top of the freeway during construction in 2001. Pedestrian bridges were built at Monroe Avenue and Landis Street to reduce the effects of the freeway geographically dividing the community. Between I-8 and I-805, SR 15 follows the former alignment of 40th Street, its former routing as a city street.
It continues seamlessly into the southern terminus of I-15 at I-8 in San Diego. On the northbound conversion to I-15 at I-8, there is no "End SR 15" sign. There are various local names for the highway, such as the Escondido Freeway between San Diego and Escondido. I-15 between SR 163 and Pomerado Road/Miramar Road is known as the Semper Fi Highway in recognition of the nearby Marine Corps Air Station Miramar. I-15 between Scripps Poway Parkway and Camino Del Norte is known as the Tony Gwynn Memorial Freeway in recognition of Tony Gwynn known as Mr. Padre, who played for the San Diego Padres. North of the Escondido city limits, it is known as the Avocado Highway, whose designation ends upon entering Temecula. There are other local names. Heading northward, I-15 begins at I-8, at the same place that its continuation, SR 15, begins its southward journey. I-15 goes through Mission Valley and Kearny Mesa, intersecting with SR 52 just before merging with SR 163. After traversing the Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, I-15 comes into Rancho Peñasquitos, where it intersects with the end of SR 56.
Northward, the route crosses Lake Hodges inside the upper San Diego city limits. I-15 continues north into Escondido, where it interchanges with SR 78. North of Escondido, I-15 goes through hilly terrain and farmland, passing under the Lilac Road Bridge and approaching the community of Fallbrook near the SR 76 interchange, it passes the community of Rainbow and crosses the county line into Riverside County and descends into the Inland Empire. In Temecula, SR 79 runs concurrently with I-15 for. In Murrieta, I-15 splits from its only spur route in California, I-215, which retains the Escondido Freeway designation and runs through the two largest cities in the Inland Empire, San Bernardino and Riverside. I-15 continues north as the Temecula Valley Freeway. I-15 runs along the eastern edge of the Santa Ana Mountains, passing through the cities of Wildomar and Lake Elsinore. In the city of Lake Elsinore, I-15 intersects SR 74, an important surface route connecting the Coachella Valley with the communities of Idyllwild, Perris, Lake Elsinore and San Juan Capistrano.
It continues through the suburban areas in the western Inland Empire as the Corona Freeway, passing Corona. During this stretch of the highway, I-15 intersects a major east-west highway. North of SR 91, I-15 continues through the bedroom communities of Norco and Eastvale, while skirting the western edge of the city of Jurupa Valley. I-15 enters San Bernardino County just past its intersection with SR 60, another major east-west highway, which connects I-15 with the city of Ontario and the Chino Valley. I-15 passes through the city of Ontario on its way to I-10, the main east-west artery though Southern California. North of I-10, I-15 passes through the major suburban communities of Rancho Cucamonga and Fontana as the highway intersects SR 210, an east-west highway skirting the San Bernardino Mountain Range. SR 210 connects I-15 to major foothill communities, such as Pasadena and San Bernardino. I-15 crosses old US Route 66 during this stretch of highway, signed as
Lake Murray (California)
Lake Murray is a reservoir in San Diego, operated by the City of San Diego's Public Utilities Department. It is located within Mission Trails Regional Park; when full, the reservoir covers 171.1 acres, has a maximum water depth of 95 feet, a shoreline of 3.2 miles. The asphalt-paved service road lining two-thirds of the lake's perimeter is a popular recreation site for the Navajo community, it lies south of Cowles Mountain and is an important reporting point for aircraft inbound to land at Montgomery Field Airport. The reservoir was formed in 1894 with the construction of an earthen dam, was known as La Mesa Reservoir. In 1910 the dam and reservoir were bought by Ed Fletcher as part of his Cuyamaca Water Company. Following the great San Diego County flooding in 1916, the reservoir was the principal source of water for the city of San Diego. In 1919 the dam was enlarged and the capacity of the reservoir expanded; the dam and lake were renamed in 1924 after James A. Murray, one of Fletcher's investors in the water company.
Fletcher sold the Cuyamaca Water Company, including Lake Murray, to the La Mesa, Lemon Grove and Spring Valley Irrigation District in 1926. The irrigation district sold the lake to the city of San Diego in 1932. At least 149 species of birds have been recorded at Lake Murray. Among other species, the lake supports flocks of the endangered tricolored blackbird; the reservoir has Florida-strain largemouth bass, channel catfish, black crappie, trout. Lake Murray is a popular site for hikers and runners who travel around the periphery of the lake, it is not possible to cross the dam and complete the loop like nearby Miramar Reservoir but there is 3.2 mi of path with access at multiple points. Kayaking and catch-and-release fishing are both allowed on the reservoir. Birdwatchers enjoy visiting Lake Murray where ducks and herons abound. At least 149 bird species have been recorded here. Lake Murray is open for shore fishing and private boats and float tubes seven days a week from 5:30 a.m. to about sunset but changes throughout the year.
On days or times when the concession is closed, patrons can purchase permits from the iron ranger boxes at the lake. The reservoir is stocked with Florida-strain largemouth bass, channel catfish, black crappie, trout. Minimum size limit for bass is 12 inches. Fish limits are five trout, five bass, five catfish, twenty-five crappie and bluegill in aggregate, with no limit on other species. Anglers 16 years of age or older must have a California state fishing license. Fish catch information is weekly. Mission Trails Regional Park List of lakes in California City of San Diego - Reservoirs - Murray Reservoir Bird Friends of Lake Murray & San Diego
Julian is a census-designated place in San Diego County, California, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,502, down from 1,621 at the 2000 census. Julian is an official California Historical Landmark; the Julian townsite and surrounding area is defined by the San Diego County Zoning Ordinance Section 5749 as the Julian Historic District. This designation requires that development adhere to certain guidelines that are administered by the Architectural Review Board of the Julian Historic District, appointed by the San Diego County Board of Supervisors; the town is known for its apple pie and its annual Julian Apple Days Festival, which began in 1949. The first European settlers to arrive in this area were "Cockney Bill" Williams from England and John Wesley Horrell, who both arrived in the area in 1850 or 1851; the town itself was first settled by Drury, J. O. Bailey, all brothers, they were passing through the region from San Bernardino en route to Arizona in 1869, in the wake of the American Civil War.
Taken to the beauty of the Julian area, Drury Bailey interrupted the group’s travel plans and chose instead to settle here. Julian was a former Confederate soldier, elected San Diego County Assessor. Shortly afterwards gold was discovered in the Julian region. A tent city formed in the boomtown, followed by more permanent structures as it became apparent that gold mining in Julian would persist for some time. Victorian-style structures were constructed in the latest-stage of Julian’s early settlement, including the Hoskins House. After the American Civil War, in 1869, A. E. "Fred" Coleman, a former slave, crossed over what is now known as Coleman Creek just west of Julian. Seeing a glint of gold in the stream bed, he climbed down from his horse to investigate. Having had previous experience in the gold fields, he retrieved his frying pan and began panning the sands of the creek. Soon thereafter Coleman established the Coleman Mining District and was its recorder and began the mining camp called Emily City renamed Coleman City.
Learning of the find, others tried to trace the gold to its source. On February 22, 1870, the first "lode", or hard rock, mining claim was filed in the Julian area. Since February 22 was President George Washington's birthday, the mine was named the Washington mine. Soon hundreds of anxious men and families rushed to Julian to stake their claims. Julian became a tent city overnight. In April 1870, the area's first sawmill was set up and Julian began to take on a more permanent structure. Attempts to build rival mining towns at Coleman City, Branson City and Eastwood were defeated. Owners of the Cuyamaca rancho Land Grant claimed Julian, its mines were within the Rancho boundaries. In 1873, the courts ruled that the Rancho did not include the mines. While the miners tried to wrestle the gold from deep within the earth, James Madison brought a wagon load of young apple trees into the mountains; the fruit trees flourished in the fresh air. Apples are still a big product in Julian, many of which are used for making the world-famous Julian apple pies.
Local historians have variably suggested that the Julian of 1873 rivaled San Diego in population and they unsuccessfully attempted to shift the county seat to the city. According to a bronze historical plaque appearing in the town, in the early days of Julian, the majority of San Diego County's black population resided in or near the town, including the founders of the Robinson Hotel and a noted resident, America Newton, a freed slave who laundered miners' clothing. Of the 55 blacks living in San Diego County during the 1880 census, 33 lived in the Julian area. In 1976, Julian approved a plan that required the exteriors of any buildings on Main Street to be no younger in age than 1913. Many structures bear a Victorian architecture. In the 1970s, as many of 25,000 visitors visited the settlement per annum. Julian had five wells in the 1970s. A county planner surveyed the water capacity for Julian and indicated that it was unlikely that Julian would have enough inexpensive water to sustain large-scale development.
During a period of drought, the community of Julian was compelled by the San Diego County supervisors to obey a moratorium on development until a 30,000 gallon waste treatment plant could reduce the risk that a developing Julian’s sewage output might pollute the San Diego River. Julian’s water supply became dependent on a single well owned by a local property owner named Jerry Zweig, as the community’s water board-owned resources were depleted in a drought in the 1990s and were limited by contamination as a defunct Chevron station contaminated three of the eight publicly-owned water wells into the late 1980s. On Memorial Day in 1989, two individuals and Gustav Oran Hudson disputed a claim to land to the Ready Relief and Hubbard Mines in Julian’s Chariot Canyon over rights to an area where both had intentions to prospect for gold. Hudson and his family arrived at the property at a time when Haimes’ appointed caretaker and the caretaker’s friend of Julian; the resulting escalation involved the replacement of a padlock at the Hubbard Mine by the Hudsons, co
An estuary is a enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments, they are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, they can have many different names, such as bays, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not meet the above definition of an estuary and may be saline.
The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation and other poor farming practices; the word "estuary" is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, which in itself is derived from the term aestus, meaning tide. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary; the most accepted definition is: "a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which has a free connection with the open sea, within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage". However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. A more comprehensive definition of an estuary is "a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff.
This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides; the sea water entering the estuary streams. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of fresh water, the tidal range, the extent of evaporation of the water in the estuary. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and the topography of the estuary remains similar to that of a river valley; this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border; the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths exceed 30 m.
Examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. Bar-built estuaries are found in place where the deposition of sediment has kept pace with rising sea level so that the estuaries are shallow and separated from the sea by sand spits or barrier islands, they are common in tropical and subtropical locations. These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries develop on sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts, they are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 m. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: building up of offshore bars by wave action, in which sand from the sea floor is deposited in elongated bars parallel to the shoreline, reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, dunes, engulfment of mainland beach ridges due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands due to the action of longshore currents, with the spits growing in the direction of the littoral drift.
Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is less than 5 m, exceeds 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries are Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Fjords were formed where pleistocene glaciers deepened and widened existing river valleys so that they become U-shaped in cross s
San Vicente Reservoir
San Vicente Reservoir is a reservoir created by the San Vicente Dam in San Diego County, California. It is located in the Cuyamaca Mountains 4.3 miles north of Lakeside off California State Route 67. The reservoir is formed by impounding the waters of San Vicente Creek, the Colorado River via the First San Diego Aqueduct branch of the Colorado River Aqueduct from Lake Havasu, it is the largest reservoir in the city of San Diego, with a storage capacity of 249,358.0 AF In 2009, construction began of a $568 million project to increase the size of San Vicente Reservoir twofold. San Diego County Water Authority officials are hoping to receive funding from Proposition 18, but will continue the upgrade without these funds if the Proposition is unsuccessful; the raising of the dam more than doubled the reservoir's past capacity of 145,200,000 cu yd by increasing it 245,226,666 cu yd to a total of 390,426,666 cu yd. The reservoir is a popular place for fishing, boating and wakeboarding. San Vicente Reservoir - City of San Diego List of reservoirs and dams in California List of lakes in California U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Vicente Reservoir U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Vicente Creek U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Vicente Dam